Chapter 15.08
WATER SERVICE

Sections:

15.08.010    Types of water service.

15.08.020    Application for water service.

15.08.030    Limitation on water use.

15.08.040    Water service connections.

15.08.050    Water service fees.

15.08.060    Water service installation.

15.08.070    Turning on water service.

15.08.080    When main extension required.

15.08.090    Petition for water main extension.

15.08.100    Design of water main extension – Construction permit.

15.08.110    Construction of water main extension.

15.08.120    Record construction drawings required.

15.08.130    Energizing main extensions.

15.08.140    Transfer of service on new water main.

15.08.150    Payment for water mains.

15.08.160    Authority to shut off water.

15.08.170    Persons authorized to shut off or turn on water.

15.08.180    Tampering with water service after suspension.

15.08.190    Temporary discontinuance of service.

15.08.200    Abandoned services.

15.08.210    Accounts – Funds.

15.08.215    Installation permit fees.

15.08.220    Calculation of service installation or tap fee.

15.08.230    Connection charges.

15.08.240    Computation of use rates.

15.08.250    Water rates and charges.

15.08.260    Cross-connection control.

15.08.010 Types of water service.

The following types of water service are provided by the city:

A. Single-family services include only those services connecting the city water system to a single-family dwelling unit, including single-family homes, duplexes, mobile homes, manufactured homes, condominiums, apartments and similar residential uses, with separate individual meters to each distinct unit.

B. Non-single-family services include all commercial and retail enterprises, restaurants, government facilities, parks, recreational facilities, non-profit enterprises, schools, churches and all other services not covered by subsection (A), (C), (D), (E), or (F) of this section.

C. Fire protection service is a water service installed solely for the purpose of providing water to automatic fire sprinklers, on-site fire hydrants, or standpipes. All privately owned fire protection services shall include a flow-detection device of a type approved by the director of public works. No domestic water supply connections are allowed on a fire protection service.

D. Resale water service is a wholesale metered service by which potable water is provided under contract to a water district or association for resale.

E. Industrial water service is non-potable water supplied for industrial or other purposes.

F. Irrigation water service is a service using potable water for landscaping and irrigation purposes only. All irrigation systems must have a meter and dedicated irrigation service unless the service is on a lot that is less than or equal to 10,000 square feet.

G. Unmetered single-family services include only those services connecting the water system to a single-family residence or duplex dwelling unit occupying a single premises on a single-family zoned lot.

H. Bulk water service is a metered potable water service provided at bulk water filling stations to customers with water-hauling vehicles. [Ord. 2014-03-014 § 1; Ord. 2012-12-060 § 1; Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 2005-01-005; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 3; Ord. 1999-12-092; Ord. 10093 § 10, 1990; Ord. 8982 § 12, 1981].

15.08.020 Application for water service.

Any person desiring to have a premises within city limits connected with the city water supply system shall make application to the public works director on printed forms furnished for that purpose. Every such application shall be made by the owner or the purchaser under a real estate contract of the premises to be benefited, or by his authorized agent.

The application must describe the property to be served, state fully the purposes for which the water is required, and indicate that by signing the form, the applicant agrees to conform to the ordinances, rules, and regulations established as conditions for use of water, and further agrees, as a condition to the furnishing of water, that the city has the right to shut off the water supply as required for such things as, by way of example, nonpayment, repairs, extensions, or doing other necessary work. Decisions of the public works director on applications for water service under this subsection may be appealed to the hearing examiner. The written appeal and the appeal fee, if any, must be received by the public works department by no later than 5:00 p.m. on the fourteenth day following the date the decision was issued. [Ord. 2012-12-060 § 2; Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 9618 § 11, 1986; Ord. 8982 § 13, 1981].

15.08.030 Limitation on water use.

No person supplied with water from the city mains shall be entitled to use it for any purpose other than those stated in the application for service or to supply other persons or premises in any way. [Ord. 8982 § 14, 1981].

15.08.040 Water service connections.

A. When the premises is located within the city of Bellingham and fully abuts upon a street or city-owned utility easement through which there is a city water main, the premises’ owner may apply for a service. Upon approval of the service by the director of public works and upon such conditions as required by the director, the director of public works shall issue a permit for its installation.

B. When the premises within the city limits for which service is sought does not fully abut a street or city-owned utility easement through which there is a city water main, the application for service may be accepted for review; however, the utility must be constructed and accepted by the city prior to approval of building permits for the adjacent land use. The public works director has the administrative authority to determine if the property requesting service is the last developable lot and may grant an exception for service without requiring a main extension.

C. When the premises for which service is sought does not fully abut a main with sufficient pressure and capacity to provide the required flow at the property line, the application for service may be accepted for review; however, the deficiency of pressure or capacity must be improved prior to issuance of the permit.

D. All premises supplied with city water must have an individual and separate water meter. Premises so supplied will not be allowed to supply water to any other premises. The public works director may require individual buildings on any premises to be separately metered; however, auxiliary uses to single-family residential parcels shall not require separate meters. The director may exempt fire protection services from this requirement.

E. All water service connections shall be metered.

F. All water service customers who are not served by a water meter shall be connected to a city water meter by the city and shall be charged for measured consumption plus the base cost of service.

G. Infill housing sites developed under Chapter 20.28 BMC may be divided into lots that do not abut a water main, provided:

1. The parent site meets the requirements of this BMC 15.08.040;

2. A separate private water service line is installed to city standards from a main to each lot prior to final plat approval;

3. The public works director determines that no main extension is necessary for the orderly extension or efficient looping of the public water system.

H. In all cases where meters are damaged, stolen, altered, lost, injured or broken by owners or occupants of premises, they shall be replaced or repaired under the direction of the director of public works and the cost charged against the owner or occupant; and in case of nonpayment for meter damage, the water shall be shut off, and will not be turned on until such charge and the charge for turning on the water are paid in the same manner as provided for delinquent payments. [Ord. 2012-12-060 § 3; Ord. 2009-08-048; Ord. 2008-08-081; Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 4; Ord. 9618 § 12, 1986; Ord. 9073 § 5, 1982; Ord. 8982 § 15, 1981].

15.08.050 Water service fees.

A. Prior to approval of an application for water service, the fees applicable to the requested service shall be determined. The fees consist of the system development charge, assessments, installation fees, and other charges as specified in this chapter.

B. Specified fees shall be paid to the finance director in full at the time of application. The finance director shall advise the department of public works when payment has been received. [Ord. 2012-12-060 § 4; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 5; Ord. 9618 § 13, 1986; Ord. 8982 § 16, 1981].

15.08.060 Water service installation.

A. All water services, including materials and construction methods, shall be installed in accordance with current American Water Works Association (“AWWA”) standards and all city standards and specifications established by the public works director or designee.

B. Installation of a requested water service will be scheduled after the finance director has notified the department of public works that all applicable fees and charges have been paid.

C. The department of public works shall be the entity responsible for the installation of the service. The director may, at his option, select either installation by city forces or by construction contract. Installation, in whole or in part, by private parties may be allowed under conditions set by and at the discretion of the public works director.

D. The location of the water service will be determined by the public works department.

E. Water service shall consist of the connection to the main, the corporation stop at the main, pipe from the water main to the meter, meter box, setter, meter and corporation stops. Water services shall be owned and maintained by the city from the main to the meter box, including all appurtenances therein.

F. The water service shall be installed within city rights-of-way or easements in accordance with city standards.

G. All services shall be reviewed by the public works department using the Uniform Plumbing Code and the AWWA “Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters”; except that standby fire-protection services shall be sized based on fire-flow requirements determined by the fire department.

H. Water service and electrical services lines shall not share the same trench unless:

1. They are separated by a minimum of 24 inches; or

2. The electric line is in a rigid metallic conduit.

I. No electric grounding devices or wires from any utility shall be attached to any water service unless authorized by the director of public works.

J. No sewer service shall be installed within five feet of a water service unless it is located at least 24 inches below the water service.

K. Meters shall be of the type designated by the director of public works and shall be installed at the cost of the person requesting water service. [Ord. 2012-12-060 § 5; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 6; Ord. 10131, 1990; Ord. 9618].

15.08.070 Turning on water service.

Water service may only be turned on after the finance director has notified the director of public works that all applicable fees have been paid, irrespective of whether the service is new, or is one whose water has been shut off for any reason. [Ord. 8982 § 18, 1981].

15.08.080 When main extension required.

A main extension is required whenever property within the water service zone is developed and that property does not abut a water main, or when an existing abutting water main is not adequate to provide the required water pressure or flow characteristics. Minimum flow is that set by state law, which is currently 30 psi at normal peak flow. [Ord. 2004-11-081 § 7; Ord. 8982 § 19, 1981].

15.08.090 Petition for water main extension.

A. The person desiring a main extension shall petition the director of public works requesting permission to extend the city’s water system.

B. The director of public works shall review the request, and if the requested extension is determined to be desirable, shall provide the petitioner with the design requirements for the extension. If the requested main extension is determined to be an undesirable extension of the water system, the petition shall be denied. [Ord. 8982 § 20, 1981].

15.08.100 Design of water main extension – Construction permit.

A. Upon receipt of the design requirements from the department of public works, the petitioner shall cause the plans and specifications for the extension to be prepared. All design and construction drawings and specifications shall be in accordance with engineering standards adopted by the department of public works. The completed design and specifications, having a valid professional engineer’s seal and endorsement, shall be submitted to the department of public works for review and approval.

B. The project for main construction will be carried out in accordance with the provisions of a contract entered into between the city and the petitioner. At the discretion of the director of public works, appropriate security may be required covering construction performance and guaranteeing the construction after completion for a period of one year.

C. After approval of the design and construction details, the department of public works shall provide the petitioner with an estimate of the construction inspection fee. A permit for construction will be issued after the inspection fees and estimated main connection charges have been deposited with the finance director. [Ord. 9234 § 6, 1983; Ord. 8982 § 21, 1981].

15.08.110 Construction of water main extension.

A. The petitioner shall contract with a contractor to install the main extension as approved by the department of public works. The contractor shall be licensed to perform the construction.

B. The department of public works shall inspect the installation of the water main to ensure compliance with the specifications. The charges for such inspection, including administrative and overhead charges, shall be withdrawn from the construction inspection fee deposited with the finance director. At such time as the director of public works determines the remaining funds are not adequate to provide necessary inspection for the project, the petitioner shall be notified and an estimate of additional inspection fees required will be provided. The additional fees shall be deposited with the finance director prior to depletion of the funds on deposit. The city reserves the right to reject any installation not inspected and approved by the department of public works. Any moneys unexpended from the inspection fee upon completion of the project shall be returned to the petitioner.

C. Upon satisfactory completion of all required tests and acceptance of the main extension, the department of public works shall cause the extension to be connected to the city system. All costs incurred in the connection, including overhead and administrative charges, shall be paid by the petitioner. Any adjustment of the actual cost of installation because of variance between the estimate and the actual cost shall be refunded upon completion of the job to the petitioner, or by payment by the petitioner to the city of any additional expense above the estimate.

D. When a main extension is to service a new single-family residential area, individual services shall be installed by the developer to supply each proposed building site. These services shall be installed to city standards. All fees and charges for installation of the services shall be paid at the time a plumbing permit is obtained.

E. All extensions of water mains shall be subject to the payment of a hydrant fee as required by this chapter. Whenever the installation of a hydrant is required by the director of public works during the course of a water main extension, the established value thereof may be applied to reduce any hydrant fees due for that extension. [Ord. 8982 § 22, 1981].

15.08.120 Record construction drawings required.

A. Upon completion of a main extension, the petitioner shall provide the department of public works a reproducible mylar drawing that accurately indicates the main extension and appurtenances as actually installed, in plan and profile (“record construction drawing”).

B. No main extension will be accepted until satisfactory record construction drawings are provided to and approved by the director of public works or designee. [Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 8982 § 23, 1981].

15.08.130 Energizing main extensions.

No main extension shall be energized other than for test purposes by duly authorized personnel until the main extension has been accepted by the city and all fees and charges have been paid. If energizing a main is necessary to restore service to existing customers, fire hydrants will not be activated until acceptance of the main extension. [Ord. 8982 § 24, 1981].

15.08.140 Transfer of service on new water main.

A. When the water main abutting a premises is replaced, the existing active services will be transferred to the new main without payment of additional fees or charges.

B. When the service connection for a premises is not on a main abutting the premises, and a main extension installs a new water main adjacent to the premises, the owner of the premises will be required to pay the necessary latecomer’s or other construction charges before the service will be transferred to the new main. No additional charges will be made to transfer the service. [Ord. 8982 § 25, 1981].

15.08.150 Payment for water mains.

A. Water mains laid in public rights-of-way or easements and connected to city mains may be paid for by:

1. The person benefiting from the installation; or

2. The city; or

3. A local improvement district, as provided by law.

B. The city may, in accordance with state law, grant the person constructing a new water main the right to reimbursement from other abutting property owners benefited by the improvement pursuant to Chapter 14.02 BMC. [Ord. 10906 §§ 1, 4, 1997; Ord. 8982 § 26, 1981].

15.08.160 Authority to shut off water.

A. The department of public works has the right at any time, after giving reasonable notice, to shut off the water supply for repairs, extensions, violations of this code, and any other reason other than nonpayment of rates.

B. The city is not responsible for any damage caused by the breaking, bursting or collapsing of any boilers, tanks, pipes or fixtures, or any damage whatever resulting directly or indirectly from shutting off of water, when timely notice is given. [Ord. 8982 § 27, 1981].

15.08.170 Persons authorized to shut off or turn on water.

A. Only employees of the department of public works are authorized to shut off and turn on water services, except as follows:

1. A licensed plumber with written authorization of the director of public works may turn a water service on at the curb stop for the sole purpose of testing service pipes within a premises. Such a test period shall not exceed four hours, and the curb stop shall be returned to the off position at the conclusion of the test;

2. A licensed plumber with the written authorization of the director of public works may turn a water service off at the curb stop to effect repairs of service pipes within a premises, provided a shutoff is installed as required prior to restoration of water service by the licensed plumber; or

3. Any city official given authorization by the director of public works.

B. An unauthorized shutoff hereunder is not considered an interruption of service for billing purposes and billing for water and sewer services shall continue during the period authorized.

C. Unauthorized turn-on or shutoff of water service is expressly prohibited. Should any person cause a water service to be turned on at the curb stop prior to the service being authorized or after being shut off by the department of public works as provided in this chapter, the water service will be shut off by the department of public works and the account will be charged the prescribed tampering fee. Subsequent violation will be cause for the director of public works to order the service shut off in a manner selected by the department of public works and the account charged with all costs incurred in such shutoff. Payment of all such costs plus an amount equal to the estimated cost of restoring the service will be made to the finance director prior to service being resumed. [Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 9371 § 1, 1984; Ord. 8982 § 28, 1981].

15.08.180 Tampering with water service after suspension.

A. Should any person turn on a water service without authorization after it has been shut off by the city, the account shall be assessed the tampering fee for the first occurrence. Further incidents of tampering will cause the account to be assessed at twice the tampering fee for each additional occurrence. The owners or the purchasers under a real estate contract of the premises who do not occupy the premises will, if possible, be notified of the imposition of a tampering fee.

B. After any person has tampered in three consecutive occurrences, the city shall disable the water service in such a manner that there is a physical disconnection of the water service from the city water main. The account shall be charged a disabling fee for the cost to disconnect the service line. The fee shall include the total cost of labor, material, equipment, and any administrative or overhead charges.

C. Should any person turn on a new water service before opening a water account, a tampering fee shall be assessed and paid before the owner can open a new water account or begin receiving water service. [Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 8; Ord. 9618 § 15, 1986; Ord. 9371 § 1, 1984; Ord. 8982 § 29, 1981].

15.08.190 Temporary discontinuance of service.

A. A temporary discontinuance of water service may be requested by the owner of a premises or an agent of the owner with the express written authority to make such a request. The request shall be in writing, be submitted at least 10 working days before the requested discontinuance, state the estimated duration of the discontinuance, and be on forms provided for that purpose in the office of the finance director.

B. The minimum period of time for a temporary discontinuance of water service is 30 days, but in no case shall be longer than three years, in which case the service shall be considered abandoned under BMC 15.08.200.

C. Resumption of water service shall be in writing on the forms provided for that purpose in the office of the finance director.

D. Water and sewer service billing shall stop for the duration of the temporary discontinuance, provided such temporary discontinuance is approved hereunder. However the shutoff and turn-on shall be subject to the fees for such service provided by this chapter. [Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 2001-02-007; Ord. 9371 § 1, 1984; Ord. 8982 § 30, 1981].

15.08.200 Abandoned services.

A. An abandoned service is any water service that has not been used for a period of three years or longer except for services installed as part of a main extension and not put into service, which will not be considered abandoned. Abandonment under this section shall not relieve the property owner or other responsible party of any financial responsibility for charges incurred at the premises for water service.

B. A property with an abandoned city water service located outside the city’s corporate limits but within the city’s urban growth area may apply for one new single-family water service with a service meter size of one inch or the same size service meter as the water service previously abandoned, whichever is smaller.

C. A new water service for a premises where an abandoned service exists may use the existing abandoned water service if it is determined to be in satisfactory condition by the director of public works or his designee. If the abandoned service is reactivated without modification, the applicant shall be refunded that portion of the fees and charges expressly stated for service installation. A credit for the system development charge shall be provided as set forth in BMC 15.08.230. All other fees and charges shall be the same as for a new service. [Ord. 2012-05-025 § 1; Ord. 2012-01-002 § 1; Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 9371 § 1, 1984; Ord. 8982 § 31, 1981].

15.08.210 Accounts – Funds.

A. All accounts for water shall be kept by the finance director by reference to the address, or, if necessary, the legal description of the property to which water service is provided.

B. Accounts shall be billed on a regular schedule determined by the finance director.

C. The water fund is created. Moneys deposited to this fund shall be used for capital, operation and maintenance of the water system, including water system improvements. [Ord. 2007-12-107; Ord. 8982 § 32, 1981].

15.08.215 Installation permit fees.

An application permit fee is charged for each service connection application. The fee for application shall be determined by the public works director by separate fee schedule. [Ord. 2012-12-060 § 6; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 9; Ord. 9618 § 16, 1986; Ord. 9073 § 6, 1982].

15.08.220 Calculation of service installation or tap fee.

A. For metered water service installations, the city shall charge an installation fee. The fee shall be based on the city’s cost of installing the water service from the main to the property line, including, but not limited to, main taps, corporation cocks, valves, pipes, meters, and other materials, labor, and equipment necessary to install the service. In addition, the party requesting the service is responsible for performing all excavation and restoration work at their expense. The installation fee for services four inches in diameter or less shall be a flat fee for each size. The director of public works shall analyze previous installation costs for each service size, shall determine the fee schedule annually, and shall give 60 days’ public notice thereof. The installation fee for services larger than four inches in diameter shall be based on an installation cost estimate prepared by the public works director or his designee.

B. For water main extension and fire service line installations, the city shall charge a tap fee. The fee shall be based on the city’s cost of installing a tap on the existing main and inspecting the connection. In addition, the party responsible for installing the water main extension or fire service line is responsible for performing all excavation and restoration work at their expense as necessary to facilitate the connection. The tap fee for connections 12 inches or less in diameter shall be a flat fee for each size. The director of public works shall analyze previous tap installation costs for each tap size, shall determine the fee schedule annually, and shall give 60 days’ public notice thereof. The fee for taps larger than 12 inches in diameter shall be based upon a cost estimate prepared by the public works director or his designee.

C. The fees imposed under this section shall be in addition to all other connection charges, service fees, permit costs or usage rates.

D. All facilities installed within city rights-of-way or easements shall be and remain the property of the city, and may be modified or removed by the department of public works in conformity with this chapter. [Ord. 2016-02-006; Ord. 2012-12-060 § 7; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 10; Ord. 9371 § 1, 1984; Ord. 8982 § 33, 1981].

15.08.230 Connection charges.

A. Charges imposed to connect to and receive city water service shall consist of the following:

1. A system development charge determined pursuant to BMC 15.08.250(C), reflecting the demand placed on the system.

2. If applicable, a connection fee for the specific property involved, as determined by the department of public works, to ensure that each connected property bears its equitable share of the cost of the system, plus interest pursuant to subsection (A)(3) of this section.

3. The connection fee herein shall include accrued interest at a rate fixed at the federal reserve rate for a 10-year treasury note, as determined on the recording date of the statement of intent to collect; provided, that interest shall only be accrued for a period not to exceed 10 years; and provided further, that no interest shall be collected within the first 90 days of recording of the statement of intent to collect; and provided further, that the aggregate amount of the interest shall not exceed the equitable share of the cost of the system allocated to a given property owner.

4. Any applicable private latecomer charges and interest.

B. System development charge credits are available and shall be calculated as follows:

1. If an existing service is exchanged for a larger service, credit shall be given for the smaller service at the current rate.

2. No refunds will be given for exchange or reactivation to smaller size services.

3. If an abandoned service is reactivated, credit shall be given for the last service size in use. Flat rate single-family service will be considered a five-eighths-inch service. Value of credit shall be current charge for that size service irrespective of whether a fee was ever collected.

4. The system development charge for single-family residential shall be subject to review by the public works department using the Uniform Plumbing Code and the AWWA “Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters”; except that standby fire protection services shall be sized based upon fire flow requirements determined by the fire department and not included in the calculation of the system development charge pursuant to BMC 15.08.250(C).

C. Upon application by the owner, a partial exemption of not more than 80 percent of the system development charge imposed by this chapter may be granted to a low-income housing development, as defined below:

1. The director of planning and community development, after consultation with the director of public works, may grant an exemption to a low-income housing project listed in an annual consolidated action plan approved by city council.

2. The city council may grant an exemption to a low-income housing project not included in an annual consolidated action plan.

3. The decision to grant, partially grant or deny an exemption shall be based on the public benefit of the specific project, the extent to which the applicant has sought other funding sources, the financial hardship to the project of paying the system development charge, the impacts of the project on public facilities and services, and the consistency of the project with adopted city plans and policies relating to low-income housing.

4. An exemption granted under this subsection must be conditioned upon requiring the developer to record a covenant approved by the director of planning and community development that prohibits using the property for any purpose other than for low-income housing. At a minimum, the covenant must address price restrictions and household income limits for the low-income housing, and require that, if the property is converted to a use other than for low-income housing as defined in the covenant, the property owner must pay the applicable system development charge in effect at the time of any conversion. Covenants required by this subsection must be recorded with the Whatcom County auditor.

5. “Low-income housing” means housing with a monthly housing expense that is no greater than 30 percent of 80 percent of the median family income adjusted for family size, for Bellingham, as reported by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.

D. The system development charge imposed by this chapter may be reduced for qualifying projects in targeted urban villages pursuant to BMC 20.37.030. [Ord. 2015-12-048 § 3; Ord. 2015-07-029 § 4; Ord. 2012-05-025 § 2; Ord. 2011-03-008; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 11; Ord. 2002-01-002; Ord. 10571 § 1, 1994; Ord. 9846 § 4, 1988; Ord. 9738 § 1, 1987; Ord. 9371 § 34, 1981].

15.08.240 Computation of use rates.

Use rates for water service and consumption are determined as follows:

A. Single-family unmetered water services and unmetered duplex water services shall be charged a monthly rate for each month of service or portion thereof. Unmetered duplex water services shall be twice the rate for single-family unmetered services. Effective January 1, 2017, all services in the city of Bellingham shall be metered and no customer will be charged on a flat rate.

B. Single-family metered water services shall be charged a fixed rate based on meter size and a volume rate per 100 cubic feet of water used.

C. Transitional single-family services include those services less than one inch connected to the water system prior to January 1, 2013, and not participating in the voluntary metering program and who were billed based on a flat rate basis in 2012. For billing purposes, single-family unmetered services converted to single-family metered services shall be charged the current transitional single-family service rate on January 1st of the year following installation of the meter by the city of Bellingham. Beginning January 1, 2016, all customers moving from a flat rate to a metered rate shall be billed at the standard metered single-family rate. Transitional single-family services shall be charged a fixed rate based on meter size and a volume rate per 100 cubic feet of water used.

D. Contract sales of water for resale by water districts and associations shall be as covered by agreement between the city and the water district or association in accordance with Chapter 15.36 BMC.

E. Non-single-family water services including multiple dwelling units, commercial, and institutional, shall be charged a fixed rate based on meter size and a volume rate per 100 cubic feet of water used.

F. Irrigation water services shall be charged a fixed rate based on meter size and a volume rate per 100 cubic feet of water used.

G. Funds received for the connection charges shall be credited to a reserve cash line in the water fund.

H. Funds received for the connection charges covered under BMC 15.08.230(A)(2) and (3) shall be credited to a capital cash line in the water fund. All system development charges covered under BMC 15.08.250 shall be credited to a capital cash line in the water fund.

I. If a meter is found to be out of order by failing to register properly, the account shall be charged at the average monthly consumption as shown by the meter during the corresponding period of the preceding year. [Ord. 2012-12-060 § 8; Ord. 2007-12-107; Ord. 2004-10-071; Ord. 2002-03-016].

15.08.250 Water rates and charges.

A. The rates charged for each shutoff or turn-on are:

1. During normal work hours: $25.00 each; and

2. After normal work hours: $75.00 each.

B. The hydrant fee assessed for each lineal foot of main extension or portion thereof is: $5.00.

C. System development charges are as follows:

1. For a new or exchanged service:

a. Beginning on January 1, 2008, and continuing until December 31, 2008.

Service Meter Size

System Development Charge

5/8" x 3/4"

$2,911 ($192.00 Watershed)

3/4" x 3/4"

$4,367 ($288.00 Watershed)

1"

$7,278 ($480.00 Watershed)

1-1/2"

$14,557 ($961.00 Watershed)

2"

$23,291 ($1,537 Watershed)

3"

$46,582 ($3,075 Watershed)

4"

$72,784 ($4,804 Watershed)

6"

$145,568 ($9,608 Watershed)

8"

$232,908 ($15,373 Watershed)

10"

$363,919 ($24,020 Watershed)

b. Beginning on January 1, 2009, and continuing until December 31, 2009, the charge shall be:

Service Meter Size

System Development Charge

5/8" x 3/4"

$3,299 ($384.00 Watershed)

3/4" x 3/4"

$4,948 ($576.00 Watershed)

1"

$8,247 ($961.00 Watershed)

1-1/2"

$16,494 ($1,922 Watershed)

2"

$26,390 ($3,075 Watershed)

3"

$52,779 ($6,149 Watershed)

4"

$82,468 ($9,608 Watershed)

6"

$164,936 ($19,216 Watershed)

8"

$263,897 ($30,745 Watershed)

10"

$412,339 ($48,040 Watershed)

c. Beginning on January 1, 2010, and continuing until December 31, 2010, the charge shall be:

Service Meter Size

System Development Charge

5/8" x 3/4"

$3,686 ($576.00 Watershed)

3/4" x 3/4"

$5,529 ($865.00 Watershed)

1"

$9,215 ($1,441 Watershed)

1-1/2"

$18,430 ($2,882 Watershed)

2"

$29,489 ($4,612 Watershed)

3"

$58,977 ($9,224 Watershed)

4"

$92,152 ($14,412 Watershed)

6"

$184,304 ($28,824 Watershed)

8"

$294,886 ($46,118 Watershed)

10"

$460,760 ($72,060 Watershed)

d. For service beginning on or after January 1, 2011, and each year thereafter, the charges levied in 2011 shall continue with an annual adjustment each year in January by an inflationary factor tied to the Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers (CPI-U), Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton Index.

2. For all services located outside the corporate limits of the city, that will be served directly by the city and not through a wholesale contract, the system development charge is computed in the same fashion, except that an additional surcharge of 50 percent is imposed.

3. An irrigation system development charge (“ISDC”) is hereby created and shall apply to all new irrigation water services.

a. The charge for an ISDC shall be as follows:

Service Meter Size

System Development Charge

5/8" x 3/4"

$2,139

3/4" x 3/4"

$3,208

1"

$5,347

1-1/2"

$10,695

2"

$17,110

3"

$34,200

4"

$53,469

6"

$106,937

8"

$171,099

10"

$267,343

b. Irrigation system development charges shall be applied to all new irrigation systems that are required to have a dedicated irrigation water service. No ISDC shall apply to new irrigation systems that are excepted from that term’s definition under BMC 15.08.010(F).

D. The following water use rates are:

1. The rates effective January 1, 2013, shall be:

a. Flat Rate (Per Month).

Single-Family Unmetered

$32.66

Unmetered Duplexes

$65.32

b. Volume Rates (Per ccf).

Single-Family Metered

$1.58

Transitional Single-Family

$1.27

Non-Single-Family (multifamily, commercial, institutional)

$1.63

Irrigation

$2.35

c. Fixed Rates – Single-Family (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$13.10

3/4" x 3/4"

$18.02

1"

$27.85

1.5"

$52.47

2"

$82.00

3"

$160.76

4"

$249.35

6"

$495.45

d. Fixed Rates – Transitional Single-Family (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$16.33

3/4" x 3/4"

$22.46

e. Fixed Rates – Non-Single-Family and Irrigation (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$21.00

3/4" x 3/4"

$29.95

1"

$44.45

1.5"

$92.59

2"

$146.28

3"

$289.46

4"

$450.54

6"

$898.00

8"

$1,434.93

10"

$2,240.24

12"

$3,045.74

2. The rates effective January 1, 2014, shall be:

a. Flat Rate (Per Month).

Single-Family Unmetered

$35.27

Unmetered Duplexes

$70.54

b. Volume Rates (Per ccf).

Single-Family Metered

$1.63

Transitional Single-Family

$1.42

Non-Single-Family (multifamily, commercial, institutional)

$1.77

Irrigation

$2.40

Bulk Water Filling Station

$2.40

c. Fixed Rates – Single-Family (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$14.21

3/4" x 3/4"

$19.55

1"

$30.23

1.5"

$56.94

2"

$88.98

3"

$174.44

4"

$270.57

6"

$537.62

d. Fixed Rates – Transitional Single-Family (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$17.90

3/4" x 3/4"

$24.62

e. Fixed Rates – Non-Single-Family and Irrigation (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$21.75

3/4" x 3/4"

$31.01

1"

$49.55

1.5"

$95.88

2"

$151.49

3"

$299.76

4"

$466.57

6"

$929.95

8"

$1,485.99

10"

$2,319.94

12"

$3,154.11

3. The rates effective January 1, 2015, shall be:

a. Flat Rate (Per Month).

Single-Family Unmetered

$38.09

Unmetered Duplexes

$76.18

b. Volume Rates (Per ccf).

Single-Family Metered

$1.67

Transitional Single-Family

$1.42

Non-Single-Family (multifamily, commercial, institutional)

$1.93

Irrigation

$2.45

Bulk Water Filling Station

$2.45

c. Fixed Rates – Single-Family (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$15.42

3/4" x 3/4"

$21.21

1"

$32.78

1.5"

$61.76

2"

$96.51

3"

$189.21

4"

$293.48

6"

$583.14

d. Fixed Rates – Transitional Single-Family (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$19.35

3/4" x 3/4"

$26.62

e. Fixed Rates – Non-Single-Family and Irrigation (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$22.39

3/4" x 3/4"

$31.93

1"

$51.01

1.5"

$98.70

2"

$155.94

3"

$308.58

4"

$480.30

6"

$957.32

8"

$1,529.71

10"

$2,388.21

12"

$3,246.93

4. The rates effective January 1, 2016, shall be:

a. Flat Rate (Per Month).

Single-Family Unmetered

$41.14

Unmetered Duplexes

$82.28

b. Volume Rates (Per ccf).

Single-Family Metered

$1.72

Non-Single-Family (multifamily, commercial, institutional)

$1.94

Irrigation

$2.50

Bulk Water Filling Station

$2.50

c. Fixed Rates – Single-Family (Per Month)

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$19.35

3/4" x 3/4"

$26.62

1"

$41.15

1.5"

$77.52

2"

$121.13

3"

$237.48

4"

$368.37

6"

$731.93

d. Fixed Rates – Non-Single-Family and Irrigation (Per Month)

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$25.56

3/4" x 3/4"

$36.44

1"

$58.22

1.5"

$112.66

2"

$178.00

3"

$352.23

4"

$548.24

6"

$1,092.71

8"

$1,746.06

10"

$2,725.98

12"

$3,706.15

5. The rates effective January 1, 2017, shall be:

a. Flat Rate (Per Month).

Single-Family Unmetered

$44.43

Unmetered Duplexes

$88.86

b. Volume Rates (Per ccf).

Single-Family

$1.82

Non-Single-Family (multifamily, commercial, institutional)

$1.94

Irrigation

$2.55

Bulk Water Filling Station

$2.55

c. Fixed Rates – Single-Family (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$20.33

3/4" x 3/4"

$27.97

1"

$43.24

1.5"

$81.44

2"

$127.27

3"

$249.52

4"

$387.03

6"

$769.02

d. Fixed Rates – Non-Single-Family and Irrigation (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$28.32

3/4" x 3/4"

$40.39

1"

$64.53

1.5"

$124.86

2"

$197.27

3"

$390.36

4"

$607.59

6"

$1,211.02

8"

$1,935.11

10"

$3,021.12

12"

$4,107.41

6. The rates effective January 1, 2018, shall be:

a. Volume Rates (Per ccf)

Single-Family

$1.94

Non-Single-Family (multifamily, commercial, institutional)

$1.97

Irrigation

$2.60

Bulk Water Filling Station

$2.60

b. Fixed Rates – Single-Family (Per Month)

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$21.46

3/4" x 3/4"

$29.52

1"

$45.64

1.5"

$85.98

2"

$134.36

3"

$263.41

4"

$408.58

6"

$811.83

c. Fixed Rates – Non-Single-Family and Irrigation (Per Month).

Meter Size

Fixed Rate

5/8" x 3/4"

$30.86

3/4" x 3/4"

$44.01

1"

$70.32

1.5"

$136.06

2"

$214.97

3"

$425.38

4"

$662.10

6"

$1,319.66

8"

$2,108.70

10"

$3,292.14

12"

$4,475.88

7. Unless otherwise abrogated by the city council, beginning January 1, 2019, and each year thereafter, the water utility rates levied in 2018 shall continue with an annual adjustment each year in January by an inflationary factor tied to the Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers (CPI-U), Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton index. The inflationary factor shall be calculated and rates shall be adjusted by the finance director in September of each year using 12 prior months of Consumer Price Index data.

8. The Lake Whatcom watershed land acquisition and preservation program charges shall be added to the aforementioned fixed base and volume charges as follows:

a. 2012 rate: $12.00 per month for all single-family services, both metered and unmetered.

b. 2012 rate: $24.00 per month for flat rate, unmetered duplexes.

c. 2012 rate: $5.00 per month plus $0.64 per 100 cubic feet of water consumed for all non-single-family services including untreated industrial water.

d. Unless otherwise abrogated by the city council, beginning January 1, 2013, and each year thereafter, the Lake Whatcom watershed property acquisition and pollution control charges levied in 2012 shall continue with an annual adjustment each year in January by an inflationary factor tied to the Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers (CPI-U), Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton index. The inflationary factor shall be calculated and rates shall be adjusted by the finance director in September of each year using 12 prior months of Consumer Price Index data.

9. Untreated Industrial and Irrigation Water. Untreated water for industrial or other nonpotable purposes shall be billed at 80 percent of the fixed base and volume rate for nonresidential services.

E. The fire protection service rate is $125.00 per year.

F. The tampering fee is $100.00 per occurrence.

G. Water rates and charges for services outside the city limits are 150 percent of the aforementioned usage rates and connection charges except those services that are part of a water district or association and served as part of a wholesale contract.

H. Lake Whatcom watershed property acquisition and pollution control program fund uses:

1. The watershed charges provided for in this chapter shall be used to fund the following pollution control measures and their associated maintenance, operation and administrative expenses:

a. Lake Whatcom watershed land acquisition;

b. Other property acquisition and land preservation measures in the Lake Whatcom watershed, including, but not limited to, purchases of transfer of development rights, easements, restrictive covenants, and access/use rights;

c. Capital projects and improvements, including, but not limited to, infiltration projects on public and private land in the Lake Whatcom watershed; and

d. Repayment and debt service on bonds or other financing instruments used to finance the pollution control measures in the Lake Whatcom watershed.

2. The city council shall determine the prioritization of acquisitions and other pollution control measures and shall also determine allowed uses and improvements to acquired property. Thirty percent of the revenue generated by the Lake Whatcom watershed property acquisition and pollution control program charge (net of operating, administrative, and debt service expenses) shall be used for purchasing property for capital projects or the design and construction of capital projects to address pollution from stormwater runoff. [Ord. 2016-10-035 § 1; Ord. 2014-03-014 § 2; Ord. 2012-12-060 § 9; Ord. 2012-02-005 § 1; Ord. 2011-01-002; Ord. 2007-12-107; Ord. 2006-08-081; Ord. 2004-11-081 § 12; Ord. 2004-10-071; Ord. 2003-10-068; Ord. 2001-02-007; Ord. 2000-09-058; Ord. 1999-12-092; Ord. 10785, 1996; Ord. 10571 § 2, 1994; Ord. 10364 § 1, 1992; Ord. 10093 § 1, 1990; Ord. 9846 § 5, 1988; Ord. 9618 § 18, 1986; Ord. 9386, 1984; Ord. 9371 § 1, 1984; Ord. 9159 § 1, 1982; Ord. 8982 § 36, 1981].

15.08.260 Cross-connection control.

A. Abbreviations and Acronyms.

1. DOH – Washington State Department of Health.

2. RCW – Revised Code of Washington (laws of the state).

3. WAC – Washington State Administrative Code.

B. Definitions.

“Approved air gap” means a physical separation between the free-flowing end of a potable water supply pipeline and the overflow rim of an open or nonpressurized receiving vessel. To be an air gap approved by the DOH, the separation must be at least:

1. Twice the diameter of the supply piping measured vertically from the overflow rim of the receiving vessel, and in no case be less than one inch, when unaffected by vertical surfaces (sidewalls); and

2. Three times the diameter of the supply piping, if the horizontal distance between the supply pipe and a vertical surface (sidewall) is less than or equal to three times the diameter of the supply pipe, or if the horizontal distance between the supply pipe and intersecting vertical surfaces (sidewalls) is less than or equal to four times the diameter of the supply pipe and in no case less than one and one-half inches.

“Approved atmospheric vacuum breaker” means an atmospheric vacuum breaker of make, model, and size that is approved by the DOH. Atmospheric vacuum breakers that appear on the current approved backflow prevention assemblies list developed by the University of Southern California Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research, or that are listed, or approved by other nationally recognized testing agencies (such as the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, American National Standards Institute, or Underwriter Laboratories) and acceptable to the local administrative authority are considered approved by the DOH.

“Approved backflow preventer” means an approved air gap, an approved backflow prevention assembly, or an approved atmospheric vacuum breaker, relied upon by the purveyor for the protection of the public water system. The requirements of WAC 246-290-490 do not apply to backflow preventers installed for other purposes.

“Approved backflow prevention assembly” means a reduced pressure backflow assembly, reduced pressure detector assembly, double check valve assembly, double check detector assembly, pressure vacuum breaker assembly, or spill resistant vacuum breaker assembly, of make, model, and size that is approved by the DOH. Assemblies that appear on the current approved backflow prevention assemblies list developed by the University of Southern California Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research, or other nationally recognized testing agencies and acceptable to the local administrative authority are considered approved by the DOH.

“Auxiliary water supply” means a water supply, other than the purveyor’s water supply, on or available to the consumer’s premises.

“Backflow” means the undesirable reversal of flow of water or other substances through a cross-connection into the public water system or consumer’s potable water system by means of backpressure or backsiphonage.

“Backpressure” means a pressure (caused by a pump, elevated tank or piping, boiler, or other means) on the consumer’s side of the service connection that is greater than the pressure provided by the public water system and which may cause backflow.

“Backsiphonage” means backflow due to a reduction in system pressure in the purveyor’s distribution system and/or the consumer’s water system.

“Consumer” means any person receiving water from a point of delivery of the public water system. For purposes of cross-connection control, “consumer” means the owner or operator of a premises receiving water from a point of delivery of the public water system.

“Consumer’s water system,” as used in WAC 246-290-490, means any potable and/or industrial water system that begins at a point of delivery from the public water system and is located on the consumer’s premises. The consumer’s water system includes all auxiliary sources of supply, storage, treatment, and distribution facilities, piping, plumbing, and fixtures under the control of the consumer.

“Contaminant” means a substance present in drinking water that may adversely affect the health of the consumer or the aesthetic qualities of the water.

“Cross-connection” means any actual or potential physical connection between a public water system or the consumer’s water system and any source of nonpotable liquid, solid, or gas that could contaminate the potable water supply by backflow.

“Cross-connection control program” means the administrative and technical procedures the water purveyor implements to protect the public water system from contamination via cross-connections as required in WAC 246-290-490.

“Cross-connection control specialist” means a person holding a valid cross-connection control specialist certificate issued by DOH in accordance with Chapter 246-292 WAC.

“Director” means director of public works or duly authorized representative.

“DOH” means the Washington State Department of Health or Health Officer as identified in a joint plan of operation in accordance with WAC 246-290-030(1).

“High health cross-connection hazard” means a cross-connection that could impair the quality of potable water and create an actual public health hazard through poisoning or spread of disease by a contaminant source.

“Human consumption” means the use of water for drinking, bathing or showering, hand washing, food preparation, cooking, or oral hygiene.

“In-premises protection” means a method of protecting the health of consumers served by the consumer’s potable water system, located within the property lines of the consumer’s premises by the installation of an approved air gap or approved backflow prevention assembly at the point of hazard, which is generally a plumbing fixture.

“Local administrative authority” means the local official, board, department, or agency authorized to administer and enforce the provisions of the Uniform Plumbing Code as adopted under Chapter 19.27 RCW.

“Low health cross-connection hazard” means a cross-connection that could cause an impairment of the quality of potable water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public health, but does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable waters.

“Point of delivery” means the point at which the consumer’s water system connects to the public water system.

“Potable” means water suitable for human consumption.

“Premises” means a single building site, or single lot or aggregation of lots tied together by agreement for the purpose of obtaining a building permit or utility service.

“Premises isolation” means a method of protecting a public water system by installation of approved air gap or approved backflow prevention assembly at or near the service connection or alternative location acceptable to the purveyor to isolate the consumer’s water system from the purveyor’s distribution system.

“Public water system” means the water supply source, including all water treatment, storage, transmission, and distribution facilities, to the point of delivery to the consumer.

“Purveyor” means the city of Bellingham, owner and operator of the public water system.

“Service connection” means the point of delivery from which potable water is provided to a single-family residence, or other residential or nonresidential population.

“State Board of Health” and “Board” means the board created by RCW 43.20.030.

“Uniform Plumbing Code” means the code adopted under RCW 19.27.031(4) and amended under Chapter 51-46 WAC. This code establishes statewide minimum plumbing standards applicable within the property lines of the consumer’s premises.

“Used water” means water that has left the control of the purveyor.

C. Applicability. All consumers with service connections to the purveyor’s public water system.

D. Purpose.

1. Protect the public water system from contamination due to backflow through cross-connections; and

2. Eliminate or control cross-connections between the public water system and the consumer’s water system.

E. Responsibility.

1. The consumer’s responsibility for cross-connection control shall begin at the service connection.

2. Consumers shall be responsible for the:

a. Elimination of cross-connections when possible; or

b. Control of cross-connections at the service connection (premises isolation); or

c. Control of cross-connections, within the consumer’s water system, by relying on in-premises protection when premises isolation is not required by WAC 246-290-490 and this method is approved by the director.

3. Consumers are responsible for the installation, testing, inspection, repair, maintenance, and proper operation of approved backflow preventers required for the control of cross-connections between their premises and the public water system.

F. General Requirements.

1. The rules and regulations of the Washington State Department of Health as published in WAC 246-290-490 are hereby adopted by reference as they may be from time to time amended.

2. Consumers shall comply with the city’s cross-connection control program policies and procedures as they may be from time to time amended.

3. An approved backflow preventer is required on all private fire lines, appropriate to the assessed degree of cross-connection health hazard, and shall incorporate a water meter for detecting water consumption. The approved backflow preventer shall be placed such that access for the city is provided to physically or electronically read the detecting meter.

4. Consumers shall permit periodic entry to their premises (in accordance with BMC 15.04.030), by a cross-connection control specialist, for the determination of cross-connection health hazards and compliance with cross-connection control requirements.

G. Enforcement.

1. In the event a consumer fails to comply with cross-connection control requirements, the director shall have the authority to issue to the consumer a final order to achieve compliance with this chapter, WAC 246-290-490, and/or city cross-connection control policy and procedures. The order shall include:

a. A description of the specific nature, extent and time of the violation and the damage or potential damage that reasonably might occur;

b. A notice that the violation cease and desist and, in appropriate cases, the specific corrective actions to be taken;

c. That water service will be denied until corrective actions are completed, or discontinued unless corrective actions are completed within a reasonable time to comply, depending on the circumstances;

d. The address, telephone number and contact person that the consumer may contact if a dispute exists as to the corrective action required;

e. That the consumer may request a hearing with the hearing examiner;

f. That the city will charge a turn-on and shutoff fee before service is resumed following discontinuance, and/or impose civil penalties;

g. That the local administrative authority will be notified; and

h. That service will not be shut off while a hearing is pending.

2. The local administrative official shall be notified prior to the city:

a. Denying water service; or

b. Discontinuing water service.

3. When an unprotected connection between the public water system and the consumer’s water system constitutes an imminent threat of contamination to the city’s public water system, water service may be shut off immediately without the notices provided above. In that case, notice of shutoff, corrective action, and appeal procedures and notice to the local administrative official shall be sent immediately upon such action being taken.

H. Civil Penalty.

1. In addition to any other remedy or sanction available, a consumer who fails to comply with a final order issued by the director or hearing examiner pursuant to this chapter, or who fails to conform to the terms of an approval issued, shall be subject to a civil penalty.

a. Amount of Penalty. The penalty shall be not less than $100.00 or exceed $5,000 for each violation. Each day of continued violation or repeated violation shall constitute a separate violation.

b. Aiding or Abetting. Any person who, through an act of commission or omission, aids or abets in the violation shall be considered to have committed a violation for the purposes of the civil penalty.

c. Notice of Penalty. A civil penalty shall be imposed by the director, by a notice in writing, which shall be served either by certified mail with return receipt requested or by personal service, to the person incurring the same. The notice shall describe the violation, the date(s) of violation, and shall order the acts constituting the violation to cease and desist, and, in appropriate cases, require necessary corrective action within a specific time.

d. Appeal of Civil Penalty. Persons incurring a penalty imposed by the director may appeal in writing within 10 days of the receipt of the notice of penalty to the hearing examiner. The hearing examiner shall hold a hearing to consider the appeal and may affirm, modify or reverse the penalty. Review of the hearing examiner’s decision may be obtained by filing an action for a writ of certiorari with a court of competent jurisdiction within 10 days of the date of the decision.

2. Penalties imposed under this section shall become due and payable 10 days after notice of the penalty is mailed or delivered, whichever occurs first, unless an appeal is filed. Whenever an appeal is made, penalties shall become due and payable after a final decision has been issued confirming all or part of the penalty. If the amount of a penalty owed is not paid within the time specified in this section, the city may take actions necessary to recover such penalty.

3. Penalties shall be paid to the water fund.

I. Operating Policies. The director shall promulgate and implement the city’s policy on cross-connection control for the operation of the cross-connection control program. The cross-connection control program policy shall be enforced under the requirements of the city’s cross-connection control ordinance. [Ord. 2000-07-045; Ord. 8982 § 37, 1981].