Chapter 12.16
PARKING, LOADING, TRANSIT ACCESS AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION

Sections:

12.16.010    Purpose.

12.16.020    Authority and application.

12.16.030    Computation of required off-street parking spaces.

12.16.040    Shared parking requirements.

12.16.050    Disabled parking requirements.

12.16.060    Loading space requirements.

12.16.070    Stacking spaces for drive-through facilities.

12.16.080    Off-street parking location and design.

12.16.090    Screening parking lots and garages, loading areas, drive-through lanes and stacking spaces from view from public right-of-way.

12.16.100    Lighting within parking and loading areas.

12.16.110    Transit, rideshare and green building provisions.

12.16.120    Pedestrian circulation and access.

12.16.010 Purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide adequate parking for all uses permitted in the code, to reduce demand for parking by encouraging alternative means of transportation including public transit, ride-sharing and bicycles, to increase pedestrian mobility, and to ensure that the visual impacts of parking and loading areas and structures are minimized. (Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1798 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.020 Authority and application.

A.    Before an occupancy permit may be granted for any new or enlarged building or for a change of use in any existing building, the use shall be required to meet the provisions of this chapter.

B.    If this chapter does not specify a parking requirement for a specific land use, the community development director shall establish the minimum requirement based on the requirement for a comparable use. If no such comparable use exists, the director may require the applicant to prepare a study of anticipated parking demand created by the proposed use. The applicant shall demonstrate that the parking demand for the specific land use will be satisfied. The study shall be prepared by a professional with expertise in traffic and parking analysis, or an equally qualified individual authorized by the director.

C.    If the required amount of off-street parking has been proposed to be provided off-site, and complies with requirements for off-site parking as set forth in this chapter, the applicant shall provide a satisfactory written contract with cooperating landowners showing the provision of adequate off-street parking. Said contract shall be reviewed and approved by the city attorney.

D.    Any area once designated as required off-street parking shall not be changed to any other use unless and until equal facilities are provided elsewhere which meet the requirements of this chapter. (Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.030 Computation of required off-street parking spaces.

A.    Except as modified under this section or BMC 12.16.040, off-street parking areas shall contain at a minimum the number of parking spaces as stipulated in the following table. Off-street parking ratios expressed as number of spaces per square feet means the gross square footage. If the formula for determining the number of off-street parking spaces results in a fraction, the number of off-street parking spaces shall be rounded to the nearest whole number with fractions of 0.50 or greater rounding up and fractions below 0.50 rounding down. The land uses below correspond to those listed in Chapter 12.06 BMC.

Land Use

Minimum Parking Spaces Required

Automotive, marine and heavy equipment services

1 per 400 square feet of gross floor area

Exception: Heavy equipment repair

1 per 300 square feet of office plus 0.9 per 1,000 square feet of indoor repair area

Business and personal services

1 per 300 square feet

Exception: Churches, temples, mosques and other religious facilities

1 per 5 fixed seats, plus 1 per 50 square feet of gross floor area without fixed seats used for assembly purposes

Exception: Mortuary services

1 per 50 square feet of chapel area

Exception: Veterinary clinics

1 per 300 square feet of office, labs and examination rooms

Eating and drinking establishments, not including vendor carts

1 per 75 square feet in dining or lounge areas; 1 per 300 square feet elsewhere

Education

1 per 300 square feet

Exception: Elementary and middle/junior high schools

1 per classroom plus 1 per 50 students

Exception: High schools

1 per classroom plus 1 per 10 students

Exception: High schools with stadiums

Greater of 1 per classroom plus 1 per 10 students or 1 per 3 fixed seats in stadium

Exception: Vocational-technical institutions

1 per classroom plus 1 per 5 students

Essential public facilities – to be determined in conjunction with development review

 

Government services, general

1 per 300 square feet

Exception: Fire and police stations

Determined by community development director

Exception: Maintenance shops and vehicle and equipment parking and storage

1 per 300 square feet of offices plus 0.9 per 1,000 square feet of indoor storage or repair areas

Health and social services, not including day care centers in an existing church or school or residential care homes

1 per 300 square feet

Exception: Day care centers, independent

2 per facility plus 1 per each 20 children

Exception: Hospitals

1 per bed

Lodging

1 per bedroom

Exception: Campgrounds and recreational vehicle parks

Determined by community development director

Manufacturing, distribution, storage and warehousing

.9 per 1,000 square feet

Exception: Breweries and wineries

.9 per 1,000 square feet plus 1 per 50 feet of tasting area

Exception: Outdoor storage yards

1 per 300 square feet of office plus 0.9 per 1,000 square feet of storage area

Exception: Self-service warehouses

1 per 3,500 square feet of storage area plus 2 per caretaker’s unit

Recreation, culture and entertainment

1 per 300 square feet

Exception: Bowling centers

5 per lane

Exception: Community centers used for assembly purposes

1 per 3 fixed seats plus 1 per 50 square feet without fixed seats

Exception: Golf courses

3 per hole plus 1 per 300 square feet of club house facilities

Exception: Golf driving ranges

1 per tee

Exception: Movie theaters

1 per 4 fixed seats

Residential uses, including only the following:

 

Dormitories, fraternities and sororities

1 per 2 bedrooms

Dwelling units, accessory driveway

1 per accessory dwelling unit, located in a garage or on a driveway

Dwelling units, primary, detached, one unit per structure

3 per dwelling unit, which spaces shall consist of garage floor and/or driveway area

Dwelling units, primary, two or more units per structure

2 per dwelling unit, plus 1 guest parking stall for every 5 dwelling units

Mobile/manufactured home parks

2 per mobile/manufactured home

Nursing homes

1 per bed

Specialized senior housing

Base ratio is 1 per dwelling unit, which may be reduced to 1 per 1.5 dwelling units, in accordance with BMC 12.10.060

Retail uses

1 per 300 square feet

Exception: Convenience stores

3 plus 1 per 350 square feet

Temporary uses

As determined by community development director. Spaces may not be paved

Uses not otherwise categorized

As determined by community development director

B.    Where other provisions of this code stipulate maximum parking allowed or reduced minimum parking requirements, those provisions shall apply.

C.    In any development required to provide six or more parking spaces, bicycle parking shall be provided. All bicycle parking facilities shall be securely anchored to the ground or to a structure.

1.    Off-street parking areas shall contain at least one bicycle parking space for every 12 spaces required for motor vehicles, up to a maximum of 20 bicycle spaces.

2.    Bicycle facilities for patrons shall be located within 100 feet of a building entrance and shall be designed to allow either a bicycle frame or wheels to be locked to a structure attached to the pavement. It is not necessary for all on-site bicycle spaces to be grouped in one central location.

3.    All bicycle parking and storage shall be located in secure locations that do not impede pedestrian or vehicle traffic flow, and shall be well lit for nighttime use.

4.    One indoor bicycle storage space shall be provided for every two dwelling units in multifamily residential uses, with the exception of specialized senior housing, unless individual garages are provided for every unit. The director may reduce the number of bike rack parking spaces if indoor storage facilities are available to all residents. (Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.040 Shared parking requirements.

The amount of off-street parking required by BMC 12.16.030 may be reduced by an amount determined by the community development director when shared parking facilities for two or more uses are proposed, provided:

A.    The total parking area exceeds 5,000 square feet;

B.    The parking facilities are designed and developed as a single on-site common parking facility, or as a system of on-site and off-site facilities, if all facilities are connected with improved pedestrian facilities and no building or use involved is more than 800 feet from the most remote shared facility;

C.    The amount of the reduction shall not exceed 10 percent for each use, unless:

1.    The normal hours of operation for each use are separated by at least one hour;

2.    A parking demand study is prepared by a professional traffic engineer and submitted by the applicant documenting that the hours of actual parking demand for the proposed uses will not conflict and that uses will be served by adequate parking if shared parking reductions are authorized;

3.    The community development director will determine the amount of reduction, subject to subsection D of this section;

D.    The total number of parking spaces in the common parking facility is not less than the minimum required spaces for any single use;

E.    A covenant or other contract for shared parking between the cooperating property owners is approved by the community development director. This covenant or contract must be recorded with the appropriate county auditor as a deed restriction on all affected properties and cannot be modified or revoked without the consent of the community development director; and

F.    If any requirements for shared parking are violated, the affected property owners must provide a remedy satisfactory to the community development director or provide the full amount of required off-street parking for each use, in accordance with the requirements of this chapter, unless a satisfactory alternative remedy is approved by the community development director. (Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.050 Disabled parking requirements.

Off-street parking and access for physically disabled persons shall be provided in accordance with the State Building Code as adopted in Chapter 51-50 WAC. (Ord. 2212 § 2 (Exh. B), 2016; Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.060 Loading space requirements.

A.    An off-street loading space having access to a public thoroughfare shall be required adjacent to each business building thereafter erected or enlarged if the use of such building entails deliveries or shipments to or from it. Such loading space shall be of adequate size to accommodate the number and size of vehicles simultaneously loaded and/or unloaded in connection with the business conducted in such building. Loading spaces shall be located so that vehicles to be loaded or unloaded shall not obstruct pedestrian or other vehicle traffic movement or project into any public right-of-way. All loading space areas shall be separated from required parking areas and shall be designated as vehicle loading spaces.

B.    Any lighting used in association with loading areas shall be directed onto the loading area only and shall not intrude onto adjacent properties. Loading areas serving businesses that are located adjacent to a less intensive zone than that in which the business is located, or are located adjacent to a public use area such as a street, sidewalk, park, or trail, shall be landscaped to provide a buffer between the loading area and the adjacent zone or public use. Said landscaping shall conform to the requirements of BMC 12.16.090 and Chapter 12.18 BMC. (Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1798 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.070 Stacking spaces for drive-through facilities.

A.    A stacking space shall be an area measuring eight feet by 20 feet with direct forward access to a service window of a drive-through facility. A stacking space shall be located to prevent any vehicles from extending onto the public right-of-way, or interfering with any pedestrian circulation, traffic maneuvering, or other required parking areas. Stacking space for drive-through or drive-in uses may not be counted as required off-street parking spaces.

B.    For each drive-up lane of a financial institution, business service, vendor stand, or other drive-through use not listed, a minimum of three stacking spaces shall be provided.

C.    For each service lane of a drive-through restaurant, a minimum of seven stacking spaces shall be provided.

D.    Stacking spaces serving businesses that are located adjacent to a less intensive zone than that in which the business is located, or are located adjacent to a public use area such as a street, sidewalk, park, or trail, shall be landscaped to provide a buffer between the stacking spaces and the adjacent zone or public use. Said landscaping shall conform to the requirements of BMC 12.16.090 and Chapter 12.18 BMC.

Figure 12.16-1 Stacking Space Requirements for Typical Drive-Through

(Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1798 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.080 Off-street parking location and design.

A.    Off-street parking areas shall not be located more than 500 feet from the building they are required to serve except as otherwise provided in BMC 12.16.040 and subsections (A)(1) through (3) of this section. Where the off-street parking areas do not abut the building they serve, the required maximum distance shall be measured from the nearest building entrance that the parking area serves:

1.    For single-family dwellings, the parking spaces shall be located on the same lot they are required to serve;

2.    For multifamily residential dwellings, at least a portion of parking areas shall be located within 100 feet from the building(s) they are required to serve; and

3.    For all nonresidential uses permitted in residential zones, the parking spaces shall be located on the same lot they are required to serve and at least a portion of parking areas shall be located within 150 feet from the nearest building entrance they are required to serve.

B.    The minimum parking space and aisle dimensions shall be as set forth in the Bothell Design and Construction Standards and Specifications.

C.    Lighting shall be provided for safety of traffic and pedestrian circulation on the site, and shall be designed to minimize direct illumination of abutting properties and adjacent streets.

D.    Tandem or end-to-end parking is allowed in single-family residential developments and in multifamily developments containing no more than four dwelling units, and in other developments provided the applicant demonstrates special conditions and/or management plans that allow use of tandem parking without effectively reducing the number of required parking spaces available. In residential developments, tandem parking is only allowed when the tandem spaces are assigned to the same dwelling unit.

E.    All vehicle parking and storage on a single-family lot shall be in a garage, carport or on an approved hard surface. Any hard surface used for vehicle parking or storage shall have direct and unobstructed driveway access.

F.    The total number of vehicles parked outside of a building on a single-family lot shall not exceed six vehicles on lots 12,500 square feet or less and eight vehicles on lots greater than 12,500 square feet.

G.    A dead-end alley may provide access to no more than eight required off-street parking spaces.

H.    Parking facilities shall not be located between the front lot line and the building in the OP, NB, CB and GC zones, in accordance with and except as provided for in BMC 12.14.180.

I.    Within community activity centers, as depicted in BMC 12.14.030(B)(6), parking garages along a street frontage shall incorporate in that portion of the garage facing the street externally oriented at-grade space for retail uses, eating and drinking establishments, recreation, culture and entertainment uses, personal services, and/or other similar businesses which are characterized by regular and frequent patronage during the course of the normal business day. “Externally oriented” shall mean having a door opening directly to the outside.

J.    Parking garages shall be architecturally compatible with the building in which they are located, other buildings on the same site, and/or buildings on adjacent sites. Architectural compatibility shall be achieved through one or more of the following measures:

1.    Facing the parking structure with the same material as the building;

2.    Continuing architectural elements from the building, such as a frieze, cornice, trellis, or pattern of modulation or articulation, on the parking structure;

3.    Incorporating usable space into the parking structure, such as storefronts along the sidewalk or a deck or garden on top of the structure;

4.    Designing the entrance to the parking structure to be visually subordinate to pedestrian entrances to the building; for example, by emphasizing the pedestrian entrances using modulation, arches, porticos, molding, or other architectural devices, as illustrated in Figure 12.14-12;

5.    Incorporating artistically designed bars or metal grilles for security and air circulation in the fascia of the parking structure;

6.    Locating the entrance to the parking structure on a side street or alley. (Ord. 2200 § 2 (Exh. B), 2016; Ord. 2101 § 2 (Exh. B), 2012; Ord. 2093 § 2 (Exh. B), 2012; Ord. 1946 § 2, 2005; Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1798 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.090 Screening parking lots and garages, loading areas, drive-through lanes and stacking spaces from view from public right-of-way.

A.    All parking lots and garages, loading areas, drive-through lanes and stacking spaces which can be seen from a public right-of-way shall be screened from view from the right-of-way by means of landscaping as provided for in BMC 12.18.050, 12.18.060 and 12.18.080, except as otherwise provided in BMC 12.16.080 and this section. In order to minimize the visual impact of parked automobiles, the required shrubs and ground cover shall include a berm a minimum of three feet in height and/or planting materials which will form a dense hedge a minimum of three feet in height. Vegetation-based LID BMPs such as bioretention facilities are permitted within parking lot landscaping provided the screening requirements are met. Use drought-tolerant plant materials such as Ottoluyken laurel, Zabel laurel, photinia and pyramidalis, or other plant materials as approved by the city. Periodic breaks in the hedge for pedestrian paths may be provided, and the hedge shall be installed and maintained so as not to interfere with sight distance, in accordance with the Bothell Design and Construction Standards and Specifications.

B.    In cases where, in accordance with Chapter 12.36 BMC, a variance from the street frontage landscaping width requirements as set forth in BMC 12.18.050 and 12.18.060 has been applied for and granted, a screen wall shall be substituted. Said wall shall be a minimum of three feet high, of durable and attractive materials such as brick, stone or textured concrete, and shall incorporate a continuous planting box or trellis or grillwork with climbing plants. Said wall shall not interfere with sight distance in accordance with the Bothell Design and Construction Standards and Specifications.

Figure 12.16-5 Screening Wall

(Ord. 2200 § 2 (Exh. B), 2016; Ord. 1946 § 2, 2005; Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1798 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.100 Lighting within parking and loading areas.

Parking and loading areas shall include lighting capable of providing adequate illumination for security and safety. Lighting standards shall be in scale with the height and use of the associated structure. Pedestrian walkways and sidewalks may be lighted with three- to four-foot-high lighting bollards. Any illumination, including security lighting, shall be directed away from adjoining properties and public rights-of-way. Lighting intensity shall comply with city exterior lighting performance standards as set forth in BMC 8.64.030. (Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1798 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.110 Transit, rideshare and green building provisions.

A.    All land uses for which the majority of the parking demand is generated by employees who remain on site for at least six hours each day shall be required to reserve one parking space for rideshare parking for every 20 required parking spaces, up to a maximum of 20 rideshare spaces, as follows:

1.    The parking spaces shall be located convenient to the primary employee entrance;

2.    Reserved areas shall have markings and signs indicating that the space is reserved between the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m., 12:00 noon and 1:00 p.m., and at all other shift changes; and

3.    Parking in reserved areas shall be limited to vanpools and carpools established through rideshare programs and to vehicles meeting minimum rideshare qualifications set by the employer.

B.    The community development director may reduce the number of required off-street parking spaces when one or more scheduled transit routes provide service within 660 feet of the site. The amount of reduction shall be based on the number of scheduled transit runs between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. each business day up to a maximum reduction as follows:

1.    For land uses of the type described in subsection A of this section, four percent for each run up to a maximum of 40 percent. Buildings attaining at least minimum green building certification under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), National Green Building Standard, Built Green (Three Star level or higher), or other certification program as approved by the community development director qualify for an additional reduction of two percent for each run up to a maximum additional reduction of eight percent. Development in downtown districts that do not have parking requirements based on this chapter do not qualify for the base transit reductions, but may qualify for the additional green building reduction; and

2.    For land uses other than those described in subsection A of this section, two percent for each run up to a maximum of 20 percent. Buildings attaining at least minimum green building certification under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), National Green Building Standard, Built Green (Three Star level or higher), or other certification program as approved by the community development director qualify for an additional reduction of two percent for each run up to a maximum additional reduction of four percent. Development in downtown districts that do not have parking requirements based on this chapter do not qualify for the base transit reductions, but may qualify for the additional green building reduction.

C.    All uses which are located on an existing transit route and are required under the computation for required off-street parking spaces in BMC 12.16.030 to provide more than 200 parking spaces may be required to provide transit shelters, bus turnout lanes or other transit improvements as a condition of permit approval. Uses which reduce required parking under subsection B of this section shall provide transit shelters if transit routes adjoin the site. Adjoining uses which meet these criteria may coordinate in the provision of transit shelters.

D.    Any development application to which this section applies shall complete and submit to the city all necessary agreements with transit agencies, rideshare programs, or other information required by this section prior to the issuance of any building permits associated with the development.

E.    Any applicant for a development permit for other than a short plat or construction of a single-family residence shall inquire of the transit agency for the area in which the development would be located as to whether the agency desires a transit stop on the street or streets immediately adjacent to the development, or within the development itself. The applicant shall provide to the community development department a letter from the agency stating whether or not a transit stop is desired, and if so, whether the agency desires to construct and maintain a shelter at the stop. When a transit agency determines that a transit stop is warranted, the development shall incorporate the transit stop into the overall site design, including construction of a direct pedestrian connection from the transit stop to the development; construction of a pull-out, if desired by the transit agency; designation of land for a shelter, if the transit agency desires to construct a shelter; and installation of landscaping adjacent to the transit stop, in accordance with the transit agency’s landscaping standards. (Ord. 2154 § 2 (Exh. B), 2014; Ord. 2028 § 1 (Exh. B), 2009; Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1798 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).

12.16.120 Pedestrian circulation and access.

A.    All uses, except single-family building permits, shall provide pedestrian access onto the site. Pedestrian access points shall be provided at all pedestrian arrival points to the development including the property edges, adjacent lots, abutting street intersections, crosswalks, and transit stops. Pedestrian access shall be located as follows:

1.    Access points at property edges and to adjacent lots shall be coordinated with existing development to provide circulation patterns between developments;

2.    Residential development shall provide pedestrian access between cul-de-sacs or groups of buildings to allow pedestrian access from within the development and from adjacent developments to activity centers, parks, common tracts, open spaces, schools or other public facilities, transit stops and public streets, when determined by the community development director to be necessary for safe and efficient pedestrian circulation.

B.    Provision for safe and efficient pedestrian circulation shall be provided as follows:

1.    All developments which contain more than one building shall provide walkways between the principal entrances of the buildings;

2.    All nonresidential buildings located more than 100 feet from the public right-of-way shall provide for direct pedestrian access from the building to buildings on adjacent lots;

3.    Where a parking lot exists between a building or buildings and the street front sidewalk, pedestrian access shall be provided from the street front sidewalk to the building(s) and shall be designed so as to provide safe and efficient pedestrian travel across and/or around parking lots. This may be accomplished by integrating pedestrian sidewalks/walkways into the parking lot design either around the perimeter of the parking lot or through the interior of the parking lot.

Pedestrian sidewalks/walkways that serve the interior of the parking lot shall be clearly marked so as to distinguish those areas from vehicle drive lanes.

C.    Pedestrian sidewalks and walkways shall meet the following minimum design standards:

1.    Sidewalks and walkways shall be well lit using pedestrian scale lighting;

2.    Sidewalks and walkways shall be a minimum of 60 inches of unobstructed width and meet city of Bothell standards for walkways and sidewalks; parked vehicles shall not intrude into the required unobstructed width;

3.    Access for mobility impaired persons shall be provided in accordance with Section 7503 of the regulations adopted pursuant to Chapter 19.27 RCW, State Building Code; Chapter 70.92 RCW, Provisions in Buildings for Aged and Handicapped Persons. (Ord. 1815 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1798 § 1, 2000; Ord. 1629 § 1, 1996).