Chapter 3
Parking

4.301 Generally.

Whenever a parking lot is built either as required off-street parking lot or is built in a parking district, such parking lot shall be laid out, constructed and maintained in accordance with the regulations of this article. The building of a parking lot is subject to the requirements for a zoning compliance permit.

4.302 General Standards.

Off-street parking, in conjunction with all land and building uses shall be provided as herein prescribed:

A.    Existing Off-Street Parking. Off-street parking existing at the effective date of this ordinance in connection with the operation of an existing building or use shall not be reduced to an amount less than would by this ordinance be required for such building or use.

B.    Public Provision of Off-Street Parking. Required off-street parking may be provided either by individual action or by a parking program carried out through public action, whether by a special assessment district or otherwise.

C.    Location of Parking Spaces.

1.    Parking Within Required Front Yards. Privately provided off-street parking for nonresidential uses shall not be located within a required front yard in excess of one parking space per 20 feet of frontage of such lot.

2.    Proximity. For those uses located outside the central business district all off-street parking, whether publicly or privately provided for nonresidential uses, shall be either on the same premises as the building or within 300 feet of the building it is intended to serve, measured from the nearest point of the off-street parking lot without crossing any major thoroughfares. EXCEPTION: where there is a parking program for a specified area carried out with public action in accordance with subsection f, the 300 foot proximity requirement may be waived by the reviewing authority.

3.    Single-family residential off-street parking shall consist of a parking strip, driveway, parking bay, garage or combination thereof and shall be located on the premises they are intended to serve. Such single-family residential off-street parking is exempt from the regulations of this article governing a parking lot.

D.    Landscaping of off-street parking lots shall be subject to the requirements of Section 4.406.

E.    Use of Off-Street Parking Areas. Required off-street parking shall be for use of occupants, employees, visitors, and patrons and shall be limited in use to motor vehicles; the storage of merchandise, motor vehicles for sale, or the repair of vehicles is prohibited.

F.    Timing of Completion of Required Off-Street Parking. Off- street parking shall be provided as hereinafter required, prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy; provided that where a parking program for a specified area to be carried out by public action is established by an official plan that proposes parking spaces comparable to the quantitative requirements of this chapter and includes a time schedule of land acquisition and construction, certificate of occupancy for all land or building uses within such officially planned area shall not be contingent upon prior provision of off-street parking.

4.303 Parking Requirements.

A.    Measurement Standards. For the purpose of computing the number of parking spaces required, the following measurement standards are used:

1.    Floor Area. Where floor area is the unit for determining the required number of parking spaces, said unit shall mean gross floor area.

2.    Fractional Spaces. When calculations for determining the required number of parking spaces results in a fractional space, any fraction of less than one half (1/2) may be disregarded, while a fraction of one half (1/2) or more shall be counted as one space.

3.    Employee Parking. Parking spaces required for employees shall be based on the maximum number of employees on the premises at any one time during the largest typical daily work shift.

4.    Places of Assembly. For religious institutions, sports arenas, or similar places of assembly in which those in attendance occupy benches, pews, or similar seating, each twenty (20”) inches of such seating shall be counted as one seat. For places of assembly without fixed seating, the parking requirement shall be calculated on the basis of the maximum permitted occupancy of the structure or facility as permitted by the fire code.

5.    Persons. Any parking standard calculated on the basis of ‘persons’, ‘students’, or a similar group shall be based upon the maximum permitted occupancy of the structure or facility as permitted by the fire code.

B.    Minimum Parking Required. The minimum number of off-street parking spaces shall be determined in accordance with the following Table 8. For the list of uses that are included in each category, refer to Table 2 or the use definition categories in Article 7, Chapter 2

C.    Maximum Parking Permitted. To minimize excessive areas of pavement which negatively impact aesthetic standards and contribute to high volumes of storm water runoff, the maximum amount of off-street parking permitted for any use shall not exceed two hundred percent (200%) of the minimum parking requirements of Table 8. This requirement shall not apply to single-family or two-family dwellings. The Planning Commission may permit additional parking over and above the maximum parking limit based on documented evidence indicating that the maximum parking permitted will not be sufficient to accommodate the use on a typical day.

D.    Uses Not Listed. For uses not listed in Table 8, the default parking requirement for the category of use shall apply, unless the reviewing authority determines that the standard for another use is more appropriate than the default parking standard.

E.    C-2 District Minimum Parking Requirements. The minimum parking requirements shall not apply to nonresidential uses located within the C-2 central business district.

    Bicycle Parking. Bicycle parking areas, including racks, are required in conjunction with off-street parking lots that are larger than 25 spaces. One bicycle space shall be provided for every 20 required vehicle parking spaces or fraction thereof. Shelters, bicycle lockers, or other methods of protecting the parked bicycles are encouraged. Bicycle parking spaces may be located anywhere on the site, including inside the building, and need not be located within the boundaries of the vehicle parking lot, but shall be located proximate to building entrances.

 

Table 8. Minimum Parking Requirements

USE

MINIMUM REQUIRED OFF-STREET PARKING SPACES

RESIDENTIAL USES

Default Parking Requirement

2 spaces per dwelling unit

Mixed Use Dwelling Unit

.9 spaces per bedroom

Multiple Family or Townhouse

1.1 spaces per bedroom

COMMERCIAL, OFFICE, and SERVICE USES

Default Parking Requirement

1 space per 500 sq. ft. of floor area

Bar, Restaurant, Tavern or Alcohol Service Establishment

1 space per 2.25 persons permitted at maximum occupancy

Child Care Center

0.25 spaces per resident or client at maximum occupancy

Lodging Uses

1 space per room

Office, professional or medical

1 space per 300 sq. ft. of floor area

Places of assembly

1 space per 3 persons permitted at maximum occupancy

INDUSTRIAL USES

Default Parking Requirement

1 space per 550 sq. ft. of shop floor or manufacturing floor area + 1 space per 300 sq. ft. of office area

Mini-Warehouse (outdoor access)

3 spaces

Mini-Warehouse (indoor access)

1 space per 50 leasable storage units

Wholesale Storage/Distribution

1 space per 2,000 sq. ft. of floor area + 1 space per 350 sq. ft. of office area

COMMUNITY, EDUCATION, and INSTITUTION USES

Default Parking Requirement

1 space per 3 persons permitted at maximum occupancy

Assisted Living or Nursing Home

1 space per 0.5 residents or beds + 0.5 spaces per employee at maximum shift

State Licensed Residential Facility

0.25 spaces per resident or client at maximum occupancy

RECREATION USES

Default Parking Requirement

1 space per 3 persons permitted or anticipated at maximum occupancy

Private Recreation (small indoor)

1 space per 300 sq. ft. of floor area

Private Recreation (large indoor)

1 space per 600 sq. ft. of floor area

ANIMAL and AGRICULTURE USES

Default Parking Requirement

No minimum parking requirement

Retail sales associated with an animal or agricultural use

1 space per 500 sq. ft. of retail sales area

ACCESSORY and TEMPORARY USES

Default Parking Requirement

No minimum parking requirement

Drive-in or drive-through facility

2 entry + 1 exit space per self-service car wash

 

8 entry + 1 exit space per automatic car wash

 

3 stacking spaces per general use service window or station

 

8 stacking spaces per restaurant service window

4.304 Modification of Minimum Parking Requirements.

A.    Modification of Minimum Parking Requirement. The Planning Commission may modify the numerical requirements for off-street parking based on evidence submitted by the applicant that another standard would be more reasonable because of the level of current or future employment or customer traffic. The Planning Commission may condition the approval of a modification of the parking requirements that binds such approval to the specific use in question.

B.    Deferred (Land Banked) Parking. If the intensity or level of traffic anticipated to be generated by a use is lower than the number of spaces required by Table 8 but there is a reasonable expectation that parking demand on the site will increase in the future due to an intensification or change of use, construction of the excess parking spaces may be deferred (land banked) until such time as they are needed. Planning Commission approval is required for deferred (land banked) parking, subject to the following:

1.    The deferred parking shall be shown on the site plan and set aside as landscaped open space.

2.    The deferred parking may be constructed at any time at the option of the property owner, or shall be constructed upon request by the Planning Commission.

3.    Deferred parking shall be located in areas that are suitable for future parking, and that comply with the requirements of this Chapter.

C.    Shared Parking. Two or more buildings or uses may collectively provide the required off-street parking, in which case the required number of parking spaces shall not be less than the sum of the requirements for the several individual uses computed separately. However, in cases of dual functioning of off-street parking where operating hours do not overlap, the Planning Commission may reduce the required number of parking spaces based on the peak hour demand. Shared parking shall be located within 500 feet of the building it is intended to serve, measured from the property line of the site containing the parking facility. In granting such a reduction, the Planning Commission may require easements be granted to allow for the continued use of the shared parking facility.

4.305 Parking Lot Layout and Design Standards.

A.    Ingress and Egress. Adequate ingress and egress to the parking lot by means of clearly limited and defined drives shall be provided and approved by the city engineer.

B.    Maneuvering Lanes. All parking spaces shall be provided adequate access by means of maneuvering lanes. Backing directly into any public or private street from an off-street parking space shall be prohibited.

C.    Pedestrian Circulation. The parking lot layout shall accommodate direct and continuous pedestrian circulation, clearly divided from vehicular areas. Pedestrian crosswalks shall be provided, distinguished by textured paving or pavement striping and integrated into the sidewalk network.

D.    Barrier Free Parking Spaces.

1.    Barrier Free Spaces Required. Each parking lot that serves a building, except single- and two-family dwelling units, shall have a number of level parking spaces, identified by a sign which indicates the spaces are reserved for physically handicapped persons. Barrier-free parking shall comply with the State of Michigan Barrier-Free Rules (Michigan Public Act No. 1 of 1966, as amended), the adopted City Building Code, and the Federal Americans with Disabilities Act.

2.    Construction Standard. Each barrier-free parking space shall have no more than a nominal 3% grade and shall be not less than 8 feet in width and be adjacent to an access aisle not less than 5 feet in width. Required van-accessible barrier-free spaces must be 8 feet in width and be adjacent to an access aisle not less than 8 feet in width.

3.    Number of Barrier Free Spaces Required. Barrier free spaces shall be required in accordance with the following Table 9. Table 9 is based on the most recent Department of Justice ADA accessible parking requirements. If the accessible parking requirements are updated, the updated standards shall supersede those listed in the following Table 9.

 

Table 9. Barrier Free Spaces Required

Total Spaces in Parking Lot

Total Accessible Spaces Required (including both 60” and 96” aisles)

Van Accessible Spaces Required(1) (96” wide access aisle)

1 to 25

1

1

26 to 50

2

1

51 to 75

3

1

76 to 100

4

1

101 to 150

5

1

151 to 200

6

1

201 to 300

7

1

301 to 400

8

1

401 to 500

9

2

501 to 1,000

2% of total parking provided in lot

1/8 of total accessible spaces required

1,001 and over

20 plus 1 space for each 100 over 1,000

1/8 of total accessible spaces required

E.    Parking Space and Maneuvering Lane Dimensions. The design and construction of off-street parking spaces shall conform with the following requirements:

Table 10. Parking Design Standards

Parking Pattern (degrees)

Maneuvering Lane Width

Parking Space Width

Parking Space Length

o° (parallel)

12 feet (one way)

8 feet

22 feet

 

24 feet (two way)(2)

 

 

1° – 70° (angled)

12 feet (one way)

9 feet

20 feet

71° – 90°

12 feet (one way)

9 feet(3)

20 feet(3)

 

20 feet (two way)( 3)

 

 

F.    Striping Requirements. The striping of off-street parking shall be done with either white or yellow paint. The striping of off-street handicapped parking stalls shall be identified with blue paint. All parking spaces shall be clearly striped with four (4) inch wide lines spaced two feet apart to facilitate movement and to help maintain an orderly parking arrangement, as shown in Figure 9.

1 Van Spaces Required are Non-Cumulative. The number of van spaces required by Table 9 is part of, and not in addition to, the total number of accessible spaces required.

2 Reduction of Parking Space Dimension. The required dimension may be reduced by 2 feet if low impact storm water management methods are incorporated into the parking lot storm water management design. Refer to Section 4.601.

3 Additional Width Required to Accommodate Door Swing. Any parking space abutting a landscaped area on the driver’s or passenger’s side of the vehicle shall provide an additional 18 inches of width to allow for access without damage to the landscaped area.

Figure 9. Parking Lot Double Striping

G.    Vehicle Overhang. Parking vehicles may hang over the interior landscaped area or curbing no more than two feet, as long as concrete or other wheel stops are provided to insure no greater overhang or penetration of the landscaped area.

4.306 Surfacing.

A.    Surfacing. The entire parking area, including parking spaces and maneuvering lanes, required under this section shall have asphaltic or concrete surfacing; or porous pavers in accordance with specification approved by the city engineer. Such facilities shall provide on-site drainage to dispose of all surface water accumulated in the parking area, unless otherwise approved by the City Engineer.

    Permeable or porous paving methods are encouraged, including open joined pavers, porous concrete/asphalt, and other methods of increasing stormwater infiltration. These methods may only be used when the permeable paving will have sufficient strength to bear expected vehicle loads for the parking area, and shall be designed in accordance with Appendix D of the Low Impact Development Manual for Michigan, available at the Planning Department.

B.    Pavement Color. All off-street parking areas are encouraged to use light-colored materials such as concrete, white asphalt, or light-colored pavers to reduce surface temperatures and to reduce the heat island effect.

C.    Low-Impact Stormwater Management. Refer to Article 4, Chapter 6.

D.    When Surfaced. The parking area shall be surfaced within two months of occupancy of the use it is to serve if it is for a new use, and within two months of the effective date of rezoning if parking area is to serve an existing use or uses, except when weather conditions prohibiting the pouring of concrete extend such time period or otherwise exempted by Section 4.302.F.

4.307 Off-Street Loading and Unloading.

On the same premises with every building, or part thereof where the principal use involves the receipt or distribution of vehicles or materials or merchandise, there shall be provided and maintained on the lot adequate space for standing, loading, and unloading services adjacent to the opening used for loading and unloading in order to avoid interference with public use of the streets or alleys.

Such loading and unloading space shall be an area in minimum ten feet by 40 feet with a 14 foot height clearance and shall be provided according to the following Table 11:

 

Table 11. Required Loading Spaces

Gross Usable Floor Area (in square feet)

Loading/Unloading Space Required

0 to 20,000

0

20,000 to 49,999

1

50,000 to 99,999

2

Over 100,000

2 spaces plus one additional space for each additional 100,000 square feet or fraction thereof.