Chapter 17.58


17.58.010    Purpose

17.58.020    Applicability

17.58.030    Permit Requirements

17.58.040    General Parking Regulations

17.58.080    Number Of Parking Spaces Required

17.58.060    Reduction Of Off Street Parking Requirements

17.58.070    Handicapped Parking Requirements

17.58.080    Compact Parking Spaces

17.58.090    Parking Design And Development Standards

17.58.100    Bicycle Parking Requirements

17.58.110    Off Street Loading Requirements

17.58.010 Purpose:

This chapter establishes regulations, which provide for safe, attractive, and convenient off street parking and loading and to ensure that parking areas are compatible with surrounding land uses and promote convenient alternatives to traditional motorized travel. (Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.020 Applicability:

Except as otherwise provided in adopted development agreements, specific plans, planned unit developments, or other agreements and plans that allow deviation to off street parking requirements, off street parking and loading provisions of this chapter shall apply as follows:

A.    New Development: For all buildings or structures erected and all uses of land established after the effective date of this title, parking and loading facilities shall be provided as required by this chapter. Except as otherwise specifically conditioned, projects with unexpired land use and development approvals on the effective date hereof have the option of meeting the parking requirements of the zoning code in effect on the project approval date or be subject to the provisions required herein.

B.    Change In Use: When the use of any building, structure, or premises is changed, increasing the intensity such that the change creates an increase of more than ten percent (10%) in the number of off street parking spaces required by the change, additional off street parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.

C.    Modification To Existing Structures: Whenever an existing building or structure is modified such that it results in an increase of more than ten percent (10%) in the number of off street parking spaces required, additional off street parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. (Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.030 Permit Requirements:

A.    Building Permit: New parking lot design and modifications to existing parking lots areas in conjunction with a substantial change in use to an existing structure shall be reviewed in conjunction with the building permit and any other land use or development permit required for the project.

B.    Zoning Clearance: Modification or improvement to an existing parking lot area that impacts the parking space layout, configuration, or number of stalls shall require zoning clearance to authorize the change as consistent with this title. Specifically, the designated approving authority shall review proposed plans for initial paving, resurfacing, andlor restriping of off street parking areas that alters the number and/or configuration of parking spaces or corresponding landscape planters for multi-family and nonresidential uses.

C.    Exempt Activities: Parking lot improvements listed below shall be considered minor in nature in that they do not alter the number or configuration of parking stalls. Such improvements shall be exempt from permit requirements.

1.    Repair of any defects in the surface of the parking area, including holes and cracks.

2.    Resurfacing, slurry coating, and restriping of a parking area with identical delineation of parking spaces.

3.    Repair or replacement in the same location of damaged plantings and curbs.

4.    Sprinkler line repair or refurbishment of landscaped areas with similar plant species. (Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.040 General Parking Regulations:

A.    Location Requirements For Off Street Parking Spaces:

1.    Except as otherwise permitted herein, all required off street parking spaces shall be accessible to and located on the same lot as the use andlor development requiring such spaces.

2.    Parking spaces shall not be located within any required setback area of any parcel.

a.    Vehicle parking (and access thereto) in residential areas shall be on permanent paved or other approved surface consistent with section 17.58.090, "Parking Design And Development Standards", of this chapter. Exceptions may be granted when such construction mitigation is required to reduce the impact within the drip line of a protected tree.

b.    Parking may not occur within any required clear vision triangle area on a corner lot.

c.    Parking spaces shall not preclude direct and free access to stairways, walkways, elevators, any pedestrian accessway, or fire safety equipment. Such access shall be a minimum clear width of forty four inches (44"), no part of which shall be within a parking space.

d.    No more than fifty percent (50%) of the front yard (including setbacks) can be used for parking.

B.    General Use Provisions For Off Street Parking Spaces:

1.    Living In Vehicles: Living, sleeping, or housekeeping in any vehicle, "trailer", or vessel (as defined in division VI, "Zoning Definitions", of this title) is prohibited when parked or stored on private property.

2.    Automobile Parking Only: Parking facilities shall be used for automobile parking only. No sales, dead storage, repair work, dismantling, or servicing of any kind shall be permitted without necessary permits for such use. The only exception to this rule being for temporary use of parking areas when the remaining number of unobstructed parking spaces complies with the minimum parking requirements for the permanent use(s) of the property in accordance with section 17.58.050, table 17.58-1 of this chapter.

3.    Residential Guest Parking: For residential tenant and guest parking, the spaces must be marked per the required minimum standards for tenant and guest parking.

C.    Parking Regulations For Vehicles, Trailers, And Vessels: The parking regulations in this section apply to all "commercial vehicles", "passenger vehicles", "recreational vehicles", "trailers", and "vessels" as defined in division VI, "Zoning Definitions", of this title. Unless otherwise specified, the term "vehicles" used herein refers to "commercial vehicles", "passenger vehicles", and "recreational vehicles".

1.    Inoperable/Unregistered Vehicles, Trailers, And Vessels: Any vehicle, trailer, or vessel which is inoperable and/or without current registration shall be stored entirely within an enclosed structure and shall not be parked or stored in any yard within a residential zoning district or neighborhood.

2.    Commercial Vehicle Parking: Commercial vehicles weighing five (5) tons or more are prohibited on any street or parcel within a residential zoning district or neighborhood. Additionally, in order to maintain public safety and residential character, commercial vehicles weighing more than one ton may only park on residential streets and/or lots long enough for typical residential delivery and pick up, moving, and towing. Commercial vehicles weighing less than one ton may be permitted in residential zoning districts and neighborhoods consistent with applicable provisions of this title. See chapter 17.82, "Home Occupations", of this title.

3.    Recreational Vehicle Parking: Recreational vehicles of an owner, tenant, guest, or visitor may be parked on any highway (street) for a maximum period of seventy two (72) hours. Any request to extend this period for guests and visitors shall be submitted in writing to the chief of police for consideration and authorization. Recreational vehicle storage is prohibited in required front and street side yards. However, recreational vehicle parking is permitted outside of required front and street side yard setback areas and within interior side and rear yards when screened by a solid six foot (6') tall fence, wall, and/or landscape barrier. Screening shall be consistent with chapter 17.52, "Fences And Walls", of this title.

D.    Tandem Parking: Tandem parking may be used to satisfy off street parking requirements on single-family residential and duplex residential lots or in those areas in which it is infeasible to meet the strict standards of this title as determined by the director of planning. (Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.050 Number Of Parking Spaces Required:

A.    Off Street Parking Requirements: The city’s off street parking requirements are listed by land use classifications in table 17.58-1 of this section. Except as otherwise specifically stated, the following rules apply to table 17.58-1 of this section:

1.    "Square feet" means "gross square feet" and refers to building area unless otherwise specified.

2.    Where parking spaces are required based on a per employee ratio, this shall be construed to be the total number of employees on the largest working shift.

3.    For the purpose of calculating residential parking requirements, dens, studies, or other similar rooms that may be used as bedrooms shall be considered bedrooms.

4.    Where the number of seats is listed to determine required parking, seats shall be construed to be fixed seats. Where fixed seats provided are either benches or bleachers, such seats shall be construed to be not more than eighteen (18) linear inches for pews and twenty four inches (24") for dining, but in no case shall seating be less than determined as required by the uniform building code.

B.    Shared Parking: The city’s off street parking requirements are listed by land use classifications in table 17.58-1 of this section, however, in certain instances, and upon issuance of a conditional use permit, site conditions may warrant a shared parking arrangement. Where two (2) or more uses have different periods of peak parking demand (e.g., a restaurant and an office) and share a common parking supply, the number of spaces required is reduced. To calculate the reduction in the required number of spaces, the following methods are acceptable:

1.    The methodology provided in the Urban Land Institute publication "Shared Parking" may be used to calculate the reduction. For the base parking ratios (i.e., the parking space ratios required before taking into account sharing of spaces), the requirements of this section shall be used.

2.    The applicant may provide a shared parking study that is acceptable to the review authority. (This methodology may be necessary for uses not covered in the shared parking manual.)

C.    Minimum/Maximum Parking Requirements: Unless off street parking reductions are permitted consistent with section 17.58.060, "Reduction Of Off Street Parking Requirements", of this chapter, the number of off street parking spaces required in table 17.58-1 of this section shall be considered the minimum necessary for each use. In conjunction with discretionary development permits, the designated approving authority may increase these parking requirements if it is determined that these requirements are inadequate for a specific project. By the same token, the designated approving authority may decrease the required parking for a specific use as specified in chapter 17.16, "Permit Requirements", of this title.

D.    Uses Not Listed: The number of parking spaces required for uses not specifically listed in table 17.58-1 of this section shall be determined by the planning director based on common functional, product, or compatibility characteristics and activities, as provided in section 17.26.030, "Similar Uses", of this title.

E.    Calculation/Rounding Of Quantities: When the calculation of the required number of off street parking spaces results in a fraction of a space, the total number of spaces shall be rounded to the nearest whole number <0.49, round down; >0.50, round up).

F.    Mixed Use/Multiple Tenants: Except as otherwise provided in this section, for each separate use on a site with multi-tenants, or a combination of principal uses in anyone facility, the development shall provide the aggregate number of parking spaces for each separate use. Parking for retail commercial shopping centers may include restaurant uses up to the maximum percentage of total site square footage, as described in table 17.58-1A of this section, when the indicated percent of the retail parking ratio is used to calculate the number of parking spaces required. Retail commercial shopping centers are allowed to have up to thirty five percent (35%) of their square footage taken up by restaurant uses when calculating parking with this method.

TABLE 17.58-1A


Percent Of Total Square Footage For Restaurant

Parking Ratio


4.5 spaces/1,000 square feet


6.75 spaces/1,000 square feet


8.1 spaces/1,000 square feet

G.    New Buildings Or Development Projects Without Known Tenants: If the type of tenants that will occupy a nonresidential building are not known at the time of the development entitlement or building permit approval, the amount of parking shall be the minimum number of spaces required by table 17.58-1 of this section for the most intense land use allowed within the underlying zoning district that can reasonably be accommodated within the entire structure/project as determined by the planning director. The designated approving authority may grant exceptions to this rule where the use or other restrictions ensure adequate parking is provided (i.e., rezone agreements).

H.    Tenant Spaces With Multiple Functions: When a tenant of a building has several functions, such as retail and office space, the amount of parking for the tenant shall be calculated as required in table 17.58-1 of this section for the primary use, using the gross floor area of the building.

I.    Tenant Spaces With Accessory Storage: When a tenant has enclosed accessory storage in excess of two thousand (2,000) square feet, the required parking for that portion of the tenant space dedicated to storage shall be calculated as specified in table 17.58-1 of this section for warehousing, storage, and distribution (in addition to the parking requirements for the primary use of the building).

TABLE 17.58-1


Land Use Type

Required Parking Spaces

Agriculture, resource, and open space uses:

Agricultural product sales

4 spaces/roadside stand

Wine tasting rooms

1 space/500 square feet of tasting room

Industry, manufacturing, and processing uses:

Auto wrecking, junkyard, salvage yard

2 spaces, plus 1 space/employee

Laundries and dry cleaning plants

1 space/1,000 square feet

Manufacturing, printing and publishing, and rendering

1 space/1,OOO square feet, plus 1/company operated vehicle

Recycling facilities - processing, scrap, and dismantling facilities

1 space/1,000 square feet of office space, plus 1 space/employee

Research and development services

2 spaces/1,000 square feet

Warehousing, storage, and distribution

1 space/3,000 square feet, plus 1/company operated vehicle

Recreation, education, and public assembly uses:

Cemeteries, mausoleums 1 space/5 seats in main assembly area

Clubs, lodges, and private meeting halls; community centers

1 space/5 fixed seats in the main assembly area or 1 space/100 square feet for nonfixed seats in the main assembly area, whichever is greater

Indoor amusement/entertainment facilities

1 space/750 square feet

Indoor sports and recreation facilities

1 space/500 square feet

Libraries and museums

1 space/750 square feet

Outdoor commercial recreation:

Amusement park, outdoor areas

1 space/miniature golf hole; 2 spaces/1,000 square feet outdoor land area accessible to the public

Driving range

1 space/tee

Golf courses, professional

5 spaces/hole for golf courses

Tennis court

1.5 spaces/court

All other uses

As determined by the designated approving authority

Parks and playgrounds (for parks >10 acres)

5 percent of the total site area

Recreational vehicle parks

1 space/travel trailer/RV site plus 1 guest space/4 units

Religious institutions

1 space/S fixed seats or 1 space/125 square feet, whichever is greater


Elementary and secondary/junior/middle

1.5 spaces/classroom or 1 space/s fixed seats in the main assembly area, whichever is greater


1.5 spaces/classroom, plus 1 space/s fixed seats in the auditorium or assembly area, whichever is greater


1 space/s students based on maximum student capacity, plus 0.75 space/employee

Vocational and trade

1 space/s students, plus 0.75 space/employee


1 space/500 square feet

Theaters and auditoriums

1 space/s fixed seats or 1 space/75 square feet, whichever is greater

Residential uses:

Caretaker housing

1 space/bedroom

Child and adult daycare homes; family care facilities

2 spaces, plus 1 space/nonresident employee

Group residential

1 space/bedroom


Studio and 1 bedroom units

1 space/unit, plus 1 guest space/4 units

2 and 3 bedroom units

2 spaces/unit, plus 1 guest space/4 units

4 or more bedroom units

3 spaces/unit, plus 1 guest space/4 units


2 off street spaces/unit, plus 1 guest space/8 home lots

Senior independent living facilities

0.5 space/unit, plus I guest space/4 units

Residential care home

No additional requirement beyond single-family requirement



2 spaces/unit1, 3


2 spaces/unit1, 2, 3

Retail, service, and office uses:

Adult and child daycare facilities

0.75 space/employee, plus 1 space/facility vehicle, plus 1 space/10 persons at facility capacity

Adult related business

1 space/500 square feet

Ambulance service

1 space/500 square feet, plus 1 space/service vehicle

Animal sales and grooming

1 space/500 square feet

Auto and vehicle sales/rentals

1 space/3,000 square feet interior and exterior sales, display, and storage area

Auto parts sales

3 spaces/1,000 square feet

Automated teller machines (ATMs)

1 space/machine

Banks and financial services3

3 spaces/1,000 square feet

Bars and nightclubs

1 space/3 fixed seats, plus 1 space/100 square feet assembly area

Bed and breakfast inns

1 space/guestroom, plus 1 space/resident owner or manager

Car washing and detailing

2 spaces/wash bay

Equipment sales and rental

1 space/500 square feet interior sales area, plus 1 space/1,000 square feet exterior sales and storage area

Furniture, furnishings, and appliance stores

1 space/1,000 square feet

Garden center/plant nursery

4.5 spaces/1,000 square feet

Hotels and motels

1 space/room


1 space/500 square feet

Maintenance and repair

1 space/500 square feet

Medical services:

Clinics, offices, and laboratories3

1 space/500 square feet

Extended care and hospitals

1 space/licensed bed

Mortuaries and funeral homes

1 space/5 seats in main assembly area


Business and professional

3 spaces/1,000 square feet

Call centers

4 spaces/1,000 square feet

Professional services

1 space/400 square feet or 2/chair, whichever is greater

Recycling facilities:

Large collection facility

2 spaces/station

Reverse vending machine

No minimum requirement

Small collection facility

No minimum requirement

Residential care facilities

1 space/5 beds


Fast food

1 space/200 square feet dining area

Sit down, takeout inclusive

1 space/4 fixed seats or 1 space/80 square feet dining area, whichever is greater

Takeout, exclusive

1 space/150 square feet accessible to the public

With live entertainment

1 space/5 fixed seats, plus 1 space/50 square feet assembly area

Retail (includes all others not listed)

3 spaces/1,000 square feet

Retail, shopping centers

4.5 spaces/1,000 square feet)

Service stations:

With accessory retail

3 spaces4

With convenience market

3 spaces for the first 1,000 square feet, plus 1 space/300 square feet thereafter4

With vehicle service

2 spaces/service bay4

Storage - personal storage facilities

4 spaces, plus 2 spaces for management

Vehicle services

1.5 spaces/service bay4

Veterinary facilities

2 spaces/1,000 square feet

Warehouse retail stores

2 spaces/1,000 square feet

Utility, transportation, and communication uses:

Broadcasting and recording studios

1 space/500 square feet


2 spaces/pad

Telecommunication and utility facilities

1/vehicle normally required to service such facility

Transit stations and terminals

1 space/200 square feet of waiting area


1.    If development includes private streets with limited or no parking, a minimum of 1 guest parking space shall be provided per single-family residence as determined by the designated approving authority.

2.    If 5 or more bedrooms are provided in one unit, then 1 additional space (covered or uncovered) shall be provided.

3.    Parking space(s) shall either be enclosed or covered.

4.    Additional parking may be required for drying or vacuum areas, as determined by the designated approving authority.

(Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.060 Reduction Of Off Street Parking Requirements:

Commercial, office, or industrial projects may request a reduction in the minimum number of parking spaces required, provided they include facilities, programs, or services that reduce the overall parking demand for the site, contingent upon approval from the approving authority.

A.    Facilities And Programs: A proponent of an office, commercial or industrial project may provide alternative facilities or programs which serve to reduce parking demand in return for a reduction in vehicle parking requirements. Vehicle parking requirements may be reduced in accordance with the following provisions:

1.    Shower/Locker Facilities: Developments with ten (10) or more employees may reduce their parking requirement by providing shower and clothing locker facilities for bicycle commuting employees. Maximum reduction: Ten percent (10%) of required parking.

2.    Secure Bicycle Parking: Developments that provide additional secure bicycle parking facilities over and above the minimum requirement may reduce their parking requirement by one vehicle space for every additional bicycle space provided. Maximum reduction: Fifteen percent (15%) of required parking.

3.    Motorcycle Or Low Speed Vehicle Parking: Developments that provide motorcycle or low speed vehicle parking may reduce their parking requirement by one vehicle space for every additional motorcycle or low speed vehicle space provided. Maximum reduction: Fifteen percent (15%) of required parking. Low speed vehicle spaces must be equipped with no cost to user charging facilities.

4.    Preferred Car Pool/Vanpool Parking Spaces: Office or industrial developments which guarantee preferred parking spaces (e.g., covered, shaded, or near building entrance) to employees who participate regularly in a car pool or vanpool may reduce their parking requirement by one vehicle space for every one space which is marked and reserved for car pools/vanpools at a preferred location. Maximum reduction: Five percent (5%) of required parking.

B.    Special Circumstances: Off street vehicle parking reductions may also be granted when the applicant for a single or combined use can prove to the designated approving authority that the nature of the proposed use(s) or the proximity of the facility to alternative modes of transportation justify the requested parking reduction. This subsection includes shared parking reductions due to variation in peak demands. (Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.070 Handicapped Parking Requirements:

A.    Number Of Spaces, Design Standards: Parking spaces for the disabled shall be provided in compliance with uniform building code and the Americans with disabilities act.

B.    Reservation Of Spaces Required: The number of disabled accessible parking spaces required by this section shall be reserved by the property owner/tenant for use by the disabled throughout the life of the approved land use.

C.    Upgrading Of Markings Required: If amendments to state law change standards for the marking, striping, and signing of disabled parking spaces, disabled accessible spaces shall be upgraded in the time and manner required by state law. (Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.080 Compact Parking Spaces:

Up to twenty five percent (25%) of the required number of parking spaces may be sized for compact cars, and shall be clearly marked "COMPACT". Compact parking spaces shall be distributed throughout the parking lot. (Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.090 Parking Design And Development Standards:

A.    Surface Parking: All surface parking areas, other than those provided in a garage or parking structure, shall have the following improvements:

1.    Paving, Drainage Facilities: Paving and adequate drainage facilities as specified by the public works director.

2.    Clear Signage, Pavement Markings: Clear signage and pavement markings to indicate entrances, exits, aisle directions, and other features required to ensure the safe movement of vehicles.

3.    Parking Area Design: Parking areas for commercial, industrial, and multiple-family residential uses, not including duplexes and single-family residences, shall be designed so that vehicles are not permitted to back out of the parking area onto a public street.

4.    Landscaping: Landscaping shall be provided in compliance with chapter 17.54 of this title.

5.    Lighting: Parking areas shall have lighting capable of providing adequate illumination for security and safety. Lighting fixtures shall be energy efficient. Lighting standards shall be in scale with the height and use of the on site structure(s). All illumination, including security lighting, shall be directed downward, away from adjacent properties and public rights of way in compliance with chapter 17.56, "Lighting", of this title.

6.    Vehicle Overhang: Vehicular overhang is permitted, provided no vehicle shall overhang into a sidewalk that would reduce the unencumbered width of a sidewalk to less than four feet (4'). A vehicle is permitted to overhang into a landscaped area by two feet (2'), provided that the required landscape area is extended by two feet (2').

B.    Access To Parking: Access to parking areas and curb cuts for driveways shall be approved by the planning director and public works director to ensure an efficient and safe traffic flow into the parking areas and along public streets.

C.    Dead End Aisles: Dead end aisles are discouraged. When used, ninety degree (90°) angle stalls are required and the aisle shall have a minimum five foot (5') backing area.

D.    Parking Space And Aisle Dimensions: All parking areas shall be designed so that the parking spaces are permanently maintained and have suitable maneuvering space and access to and from a public street or alley. The dimensions of each parking space shall be determined from table 17.58-2 of this section:

TABLE 17.58-2


Parking Stall Type

Minimum Stall Dimensions

Minimum Width For Drive Aisle With Parking

Minimum Width For Emergency Access Drive Aisles





Standard parallel






Standard 45 degree






Standard 60 degree






Standard 90 degree


















(Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.100 Bicycle Parking Requirements:

Bicycle parking shall be provided for all multi-family projects and nonresidential uses in compliance with this section.

A.    Location: Bicycle parking shall be located on a paved surface, in proximity to a building entrance and in a visibly secure location adjacent to the building.

B.    Bicycle Rack: Bicycle parking shall consist of at least a stationary bicycle rack, typically a curved metal bar, where the cyclist supplies a padlock and chain or cable to secure the bicycle to a stationary object.

C.    Prohibited Locations: Except as otherwise specified, required bicycle parking shall not be located within required setback yard areas.

D.    Bicycle Parking Requirements: Bicycle parking is required for multi-family, public and civic facilities, schools, retail commercial, office and industrial uses in accordance with table 17.58-3 of this section. In no case shall there be fewer than two (2) employee bicycle spaces and two (2) patron spaces, unless specifically exempt.

TABLE 17.58-3


Land Use Type

Required Parking Spaces

Multi-family residential:

Complexes of any size

1 space for every unit

Community civic:

Public and civic facilities

25 percent of required vehicle space


35 percent of enrollment capacity



1 for every 5 vehicle spaces


20 percent of required vehicle spaces



1 space for every 5 vehicle spaces

(Ord. 473 §3, 2007)

17.58.110 Off Street Loading Requirements:

All retail and wholesale stores, warehouses, supply houses, buildings devoted to the manufacturing trade, hotels, hospitals or other buildings where large amounts of goods are received or shipped shall provide loading and unloading space adequate to handle the volume of truck traffic and loading requirements.

A.    Number Of Spaces: At a minimum, one loading space (dock or parking space) shall be provided for all commercial and industrial buildings in excess of ten thousand (10,000) square feet plus one additional space for every additional twenty thousand (20,000) square feet of floor area.

B.    Dimensions: Each required loading space shall be not less than ten feet (10') wide, thirty five feet (35') long and with fourteen feet (14') of clear height. Loading zones shall be separate from other required parking and maneuvering area.

C.    Location: Where feasible, loading zones and docks shall be located to the rear of properties. No truck entrance door, loading zone and/or dock serving commercial vehicles shall be permitted to face a residential area located within five hundred feet (SOD’).

D.    Screening: All loading zones and truck parking areas shall be screened from view by a minimum of a six foot (6') high hedge, vine covered fence or wall plus landscaping as required by chapter 17.§4, "Landscaping", of this title.

E.    Passenger Loading Areas: Public parking areas for major development projects shall designate a passenger loading area or areas for embarking and disembarking passengers from ridesharing vehicles. Such passenger loading areas shall be located at the point(s) of primary pedestrian access from the parking area to the adjacent building, or buildings, and shall be designed in such a manner that vehicles waiting in the loading area do not impede vehicular circulation in the parking area. The passenger loading areas shall be large enough to accommodate the number of waiting vehicles equivalent to one-half (1/2) of one percent (1%) of the required parking for the project. (Ord. 473 §3, 2007)