Chapter 31.02
COUNTY-WIDE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN

Sections:

31.02.050    Definitions.

31.02.110    Resource land issues.

31.02.115    Agricultural resource land inventory and issues.

31.02.120    Agricultural resource land goals.

31.02.130    Forest land issues.

31.02.140    Forest land goals.

31.02.145    Mineral resource land issues.

31.02.150    Mineral land goals.

31.02.210    Urban growth and sprawl issues.

31.02.220    Urban growth areas.

31.02.230    Urban growth area designation policies.

31.02.240    Urban growth area implementation policies.

31.02.250    Urban growth area amendment process.

31.02.255    Urban growth area locations.

31.02.260    Rural growth.

31.02.263    Limited areas of more intensive rural development.

31.02.265    Existing rural centers.

31.02.270    Master planned resorts.

31.02.275    Commercial and industrial land uses.

31.02.280    Housing.

31.02.285    Public utilities, facilities and services.

31.02.310    Natural, historical, and cultural resource issues.

31.02.320    Environment and open space goals.

31.02.330    Historic and cultural resources.

31.02.410    Transportation – Background issues.

31.02.415    Transportation – Inventory.

31.02.420    Transportation – Goals and policies.

31.02.425    Land use assumptions and forecasting methodology.

31.02.430    Transit demand and supply level of service standards.

31.02.432    Future transit service needs.

31.02.435    Transit-compatible design standards and development checklist.

31.02.440    Clallam County bicycle plan.

31.02.441    Existing bicycle facilities.

31.02.442    Bicycle routes.

31.02.444    Bicycle facility improvement needs.

31.02.510    Affordable housing issues.

31.02.520    Affordable housing goals.

31.02.610    Economic development issues.

31.02.620    Economic development goals.

31.02.710    Utility issues.

31.02.720    Utility goals.

31.02.810    Capital Facilities Plan issues.

31.02.820    Goals of the Capital Facilities Plan.

31.02.910    Generalized land use maps.

SOURCE:    ADOPTED:

Ord. 573    06/27/95

AMENDED SOURCE:    ADOPTED:

Ord. 584    02/27/96

Ord. 700    12/05/00

Ord. 725    08/06/02

Ord. 768    01/25/05

Ord. 787    12/20/05

Ord. 800    12/19/06

Ord. 827    08/28/07

Ord. 829    12/11/07

Ord. 835    10/21/08

Ord. 850    06/23/09

Ord. 852    07/21/09

31.02.050 Definitions.

(1) “Adequate public facilities” means facilities which have the capacity to serve development without decreasing levels of service below minimums established in the Capital Facilities Plan.

(2) “Affordable housing” refers to housing which costs no more than 33 percent of the income of very low, low, and moderate income families, defined as:

(a) “Very low income” shall mean those households that have incomes that are below 50 percent of the County-wide median.

(b) “Low income” shall mean those households that have incomes that are between 50 and 80 percent of the County-wide median.

(c) “Moderate income” shall mean those households that have incomes within the range of 80 to 95 percent of the County-wide median.

(3) “Agricultural land” means land primarily devoted to the commercial production of horticultural, viticultural, floricultural, dairy, apiary, vegetable, or animal products or of berries, grain, hay, straw, turf, seed, Christmas trees not subject to the excise tax imposed by RCW 84.33.100 through 84.33.140, finfish in upland hatcheries, or livestock, and that has long-term commercial significance for agricultural production.

(4) “Archaeological resources” or “archaeological significance” means real property, including, but not limited to, submerged and submersible lands and the bed of the sea within the State’s jurisdiction, that contains archaeological objects. “Archaeological object” means an object that comprises the physical evidence of an indigenous and subsequent culture including material remains of past human life including monuments, symbols, tools, facilities, and technological by-products. (Source: RCW 27.53.030)

(5) “Available for occupancy” refers to when public facilities and services necessary to support development must be adequate. For the purposes of this Comprehensive Plan, available for occupancy shall mean when a building permit required for new construction is required pursuant to the International Building Code, as now or hereafter amended. The term “building permit,” as used herein, shall not be deemed to include permits required for remodeling, rehabilitation, or other improvements to an existing structure or rebuilding a damaged or destroyed structure, provided there is no increase in gross floor area or number of dwelling units resulting therefrom. In those instances where a change in land use does not require a building permit, “available for occupancy” shall refer to final development permits, such as land divisions or binding site plans, that require public facilities and services to support the development.

(6) “Available public facilities” means that facilities or services are in place or that a financial commitment is in place to provide the facilities or services within a specific time.

(7) “Best conventional technology” is defined as the application of control technology on conventional pollutants that is reasonably available considering technological and economic feasibility. It is determined on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the impact, the availability of additional controls, the reduction to be achieved, the capital and operating costs, and the impact of additional controls on environmental quality (i.e., does it make an appreciable difference). Best conventional technology can include procedures (such as stormwater plans, maintenance schedules, and best management practices; as well as infrastructure) like constructed wetlands, alternative sewage disposal systems, and treatment plants.

(8) “Characterized by urban growth” refers to land having urban growth located on it, or to land located in relationship to an area with urban growth on it as to be appropriate for urban growth.

(9) “Comprehensive Plan” means a generalized coordinated land use policy statement of the County adopted pursuant to the Clallam County Charter, Growth Management Act of 1990 (Chapter 36.70A RCW) and the Planning Enabling Act (Chapter 36.70 RCW).

(10) “Concurrency” means that capital facilities necessary to serve development, as identified in the capital facilities element of the Comprehensive Plan, are available to serve new development no later than the impacts of the new development, except that adequate roads and other County capital facilities identified in the capital facilities element shall be available no later than six years after the impacts of development.

(11) “County-wide Planning Policy” is a written policy statement or statements used solely for establishing a County-wide framework from which County and city comprehensive plans are adopted pursuant to the Growth Management Act. This framework shall ensure that city and County comprehensive plans are consistent as required in RCW 36.70A.100. The legislative authority of the County shall adopt this policy in cooperation with the cities within the County. Nothing in this policy shall be construed to alter the land use powers of cities.

(12) “Critical aquifer recharge areas” includes those land areas which contain hydrogeologic conditions which facilitate aquifer recharge and/or transmitting contaminants to an underlying aquifer.

(13) “Critical areas” includes the following areas and ecosystems:

(a) Wetlands;

(b) Areas with a critical recharging effect on aquifers used for potable water;

(c) Fish and wildlife habitat conservation areas;

(d) Frequently flooded areas; and

(e) Geologically hazardous areas.

(14) “Cultural resources” are those tangible and intangible aspects of cultural systems, both past and present, that are valued by or representative of a given culture, or that contain information about a culture. Tangible cultural resources include, but are not limited to, sites, structures, districts, landscapes, objects, historic documents, natural resources, physical features regarded as sacred and/or places of worship and ceremony.

(15) “Development regulations” means any controls placed on development or land use activities by the County, including, but not limited to, zoning ordinances, land division ordinances, critical or sensitive area ordinances, and binding site plan ordinances.

(16) “Development rights” refers to an interest held by a property owner and called the “fee simple” interest. This interest is like a bundle of sticks, each of which represents a right associated with the property. Such rights might include the right to farm, to extract minerals, to cut timber, to build residential structures, to build commercial developments, and to do anything else with the property unless prohibited by law. These rights can be separated from the “dominant estate” and transferred to other parties as “less-than-fee interests.” An easement is one such less-than-fee interest; conveying development rights to another parcel is another way; and purchasing the development rights at appraised value may be another way. Development rights can be diminished or taken away by regulation, within constitutional limits, or can be condemned when purchased at appraised value.

(17) “Essential public facilities” means facilities that are typically difficult to site, such as airports, State education facilities, and State or regional transportation facilities as defined in RCW 47.06.140, State and local correctional facilities, solid waste handling facilities, and in-patient facilities including substance abuse facilities, mental health facilities, group homes, and secure community transition facilities as defined in RCW 71.09.020.

(18) “Forest land” means land primarily devoted to growing trees for long-term commercial timber production on land that can be economically and practically managed for such production, including Christmas trees subject to the excise tax imposed under RCW 84.33.100 through 84.33.140, and that has long-term commercial significance. In determining whether forest land is primarily devoted to growing trees for long-term commercial timber production on land that can be economically and practically managed for such production, the following factors shall be considered:

(a) The proximity of the land to urban, suburban, and rural settlements;

(b) Surrounding parcel size and the compatibility and intensity of adjacent and nearby land uses;

(c) Long-term local economic conditions that affect the ability to manage for timber production; and

(d) The availability of public facilities and services conducive to conversion of forest land to other uses.

(19) “Geologic hazardous areas” means those areas susceptible to erosion, sliding, earthquake, or other geological events.

(20) “Historical resources” or “historical significance” means real property together with improvements thereon, except property listed in a register primarily for objects buried below ground, which has historic significance and which is listed in a local register, State or National Register of Historic Places. “Historical significance,” used in this context, means a property which helps in the understanding of the history of the local area, state, or nation (whichever is appropriate) by illuminating the local, State-wide, or nation-wide impact of the events or persons associated with the property, or its architectural type or style in information potential.

(21) “Home enterprise” is a revenue generating enterprise which is located in a dwelling and is subordinate to and incidental to the residential use of the dwelling.

(22) “Home-based industry” is a commercial, manufacturing or processing business located on a parcel together with an existing dwelling. The industry is located in a fully enclosed building separate from the dwelling and no larger than 2,000 square feet, limited to no more than two part-time or full-time employees other than the owner.

(23) “Level of service” means an established minimum capacity of public facilities or services that must be provided per unit of demand or other appropriate measure of need. Typically, measures of levels of service are expressed as ratios of facility capacity to demand (i.e., actual or potential users).

(24) “Long-term commercial significance” includes the growing capacity, productivity, and soil composition of the land for sustained commercial production, in consideration of the land’s proximity to population areas, and the possibility of more intense uses of the land.

(25) “Master planned resort” refers to a development which may be permitted and which constitutes urban growth outside of urban growth areas. A master planned resort means a self-contained and fully integrated planned unit development, in a setting of significant natural amenities, with primary focus on destination resort facilities consisting of short-term visitor accommodations associated with a range of developed on-site indoor or outdoor recreational facilities.

(26) “Mitigation” means:

(a) Avoiding the impact altogether by not taking a certain action or parts of an action;

(b) Minimizing impacts by limiting the degree or magnitude of the action and its implementation;

(c) Rectifying the impact by repairing, rehabilitating, or restoring the affected environment;

(d) Reducing or eliminating the impact over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action;

(e) Compensating for the impact by replacing, enhancing, or providing substitute resources or environments; and/or

(f) Monitoring the impact and taking appropriate corrective measures.

(27) “Public facilities” include streets, roads, highways, sidewalks, street and road lighting systems, traffic signals, domestic water systems, storm and sanitary sewer systems, parks and recreational facilities, and schools.

(28) “Public services” include fire protection and suppression, law enforcement, public health, education, recreation, environmental protection, and other governmental services.

(29) “Regional comprehensive plans” or “subarea plans” refers to one of four geographic areas addressed in a comprehensive plan which provides specific guidelines for land uses, public facilities and services, transportation, environmental protection, and other elements of the comprehensive plan, not addressed in the County-wide Comprehensive Plan. Regional comprehensive plans provide opportunities for making local decisions consistent with County-wide plan objectives.

(30) “Rural areas” or “rural land” means land located outside of designated urban growth areas and outside of designated agricultural, forest, and mineral resource lands of long-term significance under this Comprehensive Plan.

(31) “Rural character” means the existing and preferred patterns of land use and development established for lands designated as rural areas or lands under this comprehensive plan. Rural characteristics include, but are not limited to:

(a) Open fields and woodlots interspersed with homesteads and serviced by small rural commercial clusters; and

(b) Low residential densities, small-scale agriculture, woodlot forestry, wildlife habitat, clean water, clean air, outdoor recreation, and low traffic volumes; and

(c) Areas in which open space, the natural landscape, and vegetation predominate over the built environment; and

(d) Lifestyles and economies common to areas designated as rural areas and lands under this Plan; and

(e) Visual landscapes that are traditionally found in areas designated rural areas and lands under this Plan; and

(f) Areas that are compatible with the use of the land by wildlife and for fish and wildlife habitat; and

(g) Areas that reduce the inappropriate conversion of undeveloped land into sprawling, low-density development; and

(h) Areas that generally do not require the extension of urban governmental services; and

(i) Areas that are consistent with the protection of natural surface water flows and ground water and surface water recharge and discharge areas.

(32) “Rural development” means development outside the urban growth area and outside agricultural, forest, and mineral resource lands designated pursuant to RCW 36.70A.170. Rural development can consist of a variety of uses and residential densities, including clustered residential development, at levels that are consistent with the preservation of rural character and the requirements of the rural element. Rural development does not refer to agriculture or forestry activities that may be conducted in rural areas.

(33) “Rural governmental services” or “rural services” means those public services and public facilities historically and typically delivered at an intensity usually found in rural areas and may include domestic water systems, fire and police protection services, transportation and public transit services, and other public utilities associated with rural development and normally not associated with urban areas. Rural services do not include storm or sanitary sewers except as otherwise authorized by RCW 36.70A.110(4).

(34) “Shall” means the statement is mandatory, and the action so stated is required to be done without discretion by decision-makers. The use of “shall” in a statement indicates that the action is imperative and ministerial.

(35) “Should,” used in a statement, indicates that discretion may be used in deciding whether or not to take action. The use of “should” is intended to give decision-makers discretion in matters where exceptions are warranted by such factors as physical hardships and special circumstances or when funding must be taken into consideration.

(36) “Transportation facilities” includes capital facilities related to air, water or land transportation.

(37) “Urban growth areas” means those areas designated by Clallam County pursuant to the policies in the County-wide Planning Policy and the Comprehensive Plan.

(38) “Urban growth” means growth that makes intensive use of land for the location of buildings, structures, and impermeable surfaces to such a degree as to be incompatible with the primary use of such land for the production of food, other agricultural products, or fiber, or the extraction of mineral resources, rural uses, rural development, and natural resource lands designated pursuant to RCW 36.70A.170. A pattern of more intensive rural development as provided in RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d) is not urban growth. When allowed to spread over wide areas, urban growth typically requires urban governmental services.

(39) “Urban services” include those services historically and typically delivered by cities or other identified service provider, such as a utility district, and which at a minimum include the provision for sanitary waste, solid waste disposal systems, water systems, urban roads and pedestrian facilities, public transportation systems, stormwater systems, police and fire and emergency service systems, electrical and communication systems, school and health care facilities, and neighborhood and/or community parks.

(40) “Wetlands” includes those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Regulated wetlands do not include those artificial wetlands created from nonwetland sites, including, but not limited to, irrigation and drainage ditches, grass-lined swales, canals, detention facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, farm ponds, and landscape amenities. Wetlands created as mitigation and wetlands modified for approved land use activities shall be considered as regulated wetlands.

31.02.110 Resource land issues.

A goal of the Growth Management Act of 1990 is to “Maintain and enhance natural resource-based industries, including productive timber, agricultural, and fisheries industries...[and] Encourage the conservation of productive forest lands and productive agricultural lands, and discourage incompatible uses.” The Act requires local governments to classify and designate agricultural, forest and mineral resource lands and to adopt interim development regulations to assure their conservation. This chapter supports County-wide efforts to maintain, enhance, and to conserve resource lands, and to discourage incompatible uses adjacent to resource lands, particularly forest and mineral lands.

31.02.115 Agricultural resource land inventory and issues.

(1) Agriculture in Clallam County has played a vital role in the heritage, culture, and economy of the area. The County’s temperate climate, good soils, and irrigation system provide a strong basis for commercial agriculture. Clallam County was once a major producer of a wide variety of agricultural products such as milk and butter, potatoes, apples, and vegetables. At its peak in 1950, Clallam County had over 75,000 acres in agricultural production; the current acreage is much lower.

In the 2002 USDA Census of Agriculture, Clallam County’s agricultural production was valued at $17.8 million. This production value was based on 455 farms including 22,372 acres. (The USDA definition of farm being “any place from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products were produced and sold, or normally would have been sold during the census year” (USDA 2002).) These farms employed 1,190 persons with a payroll of $4.6 million.

During the period of March to September 2006, the Clallam Conservation District partnered with the County to perform an inventory of farms throughout the County. Conservation District personnel drove all County roads to visually inventory and characterize farms, using aerial photographs and parcel maps to determine parcel size. For the purpose of this inventory, land was classified as a farm not by value of products produced or sold as defined by the USDA but whether horses or livestock were present (even if at limited numbers) or whether an agricultural product was produced (hay, grain crops, wineries, produce, nursery crops, etc.). Small backyard operations were not inventoried unless there was evidence that they were selling an agricultural product. A total of 1,252 farms were inventoried, totaling approximately 22,224 acres: 805 farms had horses; 404 farms had livestock such as cattle, goats, pigs, sheep, and llamas; and 232 farms produced an agricultural product.

This latest inventory shows the continued decline of farms in Clallam County. Factors contributing to this decline include, but are not limited to:

(a) Regions of larger scale agriculture with lower unit costs have developed, such as in Eastern Washington, against which Clallam County is not competitive;

(b) Developments in transportation, storage, refrigeration, and processing technology allow remote producers to service local markets that small local farms used to dominate;

(c) Changes in USDA regulations and policies have favored large-scale industrial agriculture to the detriment of small-scale agriculture commonly found in Clallam County. For example, there is no USDA-approved slaughter and processing facility near enough to Clallam County to make marketing local beef viable;

(d) As farming has declined, so too have agricultural suppliers, processors, and other agricultural infrastructure needed to maintain a healthy agricultural industry;

(e) Global agricultural corporations have dominated agriculture and the food industry to the exclusion of areas like Clallam County;

(f) Clallam County has become a highly desirable place to retire, vacation and live, and the residential real estate market has driven farm land prices beyond the point of financial viability for most farming activities; and

(g) Effective public policies needed to support the significant change in local agricultural industry from large commercial farms to more high-value, unique agricultural products and services on smaller farms.

(2) Agricultural Land Protection Programs. Clallam County has demonstrated its willingness to provide for long-term preservation of agricultural resource lands through several agricultural land protection programs:

(a) Designated Agricultural Retention Lands. The Washington State Growth Management Act (GMA) requires counties to designate agricultural lands of long-term significance for the commercial production of food or other agricultural products (RCW 36.70A.170). Clallam County has designated and zoned approximately 6,194 acres of land as Agricultural Retention (AR), as the County’s GMA designated agricultural lands of long-term significance. All of this acreage is located in the Sequim-Dungeness Planning Region. The AR designation is intended to conserve and maintain agricultural lands through limitations on allowed residential density and uses, and incentives for new development that conserves a minimum of 75 to 88 percent of the property as an agricultural reserve. Clallam County has adopted disclosure provisions that designate agriculture within the AR zone as a favored land use that will not be considered a nuisance when conducted consistent with current best management practices and other applicable regulations.

(b) Rural Zoning. Outside of designated and zoned agricultural retention lands, exist numerous small to moderate size farms scattered throughout the County that are involved in raising livestock, crops, and/or other agricultural activities. These farms are an important part of the County’s rural character and economy. Clallam County supports agriculture as an allowed land use within rural designated and zoned lands. It is estimated that approximately six percent of the County’s 103,000 acres of designated rural lands is associated with agricultural land uses.

(c) Purchase of Development Rights. Conservation of agricultural land through private and/or public purchase of development rights (PDR) is a tool being used to preserve local farmland. An agricultural PDR program acquires all or some of the development rights attached to a particular property, while the owner maintains the right to utilize the land for agricultural purposes. The value of a development right is generally the difference between the market value for development versus farmland. Clallam County and other project partners have purchased the development rights on 44 acres of farmland through a combination of County, private, and federal funds. As of 2006, approximately 170 acres of eastern Clallam County farmland have been protected through private and/or public PDRs.

(d) Transfer of Development Rights (TDR). The County has had a TDR program in the Sequim-Dungeness region since 1998, but to date no one has chosen to participate. The TDR program allows for transfer of development rights from land designated and zoned Agricultural Retention (AR), or TDR sending area, to designated TDR receiving areas within the unincorporated Sequim Urban Growth Area. Receiving area landowners can obtain higher residential densities through acquiring development rights from AR lands. Similar to PDR program, the value of a development right is generally the difference between the market value for development versus farmland.

(e) Tax Incentives. Clallam County continues to support agricultural land conservation, whether designated for long-term commercial significance or not, through property tax incentives (current use assessments). Participation in this program can provide landowners with lower property taxes. In 2006, there were 1,366 parcels in the tax incentive program, equating to approximately 12,333 acres.

(f) Other. Clallam County supports the efforts of the Clallam Conservation District, WSU-extension and 4-H programs, Master Gardeners, and the North Olympic Land Trust (NOLT). These agencies and organizations support agriculture. For example, NOLT has arranged for approximately 400 acres of land to be conserved by agricultural easements. The County also supports continued agricultural activities and education at the Robin Hill Farm County Park.

(3) Benefits provided to Clallam County citizens by farms and farmland include:

•    

Improved food security, selection, and quality through diversified local production geared to local markets;

•    

Preservation of the rural character, local culture, and quality of life;

•    

Creation and maintenance of a visually pleasing landscape;

•    

Preservation of valuable historic and cultural resources;

•    

Preservation of biodiversity and wildlife habitat;

•    

Improved watersheds/reduced likelihood of flooding (compared to development);

•    

Recharging of aquifers through irrigation;

•    

Economic diversification;

•    

Attraction of tourists and tourism dollars to the County; and

•    

Preservation of options for future generations.

Despite the problems faced by our agricultural industry, Clallam County retains many attributes that can support continued agriculture:

•    

A moderate, temperate climate that is ideal for the production of caneberries (e.g., raspberries, blackberries) and brassica crops (e.g., cabbage, cauliflower), and which makes year-round production of some vegetable crops possible;

•    

Excellent agricultural soils, some of them unique to Western Washington;

•    

An irrigation system that mitigates impacts to production in drought years;

•    

Unique microclimates – varied rainfall patterns, elevations, and temperatures across the County make crops such as mushrooms, rhubarb, and artichokes ideal for the West End of the County, while the East End has microclimates suitable for other types of crops such as caneberries and brassica crops;

•    

High tourism draw from the combination of farms, mountains, and sea, all in close proximity; and

•    

Access to a large progressive market in the greater Puget Sound that is receptive to high quality, high value products that can be grown here.

Most importantly, Clallam County still has many resilient, innovative, and committed farmers and farm families who want to retain their agricultural lifestyle and livelihoods. These farms include both traditional, large-scale commercial enterprises and new small-scale, intensive agricultural ventures producing alternative farm products such as high value vegetable seeds, lavender, flowers, berries, and organic vegetables.

(4) Family Farms, Local Food Systems, and Food Security. The ability of an area to maintain access to enough healthy food to sustain its population through economic upheavals, natural disasters, wars, and other emergencies is referred to as food security. The concept of food security is based on sound, sustainable farms and local food systems, which have ecological, social and economic components that are in balance and that are self-renewing. Systems based on local, family farms, with access to local or regional processing and marketing of food are far more resilient to large-scale disruptions that could paralyze the international flow of food, fuel, and other resources. Maintaining at least a modicum of local family farms and agricultural infrastructure for locally produced food is critical to enhancing local food security. Additionally, locally produced and processed food can be sold to local schools and other institutions, which would further enhance the future of agriculture and food security in Clallam County.

(5) Models of Local Agricultural Success.

(a) Organic Fruits and Vegetables. The demand for organic fruits and vegetables is growing rapidly in America. Clallam County, with its temperate, mild climate, as well as some excellent soils, is an ideal area to grow a wide variety of organic fruits and vegetables. One local organic farmer who started growing and selling organic vegetables over 30 years ago in Clallam County is now one of the largest organic vegetable farmers in the State, and currently sells organic produce throughout the region and into California. Many of these vegetables can be grown and harvested essentially year-round in eastern Clallam County due to its mild climate and relatively low rainfall.

(b) Agritourism. Clallam County’s lavender industry is another example of the market niches farmers can identify and develop to make their farms profitable and sustainable. Our lavender farmers produce a wide array of value-added lavender products and have developed an agritourism industry to complement the sales of lavender products by selling the experience of visiting lavender farms and the region through festivals, farm tours, and other events. Other types of farming can also benefit by cultivating tourists on the farm such as U-pick berry farms and corn mazes that are popular with locals as well as tourists, farm stays in which visitors pay to work on farms, and farm educational events. Agritourism also benefits other local businesses such as lodging and food service, thus multiplying its economic impact.

(c) Dairy. Clallam County was once one of the major dairy farming regions in the State, but there are now only two remaining commercial dairy farms in the County, milking fewer than 500 cows between them. One of these dairies now processes and sells certified raw milk directly from their farm and in Puget Sound markets, and no longer ships milk out of the County for processing. It also supplies to local cheese producers. Other small dairy farmers around the nation are turning to organic milk production for local markets, processing their milk into artisan, farmstead cheese, yogurt, butter, and other products, or are selling certified raw milk like the Clallam County farmer. This type of dairy farming may be an option for other local farmers.

(d) Seed Production. Clallam County has a major presence in production of vegetable seeds, especially seeds in the brassica family such as cauliflower, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. In fact, two Western Washington counties, Clallam and Skagit, collectively produce most of the brassica seeds grown in the world.

(6) Changes in Local Agricultural Industry. For farming to survive and thrive in Clallam County, how we view agriculture and how we develop local land use policies and implement development regulations needs to be continuously evaluated and updated. In the past our County policies have been driven by a view of agriculture as largely a producer of farm commodities such as milk, beef cattle, barley, hay, potatoes, or apples. These commodities were either processed locally or shipped out of the County as raw commodities. Clallam County can no longer compete in most of these markets. For farmers to succeed here they need to be innovative and entrepreneurial and to find markets that are not satisfied by the industrial agricultural and food industry. Products such as organic baby salad greens, gourmet lavender barbecue sauce, or farmstead gouda cheese are the high-value, niche products that many small farmers are turning to in order to make a profit.

This will require enhanced capacity to perform local processing and increased efforts to effectively brand and market Clallam County farm products. These and other new agricultural opportunities can continue and expand in the County if supported by local land use policies and regulations that allow farm entrepreneurs to explore and exploit these types of farming niches. There are a few large, commercial farms left in Clallam County that have adapted to changing economic conditions, but the future of agriculture in Clallam County will largely be determined by operators who produce high-value, unique products and agricultural services on relatively small farms.

The need to redefine and broaden what we mean by the term “farm,” and in so doing develop policies and programs that support this new vision of agriculture, exists in many places, not just in Clallam County. The Washington State Legislature passed legislation in 2004, which was amended in 2006, that essentially redefined what agriculture is; including references to “agriculturally related experiences, or the production, marketing, and distribution of value-added agricultural products, including support services that facilitate these activities” (RCW 36.70A.177). The State of Washington now recognizes that the needs of many farmers are much broader than in the past, and that small, innovative, entrepreneurial farmers require the ability to sell everything from high-dollar, value-added products to farm experiences on agritourism-oriented farms.

31.02.120 Agricultural resource land goals.

(1) Clallam County shall work to promote a strong, economically viable and ecologically responsible agricultural economy.

(2) Clallam County should provide incentives to encourage continued agriculture operations by providing property tax incentives, education and technical assistance, and the permitting of compatible on-farm enterprises subject to applicable performance standards.

(3) Clallam County shall incorporate right-to-farm provisions in its regulations.

(4) Clallam County should ensure that public actions are managed to minimize disruption of agricultural activity. When permanent conservation of a parcel of farmland is assured, utilities and transportation should be designed to minimize conflicts with farming.

(5) Clallam County shall work with federal agencies, the State, cities, tribes, irrigation districts and companies, Clallam Conservation District, and utility providers to conserve agricultural areas. Agricultural lands of long-term commercial significance shall not be annexed to cities, become incorporated or be included in urban growth areas unless the property’s development rights have been purchased or transferred prior to or concurrent with annexation or inclusion in an urban growth area.

(6) Agricultural land users shall be encouraged to maintain water quality, protect fish and wildlife consistent with commercial agriculture and prevent erosion of valuable agricultural soils.

(7) Clallam County shall support the work of the Clallam Conservation District to assist agricultural land users with maintenance and improvement of water quality, conservation of irrigation water, protection and enhancement of fish and wildlife habitat and biological diversity consistent with commercial agriculture, and prevention of erosion of valuable agricultural soils.

(8) Clallam County shall enhance the food security of its citizens and develop the local farm economy by actively supporting producers of food and other agricultural products for local consumption and supporting policies that encourage local institutions to purchase local food.

(9) Clallam County shall actively encourage the retention of agriculture by educating agricultural landowners about public and private programs that provide economic incentives to retain land in agricultural production.

(10) Clallam County should actively pursue the preservation of farmland through a purchase of development rights program and other programs.

(11) Finfish hatcheries of State, local, federal and tribal governments shall be designated as agricultural lands of long-term commercial significance. Regional subarea comprehensive plans shall designate the locations of these hatcheries and shall ensure that use of lands adjacent to finfish hatcheries do not interfere with the continued use, in the accustomed manner, including maintenance of water quantity and quality standards, of the finfish hatchery.

31.02.130 Forest land issues.

(1) The forest lands within the County are of significant economic importance to its citizens. Forests are a renewable resource providing abundant building and energy materials. They are a significant value not only to the County but to the State and the nation. The County has lost significant tax revenues due to changing global economic conditions and environmental regulations. This reduction in revenue has led to significant budget reductions and cuts in public services.

(2) Pressures on Forest Lands. County forest lands are being permanently and irreversibly lost through conversion to other uses such as residential development. When forest lands are converted to other uses, important forest functions are impaired. Impervious surfaces accelerate runoff and erosion, degrading water quality and fish habitat. Wildlife habitat is lost, as are wildlife corridors. Development of converted forest land requires that County services must be provided, sometimes in areas distant from population centers. Forest lands that stay in production support family wage jobs in our community. It is the task of this Plan to provide the policy framework necessary to protect our remaining forest lands from conversion to other uses, through regulations and incentives to landowners.

State and federal initiatives have mandated harvest restrictions for habitat protection of endangered species. But forest lands are not lost because of restrictions that last a few years or even a few decades – the other functions of forested land are still operational, and these have their own economic significance. The upper reaches of all of our watersheds are covered in forest, which reduces soil erosion and shades streams, protecting our water supply and our rivers’ anadromous fish spawning grounds. Not only do forests engage in large-scale oxygen production, they also filter pollutants from air. Forests also provide for aquifer recharge, and they offer aesthetic values and open space as well as opportunities for a range of dispersed recreational activities, from hunting and fishing to hiking and nature study.

(3) Multiple Use of Forest Land. Several other industries in Clallam County share the forest products industries’ dependency on timber land. Our forests, with their rivers, streams and spectacular views, contribute significantly to tourism. The wildlife habitat provided by these forests support populations of game animals which further contribute to tourism, sport and subsistence hunting. Forests in our watersheds guard against soil erosion, protecting our water supplies and our rivers’ anadromous fish spawning grounds. Anadromous fish support commercial and sport fisheries. Forest lands provide for aquifer recharge and protect important habitat for non-game wildlife species. Forest lands provide open space as well as opportunities for a range of scattered recreational activities, from hunting and fishing to hiking and nature study. Our proximity to the population centers of Puget Sound creates a significant market in the County for summer homes, cottages and weekend residences. In addition, the forests provide an aesthetic backdrop, attracting persons desiring permanent residences in a wooded rural environment. Our forests can accommodate a variety of economic and recreation uses if wise and judicious management policies are fostered.

(4) Residential Development and Forest Land Management. Long-term commercial timber production can best be realized on parcels 80 acres and larger in size. Parcels this size devoted to growing trees should be considered as capable of being economically and practically managed for such production. Owners of land between 20 and 80 acres in size can realize long-term timber production, but would likely require a residential development component in order to achieve economic and practical use of the parcel. Owners of land under 20 acres tend to favor dwelling-related uses and interest in using the land for long-term timber yield is minimized.

(5) Essential Public Facilities in Forest Lands. Essential public facilities are public capital facilities of a County-wide or State-wide nature which are typically difficult to site. Essential public facilities may be sited in commercial forest lands when suitable sites cannot be located within existing urban growth areas or rural areas to minimize land use conflicts.

(6) Industrial Uses in Forest Lands. Industrial uses which support timber harvesting and timber management activities may wish to locate in the commercial forest areas. Industrial land uses which support timber management activities include log storage and log shipping, equipment shops and storage areas, shake and shingle operations, lumber mills and wood products manufacturing, mineral extraction, and rock crushing. These land uses could also be considered incompatible with commercial forested areas if proper mitigation for impacts to the transportation network and fire protection are not taken.

(7) Master Planned Resorts. A master planned resort, with a primary focus on destination resort facilities consisting of short-term visitor accommodations and indoor or outdoor recreational facilities could be proposed within Clallam County. A master planned resort will require a setting of significant natural amenities. Few, if any, areas with large acreage and significant natural amenities exist that have not been designated as commercial forest lands.

31.02.140 Forest land goals.

(1) Retain suitable forest land in the County in commercial forest land use, because of general economic benefits to the people of the County derived from forests, including timber production and processing, watershed conservation, recreation, and fish and wildlife conservation.

(2) Encourage the retention of public and private commercial large forest land holdings in commercial forest land uses, primarily as a timber resource base for the perpetuation of the County’s forest and timber products industries.

(3) Foster the conservation function and scenic role of the County’s private forest lands, recognizing that certain limited development will be necessary in the furtherance of other forest land goals.

(4) Recognize the economic contribution of forest lands, through timber management and wood products processing industry. It is necessary to allow forest related industries to locate in the forest and especially in the designated forest areas where they have historically existed in order to facilitate timber industry growth and operations. Industries such as log storage and log shipping, and equipment shops and storage areas are suitable in forest areas. Also, shake and shingle operations, lumber mills and wood products manufacturing should be allowed in forest areas.

(5) Encourage classification of forest lands under State forest land taxing laws and thereby minimize conversion pressures due to highest and best use taxation assessment.

(6) Allow recreational developments which require a forested setting, such as primitive campgrounds, picnic areas, trails, boat launches, and other dispersed outdoor recreational developments currently enjoyed on forest lands in commercial forest areas provided that the recreational activity is compatible with commercial timber harvest. Recreational developments which are not compatible with timber harvest include, but are not limited to, golf courses, RV parks, water slides, and other uses not normally found in commercial forest areas.

(7) Clallam County shall conserve forest and mineral resources for productive use by designating resource lands where the principal and preferred land uses will be commercial resource management activities.

(8) Property designated as commercial forest resource lands shall meet the following criteria:

(a) The land is primarily devoted to growing trees (includes clearcuts and plantations);

(b) The “private forest land grade” established in RCW Title 84 is 1 through 4 or the site index for Douglas Fir is greater than 83 feet and for Hemlock is greater than 82 feet (50-year rotation base);

(c) The land does not have access (hookup rights) to municipal sewers;

(d) The parcel has a minimum parcel size of 80 acres or one-eighth of a standard section subdivision or contiguous parcels under one ownership can be grouped to total 80 acres or one-eighth of a standard section subdivision;

(e) The parcel does not meet criteria in subsections (8)(a) through (d) of this section, but are surrounded on at least three sides by lands meeting the definition of commercial forest resource lands;

(f) The parcel is not within the city limits of an incorporated city;

(g) Forest lands are usually found in large contiguous blocks of ownership and are not generally surrounded by residential development (densities do not exceed one dwelling per five acres);

(h) While slope is not a primary criteria for determination of commercial forest, steep slopes in excess of 40 percent slope should generally be included with commercial forest lands due to their unsuitability for development.

(9) Forestry shall be encouraged both within and outside of designated commercial forest lands. Mineral extraction shall be encouraged on designated forest lands and on designated mining sites in other areas.

(10) Clallam County shall work with cities, other public agencies, tribes, and private land owners to conserve public and private resource lands, and to encourage continued resource management.

(11) Resource industries shall use management practices that maintain forest productivity, protect the environment, and protect adjacent land uses. Clallam County shall support implementation of “best management practices” as defined by the Forest Practices Act and the Surface Mining Act on forested lands to provide for environmental protection, wildlife habitat conservation and a viable forest industry.

(12) The primary land use within designated commercial forest land shall be commercial forestry. Other resource industries such as extraction and agriculture shall be permitted within a designated forest resource area when managed to be compatible with forest management. New single-family dwellings shall be allowed in commercial forest areas as a conditional or special use when the home is not incompatible with commercial forestry, provided that a single-family dwelling on legal lots of record less than 80 acres in area should be allowed within designated commercial forest land, subject to applicable performance standards to ensure compatibility with adjacent commercial forest lands. Residential development shall be recognized as a compatible land use on lands designated as transitional from forestry to rural; provided, that measures are taken to ensure that the development is compatible with the adjacent commercial forest land use.

(13) Land uses adjacent to designated forest lands shall be sited and designed to prevent conflicts with forestry. New, nonclustered residential development adjacent to designated forest lands should be low density, and should be designed and sited to reduce potential conflicts between residences and adjacent forest lands. Each regional subarea plan shall identify the land uses and densities of residential development that are compatible with adjacent long-term commercial harvest of timber.

(14) Lands designated as commercial forest shall remain in large parcels and ownership patterns conducive to forestry.

(15) Residences within designated forest land areas shall be designed and sited to maintain the productivity of the district. Design measures and site plan requirements should be used to provide for fire control and to prevent conflicts with forest management.

(16) A private dwelling in a designated forest production area shall have an approved on-site domestic water supply or be connected to an approved water system which will not be adversely affected by forest practices.

(17) Establishment or expansion of special purpose taxing districts and local improvement districts, except fire districts, in designated commercial forest lands shall be strongly discouraged unless they directly benefit forestry.

(18) Clallam County should offer incentives to encourage conservation of forested lands. Incentives should include property tax benefits, cluster subdivision options, right-to-practice forest practices in the accustomed manner, and technical assistance in harvest techniques, water quality and habitat protection. When conservation of a forest parcel is assured, adjacent land uses, utilities, and transportation should be designed to reduce conflicts with forestry.

(19) Lands that have not been designated as commercial forest lands of long-term commercial significance under this Comprehensive Plan and lands that have not been classified as forest land under Chapter 84.33 RCW and timber land under Chapter 84.34 RCW shall be considered as lands likely to convert to nonforest uses. Timber harvesting on such lands shall be considered a conversion under the Forest Practices Act and comply with County regulations for clearing, grading, drainage, and protection of critical areas. The County shall pursue adoption of an agreement with the Department of Natural Resources to implement this goal by the end of 1995.

(20) Clallam County policy on lands harvested and not reforested under a Class I, II, or III Forest Practices Act (FPA) permit and which are being converted to nonforest uses is that such lands shall have all local permits withheld for a period of six (6) years. This moratorium shall run with the land and be duly noted in the public record. For the purpose of implementing this policy, the conversion of land to nonforest uses shall mean the subdivision of land or the preparation of land for subdivision or construction. Should a landowner wish to remove the moratorium or convert the land to nonforest uses, the owner shall:

(a) Revegetate the land as prescribed by the Department of Natural Resources. Said revegetation shall serve as interim protection measures to stabilize the site for erosion control and to preserve water quality on the site; and

(b) Submit and have approved a conversion harvest plan as is provided for in Class IV conversions. The approval of said plan may include conditions and improvement requirements to control erosion, protect or enhance environmentally sensitive areas, provide visual screening, or other conditions which are intended to reduce impacts to the environment or the area where the land is located.

(21) Clallam County shall require a conversion harvest plan on Class IV forest practices in addition to the forest practices application. Said plan shall consist of a questionnaire and a site plan, as provided for by Clallam County. The purpose of the conversion harvest plan is to address specific environmental and land use questions, and may not necessarily require extensive environmental review as provided for by the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA).

(22) Clallam County shall work with federal agencies, the State, cities, tribes, ditch companies and utility providers to conserve areas designated as commercial forest land use (CF) and as designated mineral resource sites. Areas with these designations shall not be annexed to cities, become incorporated or be included in urban growth areas unless the property’s development rights have been purchased or transferred prior to or concurrent with annexation or inclusion in an urban growth area.

(23) Land designated as commercial forest shall remain in this classification unless a strong case can be made that the zoning could be changed without affecting the commercial viability of the surrounding forest land. Zone change applications shall meet one of the following criteria:

(a) An error was made in application of the criteria establishing the zone; or

(b) The Board of County Commissioners after giving careful consideration to the value of the resource to the community finds that commercial forestry cannot generate a reasonable return on investment when compared to other forested properties and that growth could not be directed to other nonforested rural lands in the same vicinity.

(24) Essential public facilities may be located in designated commercial forest lands provided the County finds that such facilities cannot otherwise be located in urban areas, are largely self-contained or served by urban governmental services in a manner that adjacent rural or urban development is not promoted. The siting of essential public facilities in resource lands should not interfere with resource management on adjacent resource lands.

(25) Industrial uses which support timber harvesting and timber management activities may be located in designated commercial forest lands provided that the County finds:

(a) That such facilities cannot otherwise be located in urban areas;

(b) The industrial use is largely self-contained or served by urban governmental services in a manner that adjacent rural or urban development is not promoted;

(c) The siting of industrial land uses in resource lands shall not interfere with resource management on adjacent resource lands; and

(d) Only if there is a clear and compelling public benefit to the conversion of the forest land parcel to such uses.

(26) Industrial uses which do not support timber harvesting and timber management activities shall not be located in designated commercial forest lands unless the County finds:

(a) That such facilities cannot otherwise be located in urban growth areas or designated industrial lands;

(b) The industrial use is largely self-contained or served by urban governmental services in a manner that adjacent rural or urban development is not promoted;

(c) The siting of industrial land uses in resource lands shall not interfere with resource management on adjacent resource lands; and

(d) Only if there is a clear and compelling public benefit to the conversion of the forest land parcel to such uses.

(27) Master planned resorts with primary focus on destination resort facilities consisting of short-term visitor accommodations associated with a range of developed on-site indoor or outdoor recreational facilities may be located in designated forest lands if the County finds that such development has more long-term economic importance than the commercial harvesting of timber, and if consistent with other criteria set forth in CCC 31.02.270.

31.02.145 Mineral resource land issues.

(1) Mineral resource lands in the County provide vitally needed construction materials to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors of the economy, as well as government agencies charged with road construction and maintenance. Our mineral resources are finite; a stable, low cost source of material can only be assured if measures are taken to protect the resource and allow it to be extracted.

(2) Mineral resources found in Clallam County include sand and gravel, rock, industrial minerals and metallic minerals. The Department of Natural Resources has identified likely locations of these mineral resources. Where these resources exist in rural areas, measures to ensure the continued extraction of these finite resources should be considered. Planning and land use regulations could achieve mineral resource land conservation in the following ways:

(a) Overlay zoning on mineral resource lands giving priority for extraction over subdivision;

(b) Exclusive zoning on mineral resource lands requiring extraction of resources before subdivision;

(c) Forest land zoning with allowance for mineral extraction.

(3) Environmental impacts of mineral extraction can be substantial. Aggregate production temporarily obliterates entire mine-site ecosystems, but this loss can be mitigated with carefully sequenced reclamation. The effects of truck traffic can be a primary concern in designating construction aggregate mines. Damage to river beds can be another major impact of mining. Channel bar scalping can reduce the probability of flooding but can also change the river-bed morphology. Possible reduction of the quantity of groundwater is a concern in new mineral sites. Excavation breaching the lateral or seat-seals of perched aquifers can cause loss of water supplies and other damage. Washington State has several regulations which govern mineral extraction and associated impacts, including but not limited to: Surface Mining Act, Growth Management Act, Water Quality Standards, Shoreline Management Act, and the State Environmental Policy Act.

31.02.150 Mineral land goals.

(1) Based on best known available information, the Comprehensive Plan land use map should designate potential locations of all sand and gravel, hard and durable bedrock, industrial minerals, and metallic mineral deposits.

(2) Development regulations to conserve mineral resource lands shall be as follows:

(a) Mineral extraction and processing should be considered as one land use, subject to appropriate permits.

(b) Mineral extraction and process in commercial forest lands should be permitted outright, and a conditional use in rural and urban land use designations.

(c) The locations of fifty (50) year supplies of construction aggregates should be shown on land use (e.g., zoning) maps made available to the public. Development regulations shall ensure that adjacent land uses do not interfere with the continued use, in the accustomed manner, of these designated lands for the extraction of minerals. Development regulations should include increased setbacks for adjacent residential development, and notice to future purchasers for new residential subdivisions adjacent to an approved mineral resource zone.

(d) Development regulations or review of mineral process and extraction permits should be direct and proportional to the impacts that need to be mitigated. For example, the ordinance or conditions of approval should limit impacts (noise and dust), but not activities (crushing and sorting). Approvals should be valid through completion of the activity with compliance sought through enforcement penalties or performance bonds.

(e) Once a mineral resource site has been established, such site shall be considered a preferred land use and receive protection under a “right to practice mining” ordinance and development proposals within 600 feet of such sites will be reviewed for compatibility with mineral extraction activities.

(f) Mineral extraction operations shall use “best management practices” as required by the Surface Mining Act and County plans, policies and ordinances. Such operations shall reclaim sites for productive forestry, agriculture, residential or other use after mineral extraction operations permanently cease. Newly established mineral extraction operations are required to meet buffering and setback provisions contained in the mineral overlay district in order to reduce impacts on nearby residences.

31.02.210 Urban growth and sprawl issues.

This section addresses the GMA required land use element (distribution and general location and extent of the uses of land for housing, commerce, industry, public utilities and public facilities) and the rural element (land uses that are compatible with the rural character of such lands). This chapter also addresses master planned resorts and essential public facilities.

In the twenty (20) year period from 1970 to 1990, the population of the three (3) cities grew by less than 4,600 people while the unincorporated area grew by more than 17,000 people. Most of the rural growth occurred in the east end of the County, some of it in planned communities such as Sunland, Solmar, Mains Farm, and Diamond Point, but also a significant portion in one-acre tracts. The West End also experienced significant population growth in the 1970’s, but during the 1980’s, approximately half of the population gain was lost.

The Growth Management Act (GMA) establishes a framework for coordinated and comprehensive planning which will help Clallam County and its cities to manage growth in a manner which best fits Clallam County. The GMA calls for urban growth areas where urban development will be encouraged and can be supported with adequate facilities and services. At the same time, the GMA discourages the inappropriate conversion of undeveloped land into sprawling, low-density development and encourages conservation of rural character and resource lands. These three (3) general land uses (urban, rural and forest resource) form the framework for more specific land use designations, which are found in one of four (4) regional subarea plans.

Although every person may be able to recognize “sprawl” when they see it, there are numerous variations of what the term means. Sprawl may be where urban areas have not been able to extend urban services, such as water and sewer systems, or adequate road systems. Sprawl may be where growth continues to spread over larger areas, spiraling outward. Sprawl may be extension of commercial development along main arterials or highways – “strip” development. Sprawl may be where housing or commercial development is not concentrated enough to provide public facilities and services in an efficient manner but too dense to be considered rural in character. Sprawl may be where there no longer is a clear distinction between a city or urban environment and a rural environment.

There are many tools and methods upon which a comprehensive plan can attempt to define and control sprawl, urban growth and rural character. Land use controls, use of physical features, purchase of lands, and setting different standards for public facilities and services between rural and urban areas are all potential tools.

Land use controls, such as housing densities and/or type of uses are one method to define rural areas from urban areas. A minimum density could be set within urban growth areas and a maximum density in rural areas. For example, land divisions in urban areas could be restricted to lots more dense than three (3) units per acre in order to ensure an efficient land use pattern and delivery of services/facilities. Land divisions in rural areas could be restricted to lots larger than one unit per acre.

Land uses can also make a clear distinction from rural to urban areas. In rural areas, people expect a quieter lifestyle: less traffic, minimal public services, animals, such as horses, chickens, etc. Commercial and industrial uses in rural areas could focus on the types of services needed for rural residents, such as feed stores, greenhouses, mineral extraction, and some convenient services like gas stations and small grocery stores. In urban areas, a wide mix of uses could be expected, including major retail, high-density housing, and industrial sites.

Use of physical features, such as rivers or ravines to separate urban areas from rural areas helps to control growth from going outward and serves as a clear line for changes in land uses. When artificial lines are used to distinguish rural areas from urban areas, it is more difficult to control the spread of urban growth. Also, the landowner living on either side of a urban/rural line might be subjected to competing land uses. An urban dweller might complain about the animals of the rural dweller. The rural dweller might be impacted by increased traffic, lights and glare from the urban area. When a major physical feature is used to separate these areas, there is less likelihood for conflicts and greater likelihood that growth could be controlled from “sprawling” outward.

Purchase of lands at the edge of urban areas for greenbelts, parks and open space can help separate urban from rural, particularly in those circumstances where a physical feature cannot be used or where development rights would be severely diminished due to new Growth Management legislation. One community has financed the purchase of farmlands and open space around an entire city. Not only does this provide recreational benefit to the citizens, it also provides a clear distinction of urban areas from the rural area.

While there is a need for growth in Clallam County to be directed into urban areas, people moving here often prefer a more rural setting. How to direct growth into urban areas and discourage suburban or rural sprawl is a challenging task.

31.02.220 Urban growth areas.

Urban growth refers to growth that makes intensive use of land for the location of buildings, structures, and impermeable surfaces to such a degree as to be incompatible with the production of food, other agricultural products, or fiber, or the extraction of mineral resources. When allowed to spread over wide areas, urban growth typically requires urban governmental services. Rural growth over the last twenty (20) years has made many rural residential areas incompatible with the production of food, etc. These areas, however, do not typically require urban governmental services, such as neighborhood parks, sanitary sewer systems, water systems and stormwater systems. Those areas where these urban governmental services are now provided, or are needed, should be considered for designation as urban growth areas.

Establishing urban growth areas is a major step that Clallam County will take in managing growth. Urban growth areas must include areas and densities sufficient to accommodate the County’s expected growth for the succeeding twenty (20) years. Clallam County population forecasts indicate that an additional 10,000 to 12,000 people in the next twenty (20) years should be planned for. Sufficient areas for growth must be provided within the urban growth areas. However, it is not expected that all growth will occur in urban growth areas. It is not the intent of these policies or the GMA to stop rural growth; it is the intent of these policies to encourage a shift to urban growth where adequate public facilities and services can be provided in a financially feasible manner while conserving resource lands, rural landscapes, and environmental quality.

The Growth Management Act states that growth outside urban growth areas can occur “only if it is not urban in nature.” Furthermore, urban governmental services should not be extended into rural areas. The County-wide Planning Policies state that the “County should designate as urban growth areas those unincorporated areas not in proximity to existing cities, provided that such areas meet the principles established for UGAs and that appropriate service providers are identified to provide the specified urban governmental services.”

In both unincorporated urban growth areas, the reasons for designation as a UGA is assurance that urban residential, commercial, industrial uses would be allowed and urban governmental services can be extended consistent with the vision of those communities and the legal requirements of GMA.

Industrial lands in areas outside of Port Angeles are limited. The unincorporated communities of Diamond Point-Sunshine Acres, Carlsborg, and Clallam Bay-Sekiu offer areas with appropriate services and facilities for light industrial activities. This is also consistent with the economic development goals of the County by encouraging growth in areas experiencing insufficient economic growth.

Public water systems exist in both of the unincorporated UGAs. A public sewer system exists in Clallam Bay-Sekiu. These water systems do not exist only for public health reasons. These water systems exist also for economic development (fire protection for commercial/industrial uses) and to serve urban residential land uses. Section 34 and 35 of ESHB 2929 (RCW 56.08.020 and 57.16.010) also appear to prohibit the extension or location of water and sewer facilities outside UGAs. If GMA prohibits extension of these systems in rural areas, then the vision for extension of these systems within the UGAs and within the financial constraints of the water or sewer purveyor will be thwarted.

Finally, designation of unincorporated UGAs recognizes existing land use rights of private property owners, and keeps the County from arbitrary and discriminatory actions inconsistent with the Act and this Plan. The fact that an area has not been incorporated should not give rise to the conclusion that it should not be designated as a UGA. Cities and towns throughout Washington State have become incorporated for many reasons: frustration with service delivery, land uses, etc. Cities are not necessarily a reflection of urban land use, but a choice in local governance. The incorporation of Bainbridge Island is a case in point. That community did not incorporate because it wanted urban development; it incorporated because of frustration with decisions of County government. There are numerous cities within the State with populations less than 1,000 people and which do not have the full array of urban governmental services that the GMA indicates are appropriate in UGAs. But by default, these areas have been designated as a UGA under the Act simply because at some point in the past the voters within that area incorporated. With all five (5) unincorporated urban growth areas in this Plan, they meet the same basic land use and population characteristics that many cities face in Washington State. To arbitrarily rule that they should not be UGAs simply because they are not presently incorporated would ignore the fact that they are (a) characterized by urban growth; (b) have urban governmental services; (c) provide economic development opportunities for the citizens of the County; and (d) are consistent with plan and zoning designations made over ten (10) years ago for their private property.

31.02.230 Urban growth area designation policies.

The following policies guide designation of urban growth areas. These policies were adopted by Clallam County and the cities in June 1992 as a framework for the adoption of each jurisdiction’s comprehensive plan. In most cases, the policies cannot be changed without concurrence from the cities.

(1) Minimum urban growth areas (UGAs) shall be established based upon land use demand as determined by the Clallam County twenty (20) year forecast of population for the County and specified subareas, so long as the County-wide forecast is not less than the most recent forecasts available from the Office of Financial Management (OFM). The County shall provide forecasts for the designation of urban growth areas.

(a) A straight linear projection for the entire County utilizing data from the 1950 through 1990 U.S. Census yields a projection which is approximately 2,000 people higher than that determined from summing the individual census divisions. Linear projections of population, as shown in Table 2 below, have demonstrated their accuracy in Clallam County. If used based on 1950 through 1970 U.S. Census counts, a linear projection model would have predicted the 1990 population as later identified in the U.S. Census. This demonstrates that historically the County has followed a linear trend of growth over the long term.

The Growth Management Act and County-wide Planning Policies use the OFM analysis prepared for Clallam County as a basis for growth population projection. Since the projections, however, are inaccurate (the County has exceeded the 2012 projection by over 3,000 people already in 1994), a linear projection model should be substituted as required in the County-wide Planning Policies. The OFM population projections utilize trends of births, deaths and migration to forecast County growth. Historical trends indicate that overall births and net migration are both declining, and deaths are increasing. The most subjective standard is net migration. Clallam County protested the OFM population forecast in 1991-92 but were told by the agency that they were “minimums” to plan for. Since several Growth Hearings Board cases have ruled the numbers to be also a maximum, the agency has written Clallam County to indicate that we are in an “awkward” position. The following projections were completed by OFM in the report dated January 31,1992:

Table 1
– OFM Population Projections

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2012

Population

56,464

57,754

58,246

58,753

59,189

59,312

Note:    OFM estimated the 1994 Clallam County population as follows:

    County 62,500

    Unincorporated 36,700

    Forks 3,355

    Port Angeles 18,310

    Sequim 4,135

(b) The County subarea population projections should be based either on a straight line (linear) projection model or on the subarea growth rate for the preceding ten (10) years. For the purposes of designating urban growth areas, a linear projection is preferred. For other planning purposes, the last ten (10) year subarea growth rate should be compared to a straight line projection and a determination made regarding which projection is most appropriate.

(c) The urban growth area population projections should encourage a shift from growth in unincorporated areas to urban areas, consistent with the intent of the Growth Management Act. The urban growth area population projections should also reflect subarea growth trends, in that growth usually occurs based on geographic preference (schools, climate, jobs, etc.). (Please refer to Appendix B: Population Trends in County-wide Planning Policies.)

(d) The County population forecasts should be reviewed every five (5) years. Such review shall include an analysis of the previous ten (10) year period.

Table 2
– Linear Projection Model* (Census Divisions Names)

1990 Population

2000 Population

2010 Population

Agnew-Carlsborg

6,310

7,514

8,719

Clallam Bay-Neah Bay

2,966

3,298

3,630

Crescent**

2,507

3,116

3,874

Forks

6,846

7,828

8,810

Sequim

11,076

13,168

15,260

Port Angeles**

26,759

27,959

29,214

TOTALS

56,464

62,883

69,507

*Linear projections based on 1950 – 1990 data from the U.S. Census.

**The Crescent and Port Angeles Census divisions were readjusted in the 1950 – 1990 time period to make it impossible to develop a linear forecast. The numbers in Table 2 are based on the respective areas average growth rate from 1980 to 1990.

Table 3
– UGA Population Projections
Linear Projection Model Based on Subarea (Table 2)*

1990

2000

2010

City of Port Angeles

17,710

18,382

19,053

City of Sequim

3,616

4,650

5,683

City of Forks

2,862

3,453

4,044

*City population projections were based on U.S. Census information dating back to 1970.

Table 4
– Unincorporated UGA Population Projections
Based on 1980 – 1990 Area Average Growth Rate

1990

2000

2010

Sunland

987

1,288

1,500

Carlsborg

655

885

1,120

Clallam Bay-Sekiu

644

702

777

Diamond Point-Sunshine Acres

374

488

660

Joyce

80

99

124

TOTAL

2,740

3,462

4,181

Based on the goal in subsection (1)(c) of this section, population allocations or adjustments to linear projection populations will encourage a trend towards a majority of new growth occurring with urban growth areas instead of in rural areas. The adjustments for incorporated cities would provide for a reversal of the urban-rural growth trends evident in the 1970 to 1990 time period. The Clallam Bay-Sekiu population projection was also adjusted upward to account for two (2) expansions of the Clallam Bay Corrections Center staff, one of which would occur between 1990 and the year 2000 and another between 2000 and 2010.

Table 5
– UGA Population Projections Readjusting from Rural to Urban Growth

1990

2000

2010

City of Port Angeles

17,710

18,577

19,674

City of Sequim

3,616

4,677

5,948

City of Forks

2,862

3,453

4,044

Clallam Bay-Sekiu

644

772

847

TOTAL

24,832

27,479

30,513

The following table outlines the allocation of total twenty (20) year County growth (Table 2: 13,043) to urban areas (Table 5 and Table 4 except for Clallam Bay-Sekiu) and rural areas (Table 2 minus urban growth). This shows that approximately fifty-four (54) percent of the new County growth is allocated to urban areas, whereas historical trends show that since 1970 the urban growth has declined from a fifty-six (56) percent share of the population to forty-three (43) percent. These population allocations reverse the trend back to 1970, which was the beginning of significant growth in Clallam County.

Table 6
– Rural and UGA Population Projections*

1990

2000

2010

Total Twenty (20) Year Growth

UGA Population

26,928

30,199

33,917

UGA Growth

3,271

3,718

6,989

Rural Population

29,536

32,684

35,590

Rural Growth

3,148

2,906

6,054

(2) The County should designate as urban growth areas those unincorporated areas already characterized by urban growth and not in proximity to existing cities; provided, that such areas meet the principles established for UGAs and that appropriate service providers are identified to provide the specified urban governmental services.

(3) UGAs shall include areas characterized by urban growth adjacent to existing city boundaries and physical features shall be considered in establishing UGA boundaries.

(4) It is expected that net densities will increase as urban growth and development occurs within the UGA, and the UGA boundary should be established toward this objective. Included in this principle is the requirement that urban growth areas develop specific strategies and programs to encourage infill development and redevelopment of identified underdeveloped lands.

(5) Land designated for commercial or industrial uses which encourage adjacent urban development shall not be located outside a UGA.

(6) The amount of acreage designated for commercial, industrial or other nonresidential uses within a UGA adjacent to a city boundary shall be based upon the land use element and economic development element of the city’s Comprehensive Plan.

(7) The amount of acreage designated for commercial uses, industrial uses, regional facilities or other nonresidential uses within a UGA not adjacent to a city boundary shall be based upon a reasonable level of service for the size of the UGA’s service area.

(8) Urban growth areas should be established to avoid critical areas, except where addressed as part of a comprehensive plan or critical areas ordinance. Wetlands and their buffers should be excluded from the developable land base in calculating the size of urban growth areas. Urban growth areas should not include designated resource lands unless the city or County has enacted a program authorizing transfer or purchase of development rights.

(9) Urban growth area designations shall consider the linkage with open space corridors within and between urban growth areas as required in the County-wide Planning Policy and the Growth Management Act.

(10) Consideration to the economic development goals within the County-wide and regional comprehensive plans shall be made when designating unincorporated UGAs not in proximity to existing cities.

(11) The County shall consider the property rights of landowners with existing urban residential, commercial, industrial land use designations, and existing locations of urban governmental services, in designating urban growth areas.

31.02.240 Urban growth area implementation policies.

The following policies guide implementation of urban growth areas:

(1) Annexation.

(a) Annexation of lands within urban growth areas which are adjacent to existing cities should be encouraged.

(b) The cities and County, in coordination with existing and ultimate service providers, should develop an annexation plan which includes annexation of land characterized by urban development and a phased program of annexation consistent with the extension of services and the development of land in accordance with the city’s comprehensive plan and capital facilities plan.

(c) In order to encourage continued investment in public infrastructure within urban growth areas prior to annexation, such as roads, electrical service, water and sewer, the cities, County and other public service providers should develop agreements which would reimburse the service provider for capital improvements which would be acquired by the city upon annexation.

(d) Annexations should form logical boundaries and not isolate service providers, either the County or special purpose districts (PUD, fire, etc.). Cities should be prohibited from annexation just of commercial/industrial tax bases without accepting responsibility for service of adjacent residential or other nonresidential areas.

(e) In order to provide continuity in environmental protection, education and community outreach, the cities should continue to work with Clallam County and other agencies in implementation of watershed management plans and other environmental programs, if any.

(f) Urban growth that requires extension of sewer or water facilities shall not be allowed within the Port Angeles Urban Growth Area until an annexation plan has been agreed upon by the City of Port Angeles and Clallam County and UGA Urban Services and Development Agreements have been agreed upon by the City of Port Angeles and Clallam County Public Utility District; provided that the City may agree to extend the services prior to annexation upon completion of a utility extension agreement with a developer.

(2) Urban growth areas shall recognize and encourage development of historic sites within their areas.

(3) Public facilities and services necessary to support urban development will be specifically identified for provision within the designated urban growth areas of Clallam County through regional or subarea comprehensive plans.

(4) Urban services to be provided within UGAs should include, at a minimum, provision for sanitary waste, solid waste disposal systems, water systems, urban roads and pedestrian facilities, transit systems, stormwater systems, police and fire and emergency services systems, electrical and communication systems, school and health care facilities, and neighborhood and/or community parks.

(5) Urban services/facilities required to meet the needs of new development shall be provided, or shall be planned to be available within six (6) years, to meet the levels of services established for such services within each UGA. The types of urban services/facilities and levels of service should be established in regional or subarea plans.

(6) Urban services shall be provided and constructed in accordance with the design and construction standards as specified in the UGA Urban Services and Development Agreement required by the County-wide Planning Policies for Joint Planning and Contiguous and Orderly Development.

(7) Services and facilities which are not available at the time of the development project giving rise to the need for such services shall be included in a financially feasible capital facilities element of the Comprehensive Plan for the city responsible for such service provision, and/or in the appropriate plans of the service provided.

(8) Before extension or construction of urban services, the city or service provider shall demonstrate the financial capability for continued operation of the facility.

(9) The County and the cities will ensure appropriate techniques for managing future growth consistent with the designation of urban growth areas, such as a minimum density within the UGA and a maximum density outside the UGA. Residential densities exceeding one unit per acre should be considered urban; however, net densities within urban growth areas should increase as urban growth and development occurs within the UGA. Land use plans within urban growth areas should be established toward this objective with a range of densities for relatively low density single-family development and some lands at a range of densities both allowing and encouraging multifamily development.

(10) The County, in coordination with the adjacent city, shall consider the need for future expansion of urban growth areas beyond the projected twenty (20) year period required by the Growth Management Act. Special density considerations shall be given at the edge of urban growth areas, if determined necessary based on a land use analysis, so that future extension of urban growth areas and urban services allows conversion to more efficient urban patterns. Special density considerations could include reduced densities or cluster development options. Such considerations shall occur during preparation and adoption of joint city/county comprehensive plans for the unincorporated urban growth area.

31.02.250 Urban growth area amendment process.

The Growth Management Act requires that urban growth areas be reviewed at least once every ten (10) years. The County-wide Planning Policies call for a review of population growth and the impact on urban growth areas once every five (5) years. In setting urban growth areas for Clallam County, a forecast of twenty (20) year urban land needs was completed. There is a need to provide stability to where urban growth and services will occur, and supply of land should be considered in any future amendments. This warrants that specific procedures and criteria be adopted to guide urban growth area amendments.

It is the general policy of this section that urban growth area boundary amendments be discouraged except for the required ten (10) year review. Urban growth area amendments should provide overwhelming evidence that there is a demonstrated need to change the designations. As such, the following procedures and criteria must be met. In those circumstances where a landowner might wish to remove land from an urban growth area, a liberal application of the criteria should be allowed due to the abundance of urban designated land.

(1) The following procedures shall be followed in review of urban growth area amendment applications:

(a) The amendment shall be considered an amendment of the Comprehensive Plan. The procedures for public notice, timing of applications and public hearings outlined in Chapter 31.08 CCC shall be followed.

(b) The County shall consult with the appropriate city concerning the Comprehensive Plan changes that may be needed to implement the urban growth area boundary amendment.

(c) Amendment applications can be made by Clallam County or a city with a planning area that includes or is contiguous to the property; or the owners of the property included in the application or a group of more than 50 percent of the property owners who own more than 50 percent of the land area in each area included in the application.

(2) Applications for amendment of urban growth area boundaries, or the establishment of new urban growth areas, shall meet the following criteria:

(a) The applicant shall demonstrate that there is a need to accommodate the 20-year population and employment growth of that area. The following information should be supplied:

(i) Revised 20-year population and/or employment forecast demonstrating increased growth due to births, deaths and/or migration, or employment opportunities.

(ii) Information pertaining to specific historical growth and employment patterns since the last population or employment forecast provided by the County.

(b) A demonstrated need for additional land to accommodate the population and/or employment growth. The following information should be supplied:

(i) An inventory of net developable land within the existing urban growth boundary and proposed urban growth boundary.

(ii) Market availability, ownership and parcelization of net developable land within the existing urban growth boundary and proposed urban growth boundary.

(c) The amendment provides for a net improvement in the efficiency of public facilities and services, including but not limited to, water, sewage, transportation, drainage, parks and recreation.

(d) The amendment is compatible with nearby resource land (agricultural, forestry or mining) uses.

(e) The amendment meets the requirements in CCC 31.02.230 for the designation of urban growth areas.

31.02.255 Urban growth area locations.

The following areas should be designated in the six regional or subarea plans as urban growth areas: Port Angeles, Sequim, Forks, Clallam Bay-Sekiu, Joyce, and Carlsborg.

31.02.260 Rural growth.

The common image of rural lands is of an area which combines a scenic patchwork of large open fields and woodlots interspersed with rural homesteads and serviced by small rural commercial clusters. Rural characteristics to be maintained include low densities, small-scale agriculture, woodlot forestry, wildlife habitat, clean water, clean air, outdoor recreation, rural lifestyles, and low traffic volumes. Rural lands in the Growth Management Act are defined by what they are not. They are not urban areas and they are not resource lands. Great care must be taken to preserve rural areas and rural characteristics so that rural quality of life for County residents can be maintained and will not diminish as full development potentials are achieved on rural lands.

The County-wide Comprehensive Plan Land Use Map has three general land uses (urban, rural and forest resource). More specific land use designations within these classifications should occur through regional or subarea comprehensive plans. Because the character of both urban and rural lands differs greatly from the west end of the County to the east end, specific policies and actions to implement the rural land use element of the Comprehensive Plan should be found in those plans. The following general policies should form the framework for acceptable rural elements of the regional or subarea plans.

(1) The lands designated rural on the County’s Generalized Land Use Map shall permit only those land uses that are compatible with the rural character of such lands and provide for a variety of rural densities and development patterns, including the use of cluster housing concepts to encourage conservation of open space and resource lands.

(2) Regional subarea comprehensive plans shall identify a range of rural densities appropriate for that region. Residential density (not residential lot size) exceeding one unit per acre shall be considered urban in nature and not allowed, with the following exceptions:

(a) Development within designated limited areas of more intensive rural development (LAMIRDs); and

(b) Development within approved master planned resorts with primary focus on destination resort facilities consisting of short-term visitor accommodations associated with a range of developed on-site indoor or outdoor recreational facilities.

(3) Development (allowed uses and densities) within rural areas should not be counter-productive to the intent of the Growth Management Act, which encourages development to locate in urban areas where public facilities and services can be provided in an efficient manner. Each regional or subarea plan shall include strategies that do not encourage development to occur in rural areas to the detriment of urban areas.

(4) New development in rural areas adjacent to designated resource lands must be compatible with the continued use of the adjacent land for resource production. Special techniques, such as increased setbacks, fire precautions, cluster developments, and notice to property owners, should be considered to ensure the compatibility of land uses.

(5) A mix of land uses should be allowed in rural lands, including residential, small-scale resource production/extraction, tourism and recreation, home-based industries, essential public facilities (see CCC 31.02.285), rural villages, and limited commercial and industrial uses (see CCC 31.02.275). The primary use of land in rural areas should be for rural residential and small-scale resource production or extraction uses. Other mixes of uses may be permitted, provided they are not incompatible with the primary use of those areas.

(6) Regional subarea comprehensive plans should address protection of cultural and historical sites within the region.

31.02.263 Limited areas of more intensive rural development.

Clallam County, like many Washington counties, is characterized by areas of more intensive rural development such as higher density residential, commercial, industrial, or mixed use development that are located outside of urban areas. These developments may or may not be served by sewer, water, fire, and other public services. The uncontrolled expansion of such areas of intensive, nonrural uses tends to promote sprawl and threaten the rural character. Counties found these existing developments are difficult to reconcile with State growth management goals and requirements for rural areas. At the same time, many of the resource industries that have traditionally provided jobs and income to rural residents have cut back operations or even disappeared. Many rural residents expressed a need for more employment opportunities and convenient services in rural areas.

The 1997 amendments to RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d) of the Growth Management Act (GMA) provided further direction for the rural element of a county’s comprehensive plan, including guidelines for limited areas of more intensive rural development, or LAMIRDs. These amendments provide flexibility for more varied economic uses in rural areas, while maintaining rural character and scale.

The 1997 amendments recognized the opportunity that existing developed areas might offer additional jobs, services, and varied housing choices for rural residents while limiting impacts. The amendments allowed LAMIRDs as exceptions to the rural plan element requirements, while retaining protections for rural character and the operation of resource uses. Most significantly, the amendments required that counties establish logical outer boundaries, based on the boundaries of existing development, to contain more intense development.

RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d) describes three different types of LAMIRDs. The first type is rural development consisting of the infill, development, or redevelopment of existing commercial, industrial, residential or mixed use areas, as provided in RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d)(i). This type of LAMIRD must show that the area was developed more intensively on or before July 1, 1990. The second type of LAMIRD is the intensification of development on lots containing, or new development of, small-scale recreational or tourist uses that rely on a rural location and setting and are generally allowed in the rural area per RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d)(ii). Finally, the intensification of development on lots containing isolated nonresidential uses or new development of isolated cottage industries and isolated small-scale businesses may be generally allowed in the rural area under RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d)(iii). For the latter two LAMIRD types, intensification or expansion of these businesses will be limited to the existing lot.

(1) Background. Prior to the 1997 amendments to the Growth Management Act to establish criteria and guidelines for LAMIRDs, Clallam County had designated more intensive rural development areas uses as part of the original adoption of its growth management comprehensive plan and implementing zoning controls in 1995. These areas of more intensive rural land use were designated in each of the County’s four regional planning areas totaling approximately 12,000 acres, or 1.1 percent of Clallam County’s land area.

On August 28, 2007, the County adopted Ordinance 827, which formally designated existing areas previously designated and zoned for more intensive rural development as LAMIRDs under RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d). The County had reviewed these existing areas and concluded that they qualified as LAMIRDs based on the criteria set forth at RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d), as well as based on local circumstances as set forth at RCW 36.70A.070(5)(a). A record of that review was prepared and is contained in the September 2006 Clallam County LAMIRDs Report, as supplemented in May 2007.

Clallam County’s LAMIRDs designated under Ordinance 827 were challenged to the Western Washington Growth Management Hearings Board (WWGMHB). On April 23, 2008, the WWGMHB ruled on the nature and boundary lines of 20 LAMIRDs and found them noncompliant with the Growth Management Act and for certain LAMIRDs issued a determination of invalidity.

The criteria for designating LAMIRDs are set forth at RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d). The WWGMHB has interpreted those criteria as follows:

Fundamental to the establishment of a LAMIRD is the requirement that it be based upon “existing areas and uses” as established . . . by the built environment . . . Once that area and use determination has been made, then a logical outer boundary is to be established which contains and limits expansion of those areas and uses to appropriate infill within the logical outer boundary. Therefore, when establishing a LAMIRD the County must FIRST identify the built environment, as of July 1, 1990, so that it may be minimized and contained as required under the GMA. In determining the built environment, the Board has stated:

•    

Vested rights does not equate to the built environment.

•    

The built environment includes those facilities which are manmade, whether they are above or below ground.

•    

Subdivided or platted land, although occurring prior to 1990, which remains undeveloped may not be considered part of the built environment as the Legislature intended this term to relate to manmade structures.

Once the built environment has been identified, the County must establish the LOB for the LAMIRD by considering the criteria set forth in RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d):

•    

The need to preserve the character of existing natural neighborhoods and communities,

•    

Physical boundaries such as bodies of water, streets, and highways, and land forms and contours,

•    

The prevention of abnormally irregular boundaries, and

•    

The ability to provide public facilities and public services in a manner that does not permit low-density sprawl.

(2) Compliance Response. Clallam County conducted compliance reviews of those LAMIRDs that were found by the WWGMHB to be noncompliant and/or invalid under the Growth Management Act. A record of those reviews included proposed strategies for achieving compliance with the Growth Management Act and is contained in the Clallam County LAMIRDs Report, as the “2008 and 2009 Compliance Review Supplements.” The County’s compliance response resulted in the following revisions to the Comprehensive Plan, Comprehensive Plan Land Use and Zoning Map, and Zoning Code, all as described in more detail in the “2008 and 2009 Compliance Review Supplements”:

(a) Provisions and policies contained in the County Comprehensive Plan and Regional Plans relating to the designation of LAMIRDs were revised where necessary to achieve compliance with the Growth Management Act.

(b) In implementing the revised policies relating to LAMIRDs, the logical outer boundaries of 16 LAMIRDs were adjusted, four areas previously designated as LAMIRDs were removed entirely from LAMIRD status, and new LAMIRDs were designated at Blyn, Solmar, Dungeness Meadows, East Sequim Bay, and Marine Drive. Parcels that were excluded from LAMIRD designation as a result of these adjustments were rezoned to a less intensive rural designation or to a resource land designation. Parcels that were included in the LAMIRD designation as a result of these adjustments were rezoned to a more intensive rural designation.

(c) To implement the revised policies relating to LAMIRDs, the zoning standards for the following comprehensive plan and zoning map designations were adjusted for the purpose of clarifying that any future development must be similar to “uses of such type, scale, size, or intensity as already existed as of July 1, 1990,” consistent with the criteria for Type I LAMIRD designations under RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d)(i): Rural Neighborhood Commercial (RNC), Rural Limited Commercial (RLC), and Rural Center (CEN).

(d) To implement the revised policies relating to LAMIRDs, new comprehensive plan and zoning designations were adopted and applied as follows:

(i) Rural Village Low (RV2) under Chapter 33.15 CCC with the same uses as Rural Village but allow a maximum residential density of one dwelling per acre, and applied to the south portion of Dungeness Village, consistent with the predominantly built environment existing as of July 1, 1990.

(ii) Tourist Rural (TR) under Chapter 33.15 CCC that allows for small-scale recreational or tourist uses, including commercial facilities to serve those recreational or tourist uses that rely on a rural location and setting, but that do not include new residential development, and applied to the Crescent Beach LAMIRD, as adjusted, consistent with the criteria for Type II LAMIRDs under RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d)(ii).

(3) Designation. The 17 comprehensive plan land use and zoning designations listed in Table 31.02.263(A) are adopted as LAMIRDs under RCW 36.70A.070(5)(d). The boundaries of these 17 LAMIRD land use and zoning designations are shown on the Clallam County Comprehensive Plan Land Use and Zoning Map, which is comprised of the four Regional Comprehensive Plan Land Use Maps, as amended, adopted under this title. One or more of the 17 LAMIRD land use and zone classifications described in Table 31.02.263(A) are associated with designated areas of more intensive rural development within Clallam County. The general locations of Clallam County LAMIRDs are depicted on Map 31.02.263(A).

Clallam County LAMIRDs are described in detail, together with detailed maps, in the “2006 Clal-lam County LAMIRDs Report,” as supplemented (LAMIRDs Report), and as subject to the revisions of the “2008 and 2009 GMA Compliance Supplements,” all of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

(4) Goal and Policies. The intent of these goals and policies is to guide development of the County’s existing LAMIRDs and the future designation of additional LAMIRDs. The goals and policies contained in this section supplement and, to the extent they contradict, supersede any policies contained elsewhere in this Comprehensive Plan and the respective regional plans associated with the various LAMIRDs identified in this section.

(a) Goal 1. Allow for the designation of LAMIRDs outside of urban growth areas based on existing rural residential communities or villages, areas of mixed use activity, isolated areas of commercial and industrial activity, and historic towns.

(b) Policy 1. Identify and designate LAMIRDs in the rural area, consistent with the requirements of the State Growth Management Act, Chapter 36.70A RCW, and with this title.

(c) Policy 2. Infill, development, and redevelopment within LAMIRDs may include commercial, industrial, and urban residential uses where uses of such type, scale, size, or intensity already existed as of July 1, 1990, but shall not extend beyond the LAMIRD’s boundaries.

(d) Policy 3. Infill, development, and redevelopment within LAMIRDs is subject to the constraints of public facilities and services, water and sewage, and protection of critical areas, as well as all other applicable local, state, and federal regulations.

(e) Policy 4. In order to maintain rural character, infill development and redevelopment within LAMIRDs should minimize impervious surfaces in order to maintain a more “open” or “rural” atmosphere; should have increased setbacks, buffers, and screening to separate land uses from adjacent rural residential zones; should incorporate measures to reduce the impacts of noise, odor, and traffic; and should require high-quality landscaping designed to protect rural character.

(f) Policy 5. Any request for a change in LAMIRD boundaries constitutes a proposed Type C Comprehensive Plan and Zoning Map amendment under the Clallam County Comprehensive Plan at CCC 31.08.305(3), and under the Clallam County Zoning Code at CCC 33.35.015(3).

Table 31.02.263(A)
– LAMIRD Land Use and Zoning Designations 

General LAMIRD Type

Regional Planning Area

Rural Residential LAMIRDs

Urban Residential High (URH)

Sequim-Dungeness (Sunland)

Urban Residential Low (URL)

Sequim-Dungeness (Sunland)

Rural Suburban Community (RSC)

Sequim-Dungeness (Bell/Highland Hill)

Rural (R1)

Sequim-Dungeness, Port Angeles, and Straits (Various areas)

Western Region Rural (RW1)

Western (Various areas)

Quillayute Residential (QR)

Western (Various areas)

Rural Moderate (R2)

Sequim-Dungeness (Various areas)

Rural Center/Village LAMIRDs

Blyn Rural Center (CEN)

Sequim-Dungeness (Blyn)

Rural Village (RV)

Sequim-Dungeness (Dungeness Village)

Rural Village Low (RVL)

Sequim-Dungeness (Dungeness Village)

Western Region Rural Center (WRC)

Western [Sappho, Lake Pleasant, Quillayute Airport, and Mora Road/La Push Road Junction (Three Rivers) areas]

Rural Commercial/Mixed Use LAMIRDs

Rural Commercial (RC)

Sequim-Dungeness (US 101-Three Areas)

Diamond Point Airport (DPA)

Sequim-Dungeness (Diamond Point Airport)

Rural Neighborhood Commercial (RNC)

Sequim-Dungeness, Port Angeles, and Straits (Various areas)

Rural Limited Commercial (RLC)

Sequim-Dungeness, Port Angeles, and Straits (Various areas)

Tourist Commercial (TC)

Western (Beaver, Whitcomb-Dimmel Road, and US 101 Bogachiel Bridge areas).

Small-Scale Recreational LAMIRDs

Tourist Rural (TR)

Straits (Crescent Beach Area)

31.02.265 Existing rural centers.

There are rural centers in the County that have some characteristics of urban growth, but are not spread over wide areas requiring urban governmental services. These areas, which include Blyn, Diamond Point, Dungeness Village, Sappho, Sunland, Beaver/Lake Pleasant, and Three Rivers, should continue as LAMIRDs, within the logical outer boundaries as designated under CCC 31.02.263 with commercial uses to be focused on serving the local community or the traveling public. In some areas of the West End, industrial uses may be appropriate where uses prior to or as of July 1, 1990, included industrial uses, and provided that adequate facilities and services are provided.

31.02.270 Master planned resorts.

A master planned resort, with a primary focus on destination resort facilities consisting of short-term visitor accommodations and indoor or outdoor recreational facilities could be proposed within Clallam County. Due to the potential long-term economic benefit of a master planned resort to the County’s economy, consideration to siting these resorts in forested or rural areas should be made.

(1) Master planned resorts may be located outside urban growth areas provided that the following criteria and mitigation measures are met:

(a) The resort, including buffers and open space under the control of the development, is sited on a parcel or parcels of land no less than 240 contiguous acres.

(b) Existing State or County roads are adequate, or need minimal improvements, to serve the development.

(c) Capital facilities, utilities, and services, including those related to sewer, water, storm water, security, fire suppression, and emergency medical, provided on-site shall be limited to meeting the needs of the master planned resort. Such facilities, utilities, and services may be provided to a master planned resort by outside service providers, including municipalities and special purpose districts, provided that all costs associated with service extensions and capacity increases directly attributable to the master planned resort are fully borne by the resort. A master planned resort and service providers may enter into agreements for shared capital facilities and utilities; provided, that such facilities and utilities serve only the master planned resort or urban growth areas.

(d) A buffer is required adequate to ensure that harvesting of timber or crops on adjacent resource lands is not precluded.

(e) Notice regarding adjacent resource lands and the potential nuisance and conflicts is provided to future property owners.

(f) New urban and suburban land uses (densities one dwelling per acre or greater) are precluded within one mile of the resort, unless located within an existing urban growth area.

(g) The County finds that the land is better suited, and has more long-term economic importance, for the master planned resort than for the commercial harvesting of timber or agricultural production, if located on land that otherwise would be designated as forest or agricultural land of long-term commercial significance.

(h) The master planned resort is consistent with development regulations of the County to protect critical areas.

(i) On-site and off-site infrastructure impacts are fully considered and mitigated.

(j) The primary focus of the resort is on short-term visitor accommodations and indoor and/or outdoor recreational facilities. Development approval of the resort must provide mechanisms to ensure that the resort does not become a residential subdivision, such as establishing a minimum ratio of short-term to long-term accommodations.

(k) Provision shall be made for protecting or mitigating impacts to existing and newly discovered historic, archaeological and cultural sites within the master planned resort area.

31.02.275 Commercial and industrial land uses.

Commercial and industrial land uses in Clallam County should generally be focused into the designated urban growth areas. Land designated for commercial or industrial uses which encourage adjacent urban development shall not be located outside a UGA. Some types of commercial or industrial land uses may be appropriately located outside of urban growth areas, including those uses that are objectionable due to nuisance characteristics, size or potential for danger; uses that provide convenient service and reduce traffic demands, such as gas stations and neighborhood convenience stores; continuation of uses that were previously permitted prior to passage of the Growth Management Act; campus-style developments, such as Battelle in Sequim, that do not change the rural character of the area; and master-planned resorts with commercial components and which rely on rural or forested settings.

(1) Major commercial development should be located in urban growth areas where adequate public facilities and services exist or can be provided in an efficient manner. Regional shopping malls, large retail shopping centers, fast-food restaurants, car dealerships, financial institutions, grocery stores, and other types of uses typically found in urban areas and not in rural areas should be limited to urban growth areas.

(2) Major industrial development should be located in urban growth areas where adequate public facilities and services exist or can be provided in an efficient manner. Industrial parks, manufacturing facilities, etc. should be generally limited to urban growth areas. Those industrial uses that are objectionable due to nuisance characteristics, size or potential for danger may be located outside of urban growth areas provided that they do not encourage adjacent urban development, are largely self contained, cause no nuisance to adjacent properties (noise, dust, light, etc.) and do not require the extension of urban governmental services outward from urban growth areas, such as water and sewer. In some areas of the West End, industrial uses may be appropriate, as long as adequate facilities and services are provided.

(3) Campus-like research firms, high-tech industries or light manufacturing may be located outside urban growth areas provided that such development does not encourage adjacent urban development, is compatible with adjacent rural or resource lands, is consistent with regional or subarea plans and is served by adequate public facilities and services. In such circumstances, the projects should meet the following performance standards:

(a) Existing transportation networks serving the site are adequate to handle traffic without adversely impacting adjacent land uses. When locating in rural areas, significant increases in traffic volumes should not be expected. Occasional deliveries of materials or supplies is permitted; consistent traffic should be prohibited unless accessing directly onto Highway 101 at improved intersections.

(b) The types of light manufacturing, research facilities or corporate offices should be limited to those uses that will not cause impacts to adjoining lands from dust, noise, light and glare or other nuisances inconsistent with the need for peace and quiet in rural areas.

(c) These facilities should be located on large parcels of land (minimum of 10 to 40 acres), buffered such that buildings, parking, etc. are not readily visible from streets or adjoining properties, and self-contained with services, such as sewage and water.

(4) Small rural villages, such as Agnew, Dungeness, Carlsborg, and Beaver should continue to be encouraged where convenient services, such as gas, food, taverns, restaurants, lodging and stores would be located. The size, location and distribution of these rural villages should be determined through regional or subarea comprehensive plans. Significant historical sites should be protected within these rural villages.

(5) Commercial and industrial areas should be reasonably grouped so that it is easier and less costly in the future to develop and maintain water supply, sewage disposal, solid waste disposal, transportation, fire and police protection.

(6) Home occupations and home-based industries within urban, rural and resource areas should be encouraged if they do not significantly increase traffic, noise, odor or detract from the residential character of the surrounding area.

(7) In order to encourage development that is transit and pedestrian friendly, and does not cause unnecessary congestion and hazards with traffic along State highways, commercial and industrial development in urban growth areas should be encouraged to group together in mall-type developments with depth from the State highway rather than in a strip along the highway. These commercial and industrial areas should be served by transit stops, pedestrian systems and frontage roads when feasible.

31.02.280 Housing.

The Growth Management Act (GMA) includes a planning goal to encourage the availability of affordable housing to all economic segments of the population of this State, promote a variety of residential densities and housing types, and encourage preservation of existing housing stock.

The GMA requires a County comprehensive plan housing element that includes:

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An inventory and analysis of existing and projected housing needs;

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Identifying the number of housing units necessary to manage projected growth;

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A statement of goals, policies, objectives, and provisions for the preservation, improvement, and development of housing, including single-family residences;

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Identifying sufficient land for housing, including, but not limited to, government-assisted housing, housing for low-income families, manufactured housing, multifamily housing, and group homes and foster care facilities;

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Provisions for the existing and projected needs of all economic segments of the community.

(1) Housing Element. In addition to this section, this plan contains the following sections incorporated as part of the housing element:

(a) CCC 31.02.210 through 31.02.255 governing urban growth area issues;

(b) CCC 31.02.285 governing essential public facilities, including in-patient facilities, group homes, and secure community transition facilities;

(c) CCC 31.02.510 and 31.02.520 governing affordable housing and providing policies recommending approaches to expand opportunities for the development of affordable housing; and

(d) Various sections in the respective regional plans providing additional details for the management of subarea housing needs and resources.

(2) The following supplemental reports are incorporated by reference as part of the housing element. They provide an inventory and analysis of the County’s existing and projected housing needs, as well as a written record of unique local circumstances to be considered in devising goals, policies, and objectives to preserve, improve, and develop affordable housing to all economic segments of the County’s population:

(a) Urban Growth Areas Analysis and 10-Year Review, May 2007;

(b) Measuring Housing Need: A Data Toolkit for Clallam County, May 2006;

(c) Draft Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness in Clallam County, December 2005;

(d) Draft Rural Lands Report, December 2006, as supplemented; and

(e) Draft LAMIRDs Report (Limited Areas of More Intensive Rural Development), September 2006, as supplemented.

(3) Housing Issues. The reports referenced above include, but are not limited to, the following findings and conclusions as to Clallam County’s unique local circumstances relating to housing needs:

(a) The 2007 State population estimate for Clallam County was 68,500 persons (OFM, 2007). According to the Urban Growth Areas Analysis and 10-Year Review (“UGA Report”), growth trends support utilizing the State growth management 2000 – 2025 High Series Population Forecast (OFM, 2002) for Clallam County of 86,927 persons. Based on this forecast, the County needs to plan housing for approximately 18,427 new people between 2007 and 2025. Most of this population increase is anticipated to occur within Central and Eastern Clallam County.

The County allocated growth to urban growth areas (“UGAs”) in consideration of historical trends, policies supporting a shift in population growth to urban areas, city projections, and corresponding infrastructure planning and investments.

The “UGA Report” calculates the number of housing units needed in each UGA to accommodate existing population plus its allocated share of the 20-year growth using OFM figures for average people per household (“PPH”) and concludes that there is an adequate supply of land within each UGA to accommodate new housing units necessary for its allocation of urban population growth.

The “UGA Report” describes how each UGA provides for a variety of housing densities, which serve to protect the character of existing residential areas and allow for new single-family and multifamily housing developments. Commercial areas that provide for mixed use developments also address GMA and Comprehensive Plan policies for a variety of urban housing choices and affordable housing. Larger areas of undeveloped land within UGAs, efficient use of existing infrastructure, careful infrastructure investment strategies, and adequate capacity help to stabilize land values for the provision of affordable housing.

(b) According to Measuring Housing Need: A Data Toolkit for Clallam County, population growth in the County is primarily due to an influx of retirees; while there is a loss of younger people, resulting in a median age of 43.8 in 2000, compared to 35.3 in Washington State. Clallam County households are becoming smaller, with an increase in single person households, including the elderly. In 1999, 25 percent of households in Washington State had an annual income less than $25,000; in Clallam County, 33 percent. In 1999, 13 percent of Clallam County’s population lived in poverty; increasing housing and utilities costs since that time continue to reduce the number of housing options affordable to many working families and place a great burden on low-income households. The report identified mobile homes as an important housing component in Clallam County, constituting 17 percent of total housing units in 2000 when compared to eight percent Statewide. Forks and Sequim, in particular, contain high numbers of mobile home units.

The report includes strategies to be considered by local jurisdictions to expand, improve, or maintain quality affordable housing, including specific strategies designed to provide affordable housing and meet the demand for diversity of housing choices, which are included verbatim at CCC 31.02.510(3).

(c) According to the Draft Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness in Clallam County, the County has been a leader in the development of a continuum of care to address homelessness, counting our homeless, and developing a plan to end local homelessness. The Continuum of Care/Shelter Providers Network has been meeting since 1989, working to identify and address gaps in services and coordinate delivery of services to local homeless individuals and families. It is comprised of representatives from housing (shelter, transitional, permanent), social services, healthcare, domestic violence, mental health, veterans, church groups, substance abuse, education, employment, tribal, and legal services. In 2004, the group began working on a 10-year plan to end homelessness with numerous drafts developed, disseminated, and discussed during meetings and at two public forums.

In 2005, Clallam County established the Homelessness Task Force Fund, financed by a surcharge of $10 for each document recorded, pursuant to Chapter 43.185C RCW and established the Homelessness Task Force to serve as an advisory committee to the Board of Commissioners. Members of the Task Force include representatives from the Clallam County Health and Human Services Department; the cities of Port Angeles, Sequim and Forks; Clallam County Tribal Governments; Olympic Medical Center; Clallam County Housing Authority; Peninsula Community Mental Health; Healthy Families; West End Outreach; Serenity House of Clallam County; Olympic Community Action Programs; United Way of Clallam County; WorkSource; Law and Justice Council; a representative of the business community; a representative of the faith community; a representative of landlord/property management; and three representatives from the homeless or formerly homeless community. The Task Force reviewed and approved the Draft Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness in Clallam County and recommended adoption. On December 13, 2005, Clallam County adopted the Draft Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness in Clallam County, and in 2006, was the successful recipient of a $1,000,000 homeless grant assistance program grant, to be distributed over three years, to address homelessness issues.

(d) According to the Draft Rural Lands Report, as supplemented, at about 40 people per square mile, Clallam County is a rural county. The County was on the State’s distressed counties list for 30 years, only being removed in 2004, making it imperative to exercise the flexibility granted rural counties under the GMA to maintain land use policies designed to attract and accommodate economic development and affordable housing for all segments of its population. With more than 85 percent of its land designated as natural resource and public lands, the County is assured extensive rural character. This extensive rural character is attracting retirees and newcomers in search of a “rural quality of life” while extensive natural resource and public lands leave only nine percent available for rural designations, including LAMIRDs. As these newcomers provide much-needed diversification of the County’s economy, it is imperative to accommodate their housing needs.

(e) According to the Draft LAMIRDs Report (Limited Areas of More Intensive Rural Development), as supplemented, LAMIRDs, identified at CCC 31.02.263, provide residential infill opportunities in areas already characterized by existing commercial, industrial, residential, or mixed use development, providing rural quality of life housing opportunities to newcomers and affordable housing opportunities for natural resource and recreation-industry workers close to where they work. This is especially important in the West End which depends heavily on these industries for its economic (re)development. The West End is characterized by remoteness, long distances, and difficult driving conditions, making it unreasonable to expect workers to commute to UGAs.

(4) Policies. Based on consideration of all of the growth management goals and unique local circumstances, Clallam County adopts the following policies to achieve its goal of ensuring a variety of housing options to all economic segments of the population, and to create vital communities where people live close to work, attend school, receive services and recreate, and have access to viable public and multi-model transportation options:

(a) Urban growth areas shall be adequately sized to guard against negative market fluctuations attributed to artificially tight land supply and shall promote a variety of housing types, including multifamily, single-family, mixed uses, affordable housing, and accessory living units.

(b) New high density, mixed use, affordable housing developments, and manufactured housing (mobile home) parks should be focused in urban growth areas that have the infrastructure and services to support them.

(c) Rural areas should promote a focus on single-family housing and accessory housing units, using a mix of densities, development regulations, and incentives to provide rural lifestyle opportunities while retaining rural character and protecting more remotely located low density rural and natural resource lands from conversion pressures.

(d) LAMIRDs, as identified at CCC 31.02.263, should be available to provide residential infill opportunities in areas already characterized by existing commercial, industrial, residential, or mixed use development, providing rural lifestyle and affordable housing opportunities.

(e) Accessory housing units (AHUs) should be allowed to provide much needed affordable housing opportunities throughout the County. AHUs provide general convenience for landowners to accommodate family and guests with independent living quarters; accommodating unique or special housing needs and circumstances such as caretaking housing; and allow opportunities for housing above businesses without consuming valuable commercial and industrial land base. AHUs do not require extension of any public and private transportation facilities or utility services. To limit impacts to a neighborhood or rural character, public health and safety, groundwater resources, and governmental services, AHUs shall be clearly incidental and subordinate to the primary land use and subject to size and structure type limitations, water and wastewater disposal standards, certificates of occupancy, design standards, and recorded title notices. The existence of AHUs shall not serve as justification for amending the Official Comprehensive Future Land Use and Zoning Maps to allow for increased densities.

(f) Housing in commercial forestlands should be strictly limited to parcels that pre-existed the commercial forest designation and/or do not interfere with commercial forest production.

(g) Housing in designated commercial and industrial areas should support the primary use of those areas or shall be part of mixed use developments such as affordable housing opportunities above commercial facilities.

(h) Housing in critical areas should be consistent with the policies to protect them from incompatible development.

(5) New residential development should not cause the level of service on locally owned transportation facilities to decline below the standards adopted in the Transportation Element of the County’s Comprehensive Plan.

(6) Capital facilities plans and funding should be integrated with land use plans to ensure timely replacement and rehabilitation of substandard infrastructure in order to accommodate future housing demands and to maintain existing housing stock.

31.02.285 Public utilities, facilities and services.

Public utilities, facilities and services include streets, roads, highways, sidewalks, street and road lighting systems, traffic signals, domestic water systems, storm and sanitary sewer systems, parks and recreational facilities, schools, electrical lines, telecommunication lines, fire protection, law enforcement, public health, environmental protection and other governmental services. This section will briefly describe the proposed general distribution, location and extent of public utilities, facilities and services to be available throughout Clallam County which encourages urban growth and discourages sprawl. For more specific policies, please refer to the utilities or transportation section.

(1) Transportation Systems. [Policy No. 1] The transportation network shall be established to encourage development within urban growth areas and discourage growth in rural areas. To achieve this goal, the County should:

(a) Place a high priority on investment and expenditure of limited public funds in the transportation system in urban growth areas and limit investment and expenditure in rural areas to arterial development connecting communities and neighborhoods, and maintenance of the existing transportation system.

(b) Discourage proliferation of stoplights on Highway 101 in rural or resource land areas.

(c) Limit publicly funded new road construction in rural and resource areas except where needed to address emergency service response or respond to natural disasters.

(d) Focus development of pedestrian systems in urban growth areas, except where part of a regional plan or to serve existing areas.

(e) Encourage transit to serve urban growth areas and routes along the regional transportation system. Limit regular transit service in rural areas except where such service is provided to regional attractions, such as Dungeness Spit, Hurricane Ridge, etc., or where such service serves as an interconnection between urban areas.

(2) Domestic Water Systems.

(a) [Policy No. 2] Municipal water systems should be provided within urban growth areas. The County, Public Utility District and cities should work cooperatively to encourage expansion of water systems within the urban growth areas and identification of the appropriate service provider and service standards.

(b) [Policy No. 3] Municipal (city-owned) water systems in rural areas should be limited to those areas that can demonstrate water quantity limitations, water quality problems or demonstrate hydraulic continuity to rivers or streams. Expansion of water systems within existing service boundaries should be permitted, as well as the interconnection of existing rural systems.

(c) [Policy No. 4] Extension or the existence of public water service in designated rural areas or resource lands shall not result in or be justification for higher density than that anticipated by a regional or subarea land use plan.

(3) Fire Protection. [Policy No. 5] Fire protection and suppression facilities in urban areas should receive first priority. Fire hydrants and suppression facilities in rural areas should not be required except for commercial/industrial uses.

(4) Sanitary Waste Disposal.

(a) [Policy No. 6] Public sanitary sewer systems should be provided within urban growth areas. The County, Public Utility District and cities should work cooperatively to encourage expansion of sanitary sewer systems within the urban growth areas and identification of the appropriate service provider and service standards.

(b) [Policy No. 7] Public sanitary sewer systems shall be prohibited in rural areas except when on-site sewage disposal systems pose a threat or risk to public health, as determined by the Clallam County Board of Health.

(c) [Policy No. 8] On-site sewage disposal systems will be considered an appropriate waste disposal method in rural and resource areas.

(d) [Policy No. 9] In those circumstances where extension of public sanitary sewer systems into rural or resource lands is declared necessary, such as an essential public facility (school or State correction center) or an area with failing systems, the sewage lines from the urban area should be for transmission only (tightlines) and sized only to serve the area declared necessary.

(5) Schools and Cultural Facilities.

(a) [Policy No. 10] Public school facilities should be located in urban growth areas where adequate transportation systems, public services and residents are available. Public school facilities should be discouraged from locating in rural areas except where necessary to serve existing school populations.

(b) [Policy No. 11] Cultural facilities including museums, libraries, and theaters should be located in urban growth areas where adequate public facilities and services exist.

(6) Parks and Recreation.

(a) [Policy No. 12] Clallam County should acquire, develop and maintain park facilities and programs that will serve the needs of communities larger than the local neighborhood or urban area but less than multicounty, State-wide, or national in scope.

(b) [Policy No. 13] Active recreation facilities, such as ballfields, tennis courts and swimming pools, should generally be located within urban growth areas and provided by a city, nonprofit or special recreation district.

(c) [Policy No. 14] Neighborhood parks are encouraged within urban growth areas as set forth in adopted regional, subarea or park and recreation plans.

(d) [Policy No. 15] Recognize and support the maintenance and expansion of marine facilities, including boat launches, docks, and marinas as a significant recreational and economic asset to the County.

(7) Electrical/Telecommunication Lines. [Policy No. 16] Electric and telecommunication services are needed throughout Clallam County.

(8) Essential Public Facilities. [Policy No. 17] Essential public facilities are public capital facilities of a County-wide or State-wide nature which are typically difficult to site. Essential public facilities may be located in designated commercial forest or rural lands provided the County finds that such facilities cannot otherwise be located in urban areas, are largely self-contained or served by urban governmental services in a manner that adjacent rural or urban development is not promoted, and the facility does not cause nuisances (noise, dust, light, etc.) on adjacent properties that cannot be adequately mitigated. The siting of essential public facilities in resource lands should not interfere with resource management on adjacent resource lands.

31.02.310 Natural, historical, and cultural resource issues.

In putting forth growth management legislation, Washington State recognized that the environment, open space and recreation, historical and archaeological resources, and citizen participation and coordination were integral to quality of life of its citizens. The State, and Clallam County, have acknowledged that growth itself can degrade the environment. Careful management is necessary to limit the environmental impacts of growth. Identifying and encouraging the preservation of lands, sites, and structures that have historical or archaeological significance can help put into perspective the development of our natural and physical resources.

Quality of life elements – clean air and water, open space, public access to recreational opportunities, historic and cultural sites – draw new residents, businesses, and tourists to Clallam County. This quality of life can be used to attract employment and business to the area which meet the needs of local and regional residents, enhance the local economic base, yet do not degrade the environment. A healthy environment is a valuable economic asset worth protecting and building upon, as well as an aesthetic amenity for residents and tourists.

Clallam County recognizes that our wetlands, streams, and aquifers are essential elements of infrastructure much as roads, culverts, and other structural facilities are essential to the developed environment. Loss of function and value due to degradation, contamination, or outright destruction has the potential to affect not only the well-being of individual landowners, but the community as a whole. Uncontrolled and untreated stormwater carried through our waterways damages the entire system, with large cumulative effects downstream. Loss of water storage capacity must be replaced using public funds and at a high cost. Fish, shellfish, and wildlife have economic benefits for tourism as well as commercial and recreational harvest, but more importantly, indicate the overall health of our watersheds. Shellfish, whether harvested or not, perform a valuable function in filtering contaminants from water. Flood damage can devastate community resources, with human health and safety impacts, economic losses, and loss of infrastructure and habitat. Aquifers are rechargeable, but remediation of a contaminated drinking water supply is costly and sometimes impossible. While we enjoy clean air in Clallam County, airborne contaminants can be transported to our land and water resources during precipitation.

The citizens of Clallam County have invested time, energy, and tax dollars in implementing education, incentive, and regulatory programs to prevent nonpoint source pollution through citizen-based watershed management plans. Because a portion of Clallam County is in the Puget Sound Basin, local activities have regional impacts on a national resource. Clallam County has a responsibility to protect citizens’ investment in environmental quality.

One of the best ways to protect the environment is through the simple retention and protection of open space. Left alone, reserve lands act as buffers between developed areas and sensitive habitat, provide wildlife corridors, and protect and enhance the aesthetic values associated with water resources. Fragmented habitat leaves native plants and animals vulnerable to predation and invasion by non-native species. By providing open space, connecting open space corridors, and maintaining open space as buffers between land uses, the plant and animal communities unique to the Olympic Peninsula can be protected.

In managing environmental and open space resources, the County should recognize development rights as well as other private property rights. Private property cannot be taken for public use without just compensation. Incentives provided to landowners would encourage them to provide public benefit or amenities on private property. Other programs, including purchase of development rights, would work towards conserving lands for public benefit.

A variety of environmentally oriented tourist and recreational opportunities exist in Clallam County; however, the limited availability of public access to recreation results in high-use impacts to a few isolated areas. Intensive, unmanaged public access can damage riparian and estuarine values and increase maintenance needs. A balanced approach which provides wider opportunities for the public to enjoy the benefits of a clean, healthy environment, but ensures that the environment remains clean and healthy, should be sought.

As land develops, we marginally lose aesthetic values which contribute to the quality of life for our citizens. One of the benefits of rural living often taken for granted until lost is the ability to observe the night sky. Residential and commercial lighting, while desirable for public safety, can diminish our opportunities to observe and reflect upon the universe in which we live.

A variety of historical and cultural (archaeological) resources exist in Clallam County. The unincorporated areas do not have the concentration of historical resources found in the more urbanized areas, such as Port Angeles. These resources enhance the County’s overall quality of life and create a sense of local identity and history. Clallam County can contribute to the stewardship of historical and cultural resources through careful planning and review.

31.02.320 Environment and open space goals.

(1) General.

(a) [Policy No. 1] Best conventional technology shall be used to prevent or treat the environmental impacts of conventional pollutants.

(b) [Policy No. 2] Prevention is less expensive than cleaning up pollution later. Clallam County should consider the potential impacts and costs of treatment or remediation for environmental degradation resulting from land use practices, before such practices are allowed.

(c) [Policy No. 3] The critical areas ordinance shall be utilized by Clallam County to help achieve environmental objectives, prevent environmental degradation, and to manage land use activities within the natural and intrinsic constraints of the landscape. The interim critical areas ordinance which classifies, designates and protects critical areas shall be adopted as the County’s final critical areas ordinance. The ordinance shall be amended as necessary to implement watershed or special area studies and to maintain consistency with the Comprehensive Plan. Practices under this chapter should be evaluated periodically to ensure regulatory effectiveness in achieving stated objectives and fair notification to affected property owners.

(d) [Policy No. 4] Education and incentives should be provided to citizens to ensure their understanding of the principles behind regulatory protection and to increase support for protection outside of the regulatory framework.

(e) [Policy No. 5] Clallam County shall work with other agencies, tribes and individuals to prevent additional listing of fish, wildlife and plants under the Endangered Species Act through pro-active (rather than reactive) planning and implementation of proper land use practices.

(2) Regional Plans.

(a) [Policy No. 6] Special geographic regions in and across the County may have management needs with respect to stream corridors, aquifer recharge areas, and watersheds and open spaces, of a more particular nature than the goals and policies within the generalized Comprehensive Plan. Locally applicable environmental and open space policies should be developed through regional plans, consistent with the overall goals of the County-wide Comprehensive Plan.

(b) [Policy No. 7] Regional plans shall address, at a minimum, the issues described in the Comprehensive Plan, and should take into account local conditions, development patterns, and community values. Existing watershed and water resource management policies should be incorporated into regional plans where consistent, and be revised to ensure consistency with regional and County-wide comprehensive plans.

(c) [Policy No. 8] Public involvement is recognized as an essential component of developing regional plans, and planning should incorporate a range of opportunities for such involvement so as to promote community ownership of plans and stewardship during implementation.

(3) Wetlands. [Policy No. 9] Clallam County shall work to achieve no net loss of regulated wetlands while allowing a reasonable use of property, with regard to their functions and values, in the short-term and should work to achieve a long-term net gain in these attributes through restoration and enhancement. The public acquisition of important wetland areas should be pursued. The natural abilities of wetlands to provide recreational, educational, historical and cultural values should also be protected.

(4) Groundwater.

(a) [Policy No. 10] The close relationship between surface and groundwater should be recognized, and protection of the surface-groundwater interface must be ensured. Clallam County should develop performance standards and regulate activities which can adversely impact water quality or quantity in aquifers, surface waters, and watersheds.

(b) [Policy No. 11] Clallam County has a responsibility to protect the quality of groundwater used for domestic water supplies. Water provision and waste disposal should be provided by the most efficient method available which does not jeopardize existing resources.

(c) [Policy No. 12] To protect quality and quantity of essential aquifers for current and future needs, Clallam County should encourage water conservation measures for all land uses; support water conservation measures and educate residents on methods to conserve water; and promote the application and implementation of water-conserving landscaping plans. Clallam County should undertake further studies of the groundwater regime of the County so that the factors influencing the quantity, quality and flow patterns of groundwater are more precisely known.

(5) Water Resources.

(a) [Policy No. 13] Municipal and residential water withdrawals should be directed to locations and depths so as to minimize the risk of hydraulic continuity, or to where the water withdrawal will not cause impacts on instream flow requirements for fish.

(b) [Policy No. 14] Water should be used from the hydrologic unit from which it is derived, and water resources should be kept within the region.

(c) [Policy No. 15] Conservation and efficiency strategies for water resources should be developed and implemented region-wide to provide the most efficient use of all water resources.

(6) Marine Resources.

(a) [Policy No. 16] Clallam County should work to achieve alternatives for sewage treatment plant discharges to marine waters.

(b) [Policy No. 17] Clallam County shall preserve the scenic, aesthetic and ecological qualities of the marine shorelines of Clallam County, in harmony with those uses which are deemed essential to the life of its citizens. Clallam County shall implement marine resource goals through the Clallam County Shoreline Master Program and/or critical areas ordinance, as now or hereafter amended.

(7) Habitat.

(a) [Policy No. 18] Land use practices should protect and enhance habitat corridors, diversity and richness, and ensure protection of wildlife corridors and habitat for threatened and endangered species. Wildlife corridors and riparian areas should be maintained as important community infrastructure.

(b) [Policy No. 19] Clallam County should protect, maintain and enhance fish and shellfish spawning, rearing, and migration habitat, and work to ensure harvestability of fish and shellfish. Damaged and degraded habitat should be identified, prioritized and restored. Recognize the various levels of government which have a vested interest in protection, maintenance and restoration of habitat.

(c) [Policy No. 20] Clallam County shall recognize the large number of salmon and steelhead stocks that have been classified as critical or depressed. The County shall work toward prevention of these stocks from being listed as threatened and endangered through habitat restoration and land use practices which cause no further degradation to habitat needs.

(8) Runoff and Erosion. [Policy No. 21] Stormwater quality and quantity should be managed to protect shellfish beds, fish habitat, and other resources; to prevent the contamination of sediments from urban runoff and combined sewer overflows; and to achieve standards for water and sediment quality by reducing and eventually eliminating harm from pollutant discharges from stormwater and combined sewer overflows. This goal should be achieved through a variety of means including:

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Protection of natural drainages, habitat and wetlands;

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Use of best management practices to control and treat pollution at the source;

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Control of erosion and sedimentation from development;

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Requirements for stormwater facilities concurrent with new development;

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Development of watershed or basin plans;

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Implementation of operation and maintenance programs for publicly owned stormwater systems;

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Requirements for operation and maintenance of privately owned stormwater systems;

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Public education about stormwater impacts and effects of waste oil dumping; and

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Monitoring compliance and publishing the results.

(9) Floodplains.

(a) [Policy No. 22] Flood control should be undertaken in the context of varied uses including agricultural and residential, fish and wildlife habitat, water supply, open space, and recreation. Land use and related regulations and zoning should reflect the natural constraints of floodplains, meander zones, and riparian habitat zones. Flood control measures should reserve to the fullest extent possible opportunities for other uses, including public access.

(b) [Policy No. 23] Flood control should be undertaken in the context of an ongoing, systematic and comprehensive approach to basin management and preservation. Changes in land use should try to restore the natural character of rivers and streams whenever reasonably possible. Public understanding of the various uses and limitations associated with flood control should be improved through a variety of educational efforts. A stable, adequate, and publicly acceptable long-term source of financing should be established and maintained for comprehensive basin management.

(c) [Policy No. 24] To limit potential for infrastructure damage from major and minor flood events, low intensity land use activities including agricultural and recreational land uses in floodplain areas should be encouraged, and other land uses in these areas discouraged. The need for emergency measures should be reduced or prevented through planning, structural, and nonstructural measures.

(d) [Policy No. 25] To protect habitat from flood damage and recognize upstream and downstream effects from flood management activities, Clallam County should require best management practices for maintaining natural river channel configurations during dredging and gravel removal. Nonstructural measures are preferred over structural measures, but, when structural methods are necessary, they shall not obstruct fish passage. Structural flood control measures should preserve or enhance existing flow characteristics for fisheries, irrigation, and other river uses. Flood control activities should not result in net loss to fish and wildlife resources, but wherever possible develop or improve diversity of habitat for those resources.

(10) Hazardous Areas. [Policy No. 26] The public should be protected from personal injury, loss of life, or property damage from environmental hazards. Land use practices in hazard areas should not cause or exacerbate natural processes which endanger the lives, property and resources of citizens. Undevelopable hazardous areas should be utilized as open space whenever possible.

(11) Air, Noise and Light.

(a) [Policy No. 27] Clallam County should promote a high level of air quality for maximum visibility for scenic views, elimination of pollutant transport, reduction in adverse health impacts, and minimization of noxious effects of airborne particulates.

(b) [Policy No. 28] To reduce light pollution while meeting the needs for public safety, encourage the use of reflectors and appropriate aiming on new outdoor lighting to minimize the upward scattering of light. Performance standards for commercial lighting should be developed which minimize night glare and hours of operation at the minimum level to protect property and public safety.

(c) [Policy No. 29] Noise pollution should be reduced by providing for appropriate densities in rural areas and buffers between residential and non-residential land uses in urban areas. Street trees and landscaping should be required to filter dust, reduce glare, and diffuse noise in commercial areas.

(12) Nonpoint Source Pollution. [Policy No. 30] Water resources shall be maintained in the highest quality and quantity to support recognized beneficial uses. To achieve this in the most efficient and cost-effective manner, water resource and waste management planning should be coordinated on a watershed basis across jurisdictional boundaries. The County should recognize and control the downstream and cumulative effects of individual practices on water resources. Education and incentives should be used as methods to prevent nonpoint source pollution.

(13) Solid Waste and Recycling.

(a) [Policy No. 31] Clallam County should attempt to attract businesses which can provide local solutions to waste disposal and recycling, including those which produce and/or utilize products from recycled materials.

(b) [Policy No. 32] Treatment and disposal of biosolids should be undertaken locally to minimize transportation costs for waste disposal and to encourage the safe operation and timely maintenance of sewage disposal systems.

(c) [Policy No. 33] Education and incentive programs on solid and hazardous waste reduction, recycling, and disposal, including those for households and small businesses, should be made available. Opportunities for the collection and disposal of household, agricultural, and commercial hazardous waste should be provided.

(14) Open Space and Public Access.

(a) [Policy No. 34] Public access, especially access to shorelines, should be provided and managed for educational opportunities, recreational needs and resource sensitivity to human intrusion. Sites for public access should be identified and prioritized for public acquisition through public-private partnerships, dedications, conservation easements, bond issues, fee and less than fee simple purchases. Governments and jurisdictions should plan and implement public use strategies on a cooperative and comprehensive basis.

(b) [Policy No. 35] Innovative land development options, such as planned unit developments and purchase of development rights, which provide economic incentives to conserve open spaces and their aesthetic appearance, should be pursued. Clallam County should provide incentives to encourage retention of open space, such as property tax reduction, education, and technical assistance.

(c) [Policy No. 36] Open space corridors should be maintained and connected where possible between and across urban areas, urban growth areas, and rural areas. Regional subarea comprehensive plans should identify open space corridors and the function they serve (e.g., fish and wildlife habitat, connection of critical areas, trails, etc.) Transportation corridors should be planned to prevent the fragmentation of open spaces. Demand for new or expanded transportation corridors within and outside urban growth areas should be minimized to support the protection of open spaces.

(d) [Policy No. 37] Open space should be retained in a natural state where possible to protect intrinsic functions and values.

(e) [Policy No. 38] Public access sites and public open spaces should provide for nonmotorized recreation and for transportation trails for citizens of all levels of ability. Educational and interpretive activities are a desirable component of public spaces, especially where water resources are present.

(f) [Policy No. 39] Motorized transportation and recreation trails are an appropriate use of public open space, provided that motorized vehicle use can be managed to prevent pollution impacts from erosion, fuels, exhaust and noise. Motorized activities should be compatible with existing recreational uses of the site and surrounding area but not negatively impact recognized significant plant and animal communities.

(15) Oil Processing and Transmission. [Policy No. 40] The coastline, coastal waters, and upland areas should be protected from the recognized problems and depreciation which could be brought about by oil ports and development associated with an oil port, oil storage, and oil pipeline. Other industries with high energy and water requirements, a high pollution component or which are incompatible with existing industries shall not be permitted. This includes, but is not limited to, oil ports and their associated developments, crude petroleum transfer facilities, tank farms and refineries, liquid natural gas transfer facilities, petrochemical plants and nuclear power and processing plants.

31.02.330 Historic and cultural resources.

(1) All jurisdictions should work individually and cooperatively to identify, record, study and encourage the preservation, maintenance and use of lands, sites, and structures that have historical and archaeological significance. The early identification and resolution of conflicts between preservation of historical or archaeological resources and competing land uses should be promoted and facilitated.

(2) Preserve, restore, and maintain significant historical and cultural resources, including visual quality, along the County’s scenic highways and roads.

(a) Avoid, minimize, or mitigate impacts of transportation projects on significant historical, cultural and archaeological resources.

(b) Cooperatively plan, implement, and maintain corridor management plans for all proposed and existing Washington State Scenic and Recreational Highways (Hwy. 101 and Hwy. 112). Identify the long-term landscape character desired for scenic and recreational highways and their related cultural resources, and implement landscape maintenance practices appropriate to ensure the resources’ lasting character.

(c) Discourage additional commercial development parallel (immediately adjacent) to scenic and recreational highways where it has a negative impact on the scenic character of the route.

(3) Clallam County shall recognize tribal nations in adoption of the Comprehensive Plan and development regulations. Affected tribal nations shall be notified of development applications prior to action and be given the opportunity to comment on the project’s impact to tribal rights, as required by the State Environmental Policy Act.

31.02.410 Transportation – Background issues.

(1) The transportation system, as defined by the Growth Management Act, is composed of air, water, land transportation facilities and services, including highways and streets, paths, trails, sidewalks, transit, airports, ports, and rail. Our transportation or circulation system should function to serve our mobility of goods and people based on land use patterns. The system should not be improved to strictly serve the single occupant vehicle if we aspire to meet growth demands, with conservative financial expenditures and a sensitivity to the environment. The transportation system should encourage alternative “modes” of transportation and convenient “intermodal” connections from one mode of travel to another.

The County is required to comply with concurrency by developing a concurrency management system for roads and transit routes. According to the Growth Management Act (RCW 36.70A.070), “Local jurisdictions must adopt and enforce ordinances which prohibit development approval if the development causes the level of service on a transportation facility to decline below the standards adopted in the transportation element of the Comprehensive Plan, unless transportation improvement or strategies to accommodate the impacts of development are made concurrent with the development.”

Level of service (LOS) standards are the gauge to measure whether transportation facilities are performing at acceptable levels and a way to identify capacity deficiencies. Please see Table 7 for description of level of service and Figure 31.02.410(A) for a graphic example. When level of service standards are adopted, they are used to gauge whether transportation improvements and strategies required to serve development are in place, or there is a financial commitment to have them in place within six years of development. This is otherwise known as concurrency: having necessary transportation facilities available to serve new development no later than the impacts of the new development.

When it is determined that a transportation facility will be deficient due to future development, there are five ways of complying with concurrency:

(a) Program funding within six years to maintain the facility at performance standard;

(b) Require the developer to bring the facility up to standard;

(c) Adjust land use plans to reduce demand caused by growth;

(d) Deny the individual development permit; or

(e) Implement alternative transportation demand management strategies, such as multimodal enhancements which reduce the demand on the transportation facility.

It is also possible to change the standards through amendment of the Comprehensive Plan. Changing the standards should be considered only within the context of all the policies and goals of the Comprehensive Plan and not be a result of individual hardships.

Table 7
– Roadway Level of Service Definitions 

LEVEL OF SERVICE

DEFINITION

A

Describes a condition of free flow with low volumes and high speeds. Freedom to select desired speeds and to maneuver within the traffic stream is extremely high. Stopped delay at intersections is minimal.

B

Represents reasonably unimpeded traffic flow operations at average travel speeds. The ability to maneuver within the traffic stream is only slightly restricted and stopped delays are not bothersome. Drivers are not generally subjected to appreciable tensions.

C

In the range of stable flow, but speeds and maneuverability are more closely controlled by the higher volumes. The selection of speed is now significantly affected by interactions with others in the traffic stream, and maneuvering within the traffic stream requires substantial vigilance on the part of the user. The general level of comfort and convenience declines noticeably at this level.

D

Represents high-density, but stable flow. Speed and freedom to maneuver are severely restricted, and the driver or pedestrian experiences a generally poor level of comfort and convenience. Small increases in traffic flow will generally cause operational problems at this level.

E

Represents operating conditions at or near the maximum capacity level. Freedom to maneuver within the traffic stream is extremely difficult, and it is generally accomplished by forcing a vehicle or pedestrian to “give way” to accommodate such maneuvers. Comfort and convenience levels are extremely poor, and driver or pedestrian frustration is generally high. Operations at this level are usually unstable, because small increases in flow or minor disturbances within the traffic stream will cause breakdowns.

F

Describes forced or breakdown flow, where volumes are above theoretical capacity. This condition exists wherever the amount of traffic approaching a point exceeds the amount which can traverse the point. Queues form behind such locations, and operations within the queue are characterized by stop-and-go waves which are extremely unstable. Vehicles may progress at reasonable speeds for several hundred feet or more, then be required to stop in a cyclic fashion.

Source: Transportation Research Board, Highway Capacity Manual Special Report 209, Washington, D.C, 1985

Figure 31.02.410(A)

This chapter addresses transportation goals and policies that prioritize moving people and goods at an acceptable level of service, regionally and locally. The chapter also guides an effective concurrency management system into place that allows growth where transportation facilities exist and takes advantage of travel modes which minimize maintenance costs and eliminate system expansion needs.

(2) The Growth Management Act requires local jurisdictions to designate public use airports as essential public facilities (RCW 36.70A.200). Additionally, local jurisdictions must discourage incompatible land uses adjacent to public use general aviation airports (RCW 36.70A.547). The Washington State Department of Transportation – Aviation Division is charged with providing technical assistance to local governments to develop comprehensive plans and development regulations consistent with these requirements. The intent of the requirements is to protect the safety of people on the ground and in aircraft, the current operations of the airport, and the future viability of the airport.

(3) Title 14 CFR, Part 77 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) “Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace” (referred to herein as FAR Part 77) establishes standards for determining obstructions in navigable airspace. Part 77 provides horizontal and vertical dimensions for airspace protection surfaces above and around each airport runway. The horizontal size and vertical slope of the airspace protection surfaces are based on the category of the runway. The category of runway is based on the most precise type of approach available or planned for that runway. See Figure 31.02.410(B) for a diagram of airspace protection surfaces.

Figure 31.02.410(B)
– FAR Part 77 Diagram

31.02.415 Transportation – Inventory.

The Clallam County transportation system provides a wide variety of travel options for transportation by land, water and air. Today’s travel options include private vehicle, ferry, public transportation, bicycle or airplane. The main highway travel corridor through Clallam County is Highway 101 which carries up to 20,600 vehicles per day. The State highway and arterial road network allows access to all populated areas of the County and to Olympic National Park destinations. The ferry connection to Victoria, British Columbia and major air transportation facilities are located in Port Angeles. Small aircraft can be accommodated at several air strips located throughout the County. Public transportation is provided by the Clallam Transit bus system and connects with Jefferson County transit service. A system of existing roadways and bicycle trails enables County residents and visitors to use non-motorized travel options to access urban and rural locations in the County.

(1) Roads. The Clallam County road system consists of urban arterials and urban collectors, minor arterials, major and minor collectors, and rural roads. Roads approaching capacity deficiency are occurring along “rural roads” which no longer carry rural traffic counts. Substandard roads are prevalent in heavily short platted areas of the County. Points of congestion are typical at intersections entering and leaving Sequim and east of Port Angeles along State Highway 101. Clallam County transportation planning in conjunction with the Peninsula Regional Transportation Planning Organization has developed a gauge of reference to monitor and describe the deficiencies of roads. This “level of service” will indicate when a road or intersection has reached its threshold of performance.

The Clallam County Road Department maintains 487.32 miles of County road. Maintenance of the road system is aided by the implementation of a new pavement management system which involves videotaping the County roads. An up-to-date inventory of the County roads has been completed which logs the visual condition of roads and systematically records road characteristics in the computerized County Road Information System (CRIS). Road improvement programming and transportation planning is supported by the CRIS.

The federal financing of roads has changed dramatically with the passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, or ISTEA (pronounced “ice tea”). With this new federal assistance comes a new emphasis in planning for the entire transportation system, not just roadway components. Traditional roadway programs must be viewed as just one of many ways in which transportation deficiencies are handled. The classification of roads for service function becomes important when administering ISTEA. A road classified as rural will not compete nation-wide for financing as will an arterial road. Complex highway financing mechanisms will lead elected officials and planners to search for other means of meeting transportation needs such as bicycle and pedestrian facilities, carpools and vanpools, and public transportation.

(2) Port, Marine Terminals and Moorage. The Port of Port Angeles was created in 1922 and began operations shortly thereafter. Currently, the Port provides various transportation related facilities which include marine terminals, industrial districts and airports. The Port Angeles Harbor is the westernmost natural deepwater harbor in the Puget Sound which requires no dredging. The Port currently owns and operates two deep-water terminals with a total capacity of five vessels. The Port Angeles Boat Haven covers 16.1 acres on the south shore of the Port Angeles Harbor. Moorage space accommodates 563 commercial and recreational vessels. The marina provides 244 permanent moorage slips, plus 22 transient slips, and has an ultimate capacity of 355 slips.

The John Wayne Marina is located at Pitship Point on Sequim Bay. The marina lies within an area recently annexed to the City of Sequim. The marina provides 244 permanent moorage slips, plus 22 transient slips, and has an ultimate capacity of 355 slips. The facilities include water, electricity, fuel, a boat launch, a public service building, and recreational access.

Additional marina and moorage facilities are found in Sekiu, Neah Bay, and LaPush. These facilities provide moorage for commercial and recreational fishing, charters, and may provide greater opportunities for cruise boats, etc.

(3) Ferries. Black Ball Transport has provided ferry service between Victoria, B.C. and Port Angeles since 1959. The ferry, M.V. Coho, has capacity for 130 passenger vehicles on board and the ridership in 1993 carried 138,407 vehicles. The number of crossings per day varies with the season. The winter schedule is limited to one round-trip crossing, whereas the summer tourist season demands four round trips per day. The Coho accommodates over 550,000 passengers per year and transports 4,000 bicyclists. The trip crosses the Strait of Juan de Fuca in one hour and 35 minutes.

The Victoria Express is a walk-on passenger-only service and can traverse the strait in 55 minutes. The newly remodeled vessel can seat 148 passengers. Reservations are taken for the four daily round trips in the summer season and for the two round trips during May 15th – June 19th and September 8th – October 12th.

(4) Airports. There are five public use general aviation airports in Clallam County, shown on Figure 31.02.415(A) and described in subsections (4)(a) through (f) of this section, as well as 10 privately owned private use airports and three private use heliports listed in subsection (4)(g) of this section.

(a) Sequim Valley Airport, located three miles west of the City of Sequim, is a privately owned, public use general aviation airport. The airport has one runway, 09/27, suitable for single-engine to twin-turboprop aircraft. The majority use is privately owned, single-engine aircraft for recreational use. In 2003, there were 26 single-engine airplanes based at the airport with 8,000 annual operations. Navigational aids present include lighted runway, rotating beacon, unlighted wind cone, and a segmented circle. Facilities include aviation fuel, aviation maintenance and repair, a 420-by-55-foot T-hangar with 20 bays, 80-by-60-foot maintenance hangar, and a 15-by-50-foot operations center that serves private plane owners and operators. In 2005, there were limited commercial freight operations, charter operations, and no commercial passenger services. The airport is used for Medivac, firefighting, and Coast Guard operations.

(b) William R. Fairchild International Airport is located in the City of Port Angeles and owned by the Port of Port Angeles. The airport is a primary commercial service airport suitable for single-engine recreational aircraft, twin-turboprop aircraft, commercial freight operations, and occasionally larger aircraft as large as Boeing 737s. Navigational aids present include instrument landing system (ILS), visual approach slope indicator (VASI), non-directional beacons (NDB), runway end identifier lights (REIL), and medium intensity approach lighting system (MALSR). Commercial operations include aircraft repair and inspection, charter flights, flight instruction, freight operations, passenger service to King County International Airport – Boeing Field, and 64 T-hangers and T-sheds. The 5,000-square-foot terminal accommodates a restaurant, gift shop, and rental car service. The airport is used for Medivac, firefighting, and Coast Guard operations. The Port of Port Angeles has plans for additional hangars, commercial and industrial developments, and airport facility improvements. The Port sponsored an Airport Layout Plan completed in 1988 and a Noise Compatibility Study completed in 1986.

(c)  Sekiu Airport is located near the Strait of Juan de Fuca adjacent to the community of Sekiu/Clallam Bay. The airport is owned by the Port of Port Angeles and is available for public use. The airport has one runway, 08/26, suitable for single-engine aircraft. The majority of use is privately owned, single-engine aircraft for recreational purposes. In 2003, there were two single-engine airplanes based at the airport with 498 operations. Navigation aids present include lighted runway, visual approach indicator, windsock, and segmented circle. Facilities include three 80-by-40-foot T-hangars and a public restroom. No commercial freight, passenger, or other commercial flight services were operational in 2005. The airport is used for Medivac, firefighting, and Coast Guard operations. The Port of Port Angeles sponsored a 1996 study titled “Sekiu Airport – Safety, Liability and Management Issues.”

(d) Forks Municipal Airport is a public use general aviation airport located in and owned by the City of Forks. The airport has one runway, 04/22, suitable for single-engine aircraft. In 2003, there were five single-engine airplanes based at the airport with 13,600 annual operations. Navigational aids present include lighted runway, unlighted wind cone, and a segmented circle. Other facilities include eight tie-downs, 15 hangars, and contract helicopters. No commercial freight, passenger, or other commercial flight services were operational in 2005. The airport is used for Medivac, firefighting, and Coast Guard operations. The City of Forks sponsored an Airport Layout Plan in 1997 that included a complete airport and airspace information as well as location of future aviation expansion area.

(e) Quillayute Airport. The Quillayute Airport is a former Naval Auxiliary Air Station located approximately 10 miles west of the City of Forks. The facility was deeded to the City of Forks by the Washington State Department of Transportation – Aviation Division in March, 1999. The airport serves general aviation needs, and is suitable for single-engine and twin-turboprop aircraft. The airport has two concrete runways, 04/22 and 12/30. In 2003, there were five single-engine airplanes based at the airport with 6,700 annual operations. Navigational aids present include a windsock and a segmented circle. No commercial freight, passenger, or other commercial flight services were operational in 2005. The airport is used for Medivac, firefighting, and Coast Guard operations. The City of Forks sponsored a land use plan in 2001 and drafted an airport master plan to address future development and infrastructure improvements for the airport. The airport land use plan also addressed land use compatibility surrounding the airport. In 2002, the airport received a grant funded jointly by WADOT – Aviation Division and the FAA to resurface runway 04/22.

(f) Public Use General Aviation Airport Runway Dimensions.

Table 31.02.415(A)
– Public Use General Aviation Airports 

Airport

Runway

Length (feet)

Width (feet)

Elevation1 (feet)

Airport Property2 (acres)

Sequim Valley

09/27

3,500

40

144

1503

William R. Fairchild

08/264

6,350

150

288

797

William R. Fairchild

13/31

3,250

50

288

797

Sekiu

08/265

2,890

50

352

25

Forks Municipal

04/22

2,400

75

297

101

Quillayute

04/226

4,210

150

194

765

Quillayute

12/307

4,700

200

194

765

1    Above mean sea level.

2    Airport property is approximate.

3    50 acres is owned by the airport and 100 acres leased.

4    Runway 26 has a displaced threshold of 1,350 feet.

5    Runway 26 has a displaced threshold of 790 feet.

6    Runway 22 has a displaced threshold of 1,089 feet.

7    Runway is currently closed due to surrounding tree obstructions and pavement issues.

(g) Clallam County’s privately owned private use airports include Lawson Airpark Airport, Thompson Airport, Big Andy Airport, Blue Ribbon Airport, Swanton Ultralight Flightpark, Grand View International Airport, Rake’s Glen Airport, Harbord Field Airport, and Diamond Point Airport. Clallam County’s privately owned private use heliports include Eclipse Heliport and Thompson Heliport. Permission is required for landing at these airports and landing fees and/or other fees may apply. Heliport use is limited to hospital operations at Olympic Memorial Hospital Heliport. Runway use is limited to Coast Guard operations at the Port Angeles Coast Guard Air Station.

Figure 31.02.415(A)

(5) Transit. The Clallam Transit System provides complete bus service throughout Port Angeles and to destinations such as Forks, Clallam Bay, LaPush, Neah Bay and Diamond Point. The fixed-route service consists of 14 scheduled routes. These routes are broken into 3 service categories: intercity, urban, and rural. The “Bus” makes intercity connections in Sequim with Jefferson Transit for transportation to Port Townsend and other points in Jefferson County. Highway 101 commuter routes are available between Port Angeles and Sequim. Service standards apply to the three categories of routes based on performance. The performance indicators are used to show ridership trends or quality of ride. The physical and mentally handicapped and 80+ senior citizens have doorstep service available to them via Paratransit. People not capable of using Clallam Transit regular service can call a day in advance for Paratransit door-to-door travel. The Paratransit service is provided by two private, nonprofit corporations on contract with Clallam Transit System.

Olympic National Park has worked in cooperation with Clallam Transit System on a pilot project to provide public transportation to Hurricane Ridge. The project was a huge success since bus service from Port Angeles Visitor Center to Hurricane Ridge Lodge was scheduled on a February holiday weekend. Parking lot congestion at Hurricane Ridge was alleviated and safety conditions along the route were improved. The Olympic National Park and Clallam Transit desire to provide similar transit service in the future. The Park’s most recent concession, The Paddlewheeler, allows the ferry boat users to take a bus shuttle from outside the Olympic National Park boundary to the Lake Crescent boat launch. This transportation service removes unnecessary vehicle trips along a deficient road segment of SR 101 and eliminates the need for parking.

Clallam County has three park-and-ride lots operating and serving the public in the west portion of the County. Sappho, Forks and Laird’s Corner park-and-ride lots are served by Clallam Transit System routes 14, 15 and 16. Other park-and-ride lots to the west of Port Angeles have been abandoned. The park-and-ride lot experiencing the highest degree of success is at Forks. It was developed in cooperation with the State Department of Transportation, the city of Forks and Clallam Transit System. It serves residents in the Forks area who commute to LaPush, Clallam Bay and Neah Bay. A vanpool is also operating from Clallam Bay serving the employees of Clallam Bay Correction Center.

Clallam Transit System is installing bicycle racks on buses and also at stationary locations. The Bicycle Access Program makes linkages with Jefferson Transit System which already has the equipment installed. Recreational bicyclists have the option to become transit riders and lengthen journeys.

(6) Non-Motorized Transportation. Numerous trails are present in the Olympic National Park system and some provide connections with the Clallam County transportation system. A unique trail to the Olympic National Park is the Spruce Railroad Trail. Formerly a railroad right-of-way, it runs along the north shore of Lake Crescent. Trailheads are located near the Log Cabin Resort on East Beach Road and Highway 101 at Sol Duc Hot Springs Road. The trail is used by pedestrians, horseback riders, and bicyclists.

The Olympic Discovery Trail is a year-around, lowland corridor for non-motorized (pedestrian, equestrian, bicycle) transportation. Its 145-mile length, utilizing significant segments of the abandoned right-of-way of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad line, will connect the population centers of the North Olympic Peninsula from Puget Sound to the Pacific Coast as shown in Figure 31.02.415(B). The trail is a scenic, easily accessible and safe alternative route for commuters and recreationists. It includes a “touring” route for commuting and traveling cyclists and a western County Cross County Foothills Trail for the off-road enthusiast. The County should work closely with each of the connecting municipalities to ensure that the respective trails and feeder connections are clearly signed and fully accessible.

Figure 31.02.415(B)
– Olympic Discovery Trail

31.02.420 Transportation – Goals and policies.

(1) Roads and Highways.

(a) [Policy No. 1] Preserve and enhance Highway 101 corridor.

(i) Promote year-round safe commuter bicycling in urban growth areas with regularly maintained bicycle facilities and appropriately designed shoulders on Highway 101.

(ii) Review new traffic circulation patterns to disperse or separate traffic from congested segments.

(iii) Encourage the analysis of freight scheduling to split traffic use and reduce peak hour conflict.

(iv) Enhance the scenic nature of Highway 101 by:

•    

Developing consistent information signage;

•    

Prohibiting off-premises sign construction;

•    

Adoption of corridor management plans along the scenic designated areas;

•    

Discourage additional commercial or industrial development immediately adjacent to the areas designated as scenic.

(v) Deciduous street trees, landscape and pedestrian amenities should be included in all future Highway 101 upgrades or private development in urban areas as per matrix cell RH1-7 (see CCC 31.02.435 for the Design Standard Policy Matrix).

(vi) Passing lanes should be planned as per matrix RH1-8.

(vii) Encourage the marking of historic and cultural sites along or adjacent to the Highway 101 corridor.

(b) [Policy No. 2] Improve the aesthetics of scenic Highway 101 corridor.

(i) Encourage placing new and upgraded service utility lines less than twelve (12) kilo-volts (KV) underground as per matrix cell RH2-1. When new utility lines over twelve (12) KV are constructed, they should be placed on the south side of the road to reduce icy pavement conditions.

(ii) Encourage highway landscaping to support the rural character and reduce visual impact of parked vehicles, equipment, etc., along the highway as per matrix cell RH2-2. Consider retaining native vegetation as a priority.

(iii) New fence construction adjacent to road right-of-way should not detract from the rural character as per matrix cell RH2-3.

(iv) Improve aesthetics of the scenic Highway 101 by the prohibition and eventual elimination of off-premises commercial signs (e.g., billboards). Prioritize the removal of off-premises signs, with signs outside urban growth areas being considered a high priority.

(c) [Policy No. 3] Increase regional mobility of goods, services and passengers and increase access to regional attractions while preserving and enhancing the urban commercial corridor.

(i) Insist upon the State Legislature and Department of Transportation to complete improvements in the Sequim-Dungeness subregion as described in the final environmental impact statement for SR 101, Palo Alto to O’Brien Road.

(ii) Review need for new highway alignment to improve circulation and regional mobility in the Port Angeles subregion.

(iii) Review the need to have a new highway connection from Neah Bay to Ozette along or near the coast.

(d) [Policy No. 4] Preserve existing road and highway system.

(i) Highway level of service will be calculated for planning purposes consistent with the Peninsula Regional Transportation Planning Organization.

(ii) Highway level of service for County roads will have a minimum acceptable level of “C” for rural and urban roads. (See Figure 1.)

(iii) Highway level of service for State highways will be consistent with the Peninsula Regional Transportation Planning Organization. LOS = “D” for urban highways and tourist corridors. LOS = “C” for rural highways.

(iv) A computer transportation model to forecast future road deficiencies and a transportation inventory data base will be maintained for the County and municipal jurisdictions to monitor growth and forecast predictions and also become the basis for a concurrency management system. (See CCC 31.02.425 for discussion of forecasting methodology.)

(v) Ensure the continued viability of Highway 112 as a major transportation route by protecting segments in geologically unstable areas (i.e., land slides).

(vi) Continue to encourage volunteer help to maintain roads.

(e) [Policy No. 5] Develop rural design standards which enhance strong rural character and neighborhood identity while providing adequate safety.

(i) Design rural major collectors and higher classified roadways to accommodate various transit vehicles according to transit comprehensive plans.

(ii) All road structural improvements should be coordinated with Paratransit services as required by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) to meet driving maneuverability needs).

(iii) Design standards for County roads should adhere to the standards set forth in the “City and County Design Standards,” adopted by WSDOT pursuant to RCW 35.83.030 and RCW 43.32.020, as now or hereafter amended. As of this date, the following standards are adopted:

ADT

Below 150

150 400

401 750

751 1,000

1,001 2,000

2,001 and over

Roadway Width

20 – 24 ft.

24 ft.

26 ft.

28 ft.

34 ft.

40 ft.

Lane Width

10 ft.

10 ft.

10 ft.

10 ft.

11 ft.

12 ft.

(iv) All rural federal routes should adhere to minimum WSDOT design standards but not exceed the given standards per criteria unless warranted by a specific land-use impact.

(v) The design and construction of private roads should allow for flexibility while meeting minimum safety requirements for emergency vehicles. The developer should be responsible for improvements to bring the private road up to public road standards if future public agency acceptance is desired.

(vi) To minimize conversion of land designated as commercial forestry or commercial forestry mixed, unpaved County roads in these designations should be returned to private or State ownership, or remain unpaved. The County should not construct or accept as a County facility any road in these designations if the road performs to a local access or minor collector functional classification.

(f) [Policy No. 6] Manage access to the transportation system.

(i) Periodically, review the State access management classification for State highways to advise changes towards comprehensive planning goals.

(ii) The following standards for access to State highways and County arterials shall be followed:

(A) New businesses locating in designated commercial and industrial zones that do not have access to a County road shall combine accesses with neighboring business to the maximum extent possible when adjacent to State highways.

(B) No new commercial or industrial zone shall be established along Highway 101 without access to a County road.

(C) No new subdivisions or short subdivisions in commercial and industrial zones with County road access shall be granted access to State highways.

(D) All new subdivisions or short subdivisions in any land use classification with access to a County arterial shall be allowed only one access point to the County arterial at a location approved by the County Engineer.

(iii) Promote the consolidation of access and the development of ingress/egress easements along State highways and the County arterial system as per matrix cell RH6-2.

(iv) Provide incentives to adjacent property owners (such as setback flexibility) to establish mutually shared driveways. Ensure that development does not preclude shared access in the future as per matrix cell RH6-3.

(v) Develop frontage roads as an alternative to consolidation for removing direct access to Highway 101 as per matrix cell RH6-4.

(vi) Access should be controlled with raised medians with low maintenance and “non-lethal” vegetation as per matrix cell RH6-5. Raised medians, or the “boulevarding” concept should be a recommendation in the Coastal Corridor Master Plan to be implemented with federal funds.

(vii) Deceleration and acceleration lanes should be planned to allow stable through traffic flow as per matrix cell RH6-6.

(g) [Policy No. 7] Consider the needs of school bus transportation in the design and maintenance of the transportation system.

(i) WSDOT service objectives and design standards need to be consistent with school bus design standards.

(ii) School bus route level of service developed by the school districts should trigger a review of transportation solutions by the responsible transportation agencies to resolve the deficiency caused by the changing demographics of school-age children.

(iii) The quantity of school bus pullouts should be adequate and the location of school bus pullouts should be coordinated with the city, County, and especially Clallam Transit System.

(iv) Traffic control, weight and structural improvements for school bus traffic should be coordinated in all agency plans.

(h) [Policy No. 8] Create an awareness for sharing the road with bicyclists. Promote a change of attitude.

(i) Plan the widening of paved shoulders as in the bicycle plan (CCC 31.02.440) in accordance with recognized guidelines, such as AASHTO.

(ii) Designated bicycle lanes should be provided on bicycle routes according to the bicycle plan (CCC 31.02.440).

(iii) Introduce public awareness signs to bicycle lane courtesy and commuter choices as per matrix cell RH8-3.

(i) [Policy No. 9] Encourage alternatives to the single occupant vehicle (SOV), such as transit, commuter van pools, bicycles, and ferries by improving facilities for and links between such alternative modes of transportation.

(i) Encourage coordinated land use planning and zoning regulations to place services and development where there is existing infrastructure. Land use intensities (densities) should be based on a reasonable and balanced transportation system.

(ii) Level of service standards should be adjusted to allow concentrated growth in existing urban centers and to discourage growth in resource lands by tolerating more congestion in urban areas.

(iii) The concurrency management system should give priority to the implementation of transportation demand management strategies to alleviate highway deficiencies before expanding a road facility if the level of service is one grade below acceptable.

(iv) Establish incentives to transit ridership such as offering free transit passes in lieu of private vehicle mileage reimbursement.

(v) Promote strategies that favor alternative modes of transportation such as imposing parking fees and the limitation of private vehicle access in nonmotorized corridors.

(vi) Encourage and support the major employment and commercial centers in reducing single occupant vehicle trips by enacting ridesharing, transit flexible and staggered work hours, and other transportation demand management strategies.

(vii) Support capital improvement projects that facilitate and contribute to the success of transportation demand management measures.

(viii) Encourage transportation shuttle services and parking strategies for regional attractions with private charter services and public/private partnerships.

(ix) Foster employer and retail business partnerships with the assistance of local service organizations in employee encouragement programs. The program should encourage employees to use alternate transportation modes by exchanging coupons from retail businesses for HOV or nonmotorized trips to work.

(x) New parking standards should be developed for commercial and employment centers that are located adjacent to or within a one-half mile range of an existing transit corridor and commuter bicycle facility. Required number of parking stalls and dimension of the stalls should be reduced to make allowances for transit, nonmotorized and HOV travel options. Parking location should give preference to HOVs, bicycles and the compact car. Parking stall ratios should be established for carpools, vanpools, (HOVs) and compact vehicles. Employment centers with minimal external traffic should have standards based on number of employees instead of floor space.

(xi) The orientation of commercial buildings or employment centers should have a connection with the street and provide minimal parking in the “front” and the majority of parking around the side or in the “back” to achieve pedestrian and transit friendly development and to create definition to the street.

(j) [Policy No. 10] Road safety should continually increase as population growth occurs.

(i) Prioritize safety deficiencies using both statistical measures (e.g., accidents and road geometrics) and public input. Periodically, review the process for effectiveness of prioritizing road segment and intersection deficiencies.

(ii) Roadway level of service standards shall incorporate other factors of transportation to calculate the safety element of level of service such as quantity of freight vehicles and bicycles.

(iii) Encourage a network of secondary routes to address emergency vehicle access.

(iv) New development should not be allowed unless accessed by a County road meeting the following minimum standards:

Surface Width    16 feet

Grade    12 percent maximum

Curves    Centerline radii not less than 100 feet

(k) [Policy No. 11] Protect wildlife habitat and prevent watershed degradation, where possible, through:

(i) New transportation corridors shall minimize to the reasonable extent possible the disruption to wildlife and stream corridors and shall provide for maintaining connectivity between habitat areas with the application of buffers and other means.

(ii) Expansion of existing transportation corridors should enhance and/or restore connectivity between habitat areas.

(iii) New transportation arterials and major collectors which have the potential to transport hazardous materials should not be planned parallel to and in close proximity to shorelines. Transportation facilities should minimize the potential impact of accidental spillage of hazardous materials into any waterway.

(iv) Roadside ditches should be maintained for biofiltration functions. Vegetated, grassy swales should be designed to collect pollutants from highway runoff.

(v) Bridges and other transportation facilities should not constrict the natural meander of river channels.

(vi) Design road geometrics and drainage to intercept or minimize the transport of roadway sanding materials from entering stream corridors.

(vii) The amount of impervious surfaces should be minimized to allow for maximum infiltration, reduced quantity of runoff and potential reduction for flooding.

(viii) County roads shall be managed in accordance with the WSDOT Highway Puget Sound Runoff Manual that incorporates Department of Ecology’s best management practices.

(ix) Support the City, County and WSDOT nonspraying portion of their vegetative maintenance programs and the WSDOT District 3 roadside reseeding program. Avoid intrusive exotic vegetation.

(l) [Policy No. 12] Provide rest areas which promote safety and provide for views of culturally or historically significant sites and information to augment the travelers’ enjoyment of the highways. Rest areas are needed in the following areas:

(i) Between the Hood Canal Bridge and Sequim;

(ii) Between Lake Crescent and the Hoh River;

(iii) Between Port Angeles and Clallam Bay along Highway 112.

(2) Marine Transportation.

(a) [Policy No. 13] Enhance marine activities for transportation and economic benefit.

(i) Consider the advantage of high speed boat transit to Puget Sound and British Columbia destinations.

(ii) Have adequate marine facilities to promote marine transportation.

(iii) Have adequate surface transportation serving marine facilities to promote marine transportation.

(b) [Policy No. 14] Provide marine terminals throughout the Port Angeles Harbor, adequate to serve the needs of vessels engaged in marine transportation.

(i) Maintain at least five (5) berths at the Port Angeles Marine Terminal to accommodate cargo vessels engaged in international trade.

(ii) Provide additional cargo vessel berths to accommodate ships engaged in importing or exporting cargoes in support of local industries.

(iii) Maintain existing barge terminals, and provide additional barge terminals in the future if needed to allow the waterborne movement of commodities that are efficiently transported by barge.

(iv) Maintain and improve existing ferry terminals, and provide additional ferry terminals as required.

(v) Include ferry terminal operations with other transportation modes in the proposed Port Angeles Multimodal Transportation Center.

(vi) Provide appropriate berthing facilities to allow Port Angeles to become an intermediate stop for cruise ships operating in the region.

(vii) Encourage efforts to establish a high speed passenger/package freight vessel transportation system (i.e., mosquito fleet) in the Puget Sound region, and support the inclusion of Port Angeles in such a system if it is established.

(3) Public Transportation. Encourage ridership and support transit expansion to reduce single occupant vehicles (SOVs).

(a) [Policy No. 15] Develop and adopt transit friendly design standards for high capacity and priority transit corridors. Land use densities in these corridors should support transit usage.

(b) Transit-compatible design standards should apply to new development within one-half mile of an existing transit route or an urban growth area to ensure cohesive and efficient transit service to major commercial, medium to high density residential and public facility development. Clallam Transit System shall be involved in the development review process.

(c) Developers should be given the opportunity to utilize transit credits for their development if located within one-half mile of an existing transit facility in lieu of road capacity (mitigation) improvements.

(d) Promote government/private partnerships in public transportation facilities.

(e) Pursue the Port Angeles Multimodal Transportation Center for most efficient usage as a regional facility.

(f) Encourage public transportation service around the Olympic Loop.

(g) Develop neighborhood-scale park-and-ride lots at Highway 101 junction with collectors. Design lots with bicycle storage facilities on-site.

(h) The supply of transit service shall be consistent with population and employment densities. More service should be provided to urban growth areas and the interconnection of urban growth areas than to rural areas.

(i) Transit level of service should be evaluated according to Clallam Transit System performance criteria and Peninsula Regional Transportation Planning Organization methodology which analyzes supply and demand in terms of passengers per seat, headway, and comparison travel time. Refer to “Transit Demand and Supply LOS Tables” in CCC 31.02.430.

(j) Concurrency for transit level of service shall be met within six years of new development when demand LOS standard is deficient. Supply LOS should be representative of ways to resolve demand deficiencies. However, this concurrency requirement shall be governed by the current financial ability of the transit organization to fund service improvements.

(k) Transit level of service shall have a minimum acceptable level of service of “D” for either supply or demand. Target ranges are set to consider optimum performance efficiency and comfort level for urban, intercity, and rural routes as per table in CCC 31.02.430.

(4) Airport.

(a) Policy 16. Maintain air transportation as a safe, efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable travel mode serving the needs of County citizens.

(b) Policy 17. Encourage airport managers and sponsors to maintain up-to-date airport master plans, airport layout plans, airport facility plans, or other similar documents meeting Federal Aviation Administration and Washington State Department of Transportation Aviation Division requirements to determine the existing and future air transportation role of airports and provide the needed direction for future development.

(c) Policy 18. Coordinate land use development in and adjacent to public use airports to reduce hazards that may endanger the lives and property of the public and aviation users and to protect the viability of Clallam County’s public use general aviation airports.

(d) Policy 19. Provide adequate surface transportation between airports and urban growth areas and ensure that the existing major arterial streets, roads and highways serving the airport are adequate.

(e) Policy 20. Recognize Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac) as the major air carrier hub airport for Clallam County. Support efforts to attract a passenger airline carrier with direct flights to Sea-Tac.

(f) Policy 21. Discourage siting of incompatible land uses around public use airports. Pursue a balance between this requirement and other goals of the Growth Management Act including, but not limited to, protection of private property rights, providing adequate housing, and appropriate economic development in rural and urban areas.

(g) Policy 22. Protect navigable airspace, as provided in Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 77 – Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace, from obstructions that are of sufficient height as to constitute a danger to aircraft flight. See Figure 31.02.420(A) for an illustration of objects penetrating FAR Part 77 airspace.

Figure 31.02.420(A)
– FAR Part 77 Schematic Displaying Objects Penetrating Airspace

(h) Policy 23. Provide notice and disclosure to current, future and prospective purchasers of lands within the Airport Overlay District of potential hazards and nuisances associated with aircraft operations and the potential for land use and height regulations.

(i) Policy 24. Designate public use, general aviation airports located within Clallam County as essential public facilities.

(j) Policy 25. Enact regulations to preserve open land along the extended runway centerline within the Airport Overlay District.

(k) Policy 26. Discourage airport hazards including, but not limited to, the siting of land uses adjacent to airports that foster an increase in bird or wildlife populations, create visual hazards, discharge emissions of any particulate matter in the air that could impair airport operations, emit electrical transmissions that would interfere with aviation communications and/or instrument landing systems, or otherwise obstruct or conflict with aircraft patterns or result in potential hazards to aviation.

(l) Policy 27. Encourage economic development opportunities and aviation-related land uses within the Airport Overlay District to promote the efficient mobility of goods and services consistent with the economic development element and the regional transportation strategy.

(m) Policy 28. Consult with the Washington State Department of Transportation Aviation Division to provide input into the land use planning efforts around Clallam County’s public use airports.

(5) Trails, Paths and Sidewalks. Policy 29. The safety and quality of the travel experience for the non-motorized traveler shall be improved with a greater role in the transportation system.

(a) Widely and prominently sign for the public the location of safe alternate bicycle routes and trails to separate motorized and non-motorized traffic when possible.

(b) The Olympic Discovery Trail shall be developed as a priority transportation facility to bring non-motorized travelers from Jefferson County to the Port Angeles corridor and to the major towns and communities west to the Pacific Coast.

(c) A system of lateral/feeder routes should connect Highway 101 to the Olympic Discovery Trail.

(d) Support the Foothills Cross Country Equestrian Trail and the Pacific Northwest Trail.

(e) Encourage developments that promote pedestrian, bicycle, and non-motorized use such as bicycle and hiker-only campgrounds and the placement of benches and vault or portable toilet facilities.

(f) Require developers to provide safe access for pedestrian traffic to transit stops.

(g) Develop and implement on-site pedestrian and bicycle access standards for new development in conjunction with County bicycle plans as per matrix cell TPS1-7.

(h) Provide adequate and secure bicycle parking at all ferry terminals, park-and-ride lots, and public facilities as demand requires.

(i) Storage facilities for bicycles should be available in conjunction with transit shelters along the Highway 101 corridor as per matrix cell TPS1-9.

(j) Incorporate appropriate bicycle parking design standards for major employers, institutional, and retail uses, in Clallam County’s zoning regulations as per matrix cell TPS1-10.

(k) Pedestrian facilities, such as walkways and trails, should be required per matrix cell TPS1-11 and within walking distance of school facilities along Highway 101, County arterials and major collectors.

(l) Encourage the installation of bicycle detection traffic control devices on regular replacement schedule at intersections of minor roads to connecting arterials as per matrix cell TPS1-13.

(m) Significant historical or cultural sites along trails and paths should be identified. Identify trails as to their basic historic beginnings. For example, the Olympic Discovery Trail had its historic beginnings with the railroad. Interpretive markers identifying this trail beginning should be included in the trail system.

(n) Design non-motorized routes for multiple users, including walking, running, bicycling, equestrian, etc.

(6) Finance. [Policy No. 30] Identify and develop a practical and realistic financial plan that is both adequate and equitable in terms of meeting the needs of the people of Clallam County. Such a plan shall seek to provide efficient and effective services and facilities.

(a) Maximize private funding of transportation facilities and maintenance.

(b) Ensure new development projects contribute a “fair share” of financing transportation improvements needed to accommodate the impacts to the transportation system resulting from new developments. “Fair share” means that existing and new revenue sources to finance transportation system improvements (see CCC 31.02.460) maintains level of service standards adopted in this Plan. If these revenue sources do not maintain level of service standards, then new development must be responsible for funding the balance. “Fair share” also means ensuring that new development projects on roads not meeting minimum safety standards (see Policy No. 10.d, subsection (1)(j)(iv) of this section) adheres to mitigation goals of the County (see Policy No. 31, subsection (7) of this section).

(c) The nonmotorized element shall be a part of the funding component of the capital improvement program.

(d) Encourage and support volunteer participation in transportation facility construction and maintenance.

(e) Coordinate federal, State, and private funding.

(f) Public agencies should coordinate joint projects that would consolidate funding and benefit multiple jurisdictions. Public-private partnerships should also be encouraged.

(g) Spending priorities will be established that recognize the practicable limits of public and private funding sources.

(7) Mitigation. [Policy No. 31] Clallam County should require new development to mitigate impacts on transportation facilities which are insufficient to safely handle transportation demands. The County should require new development to rectify and/or compensate for impacts to transportation facilities not meeting minimum safety standards, when reasonable and capable of being accomplished.

31.02.425 Land use assumptions and forecasting methodology.

Transportation forecasting is an art and not an exact science. The method described will not accurately predict the future 20-year traffic counts, as it will attempt to discover a relationship between current traffic patterns and the new traffic generated from land use alterations. The purpose of linking land use and transportation in the Comprehensive Plan is that they are each predisposed to the occurrence of the other. All land use decisions should be based on traffic impacts and the ability of the jurisdiction to maintain the existing transportation facility to standard. An underutilized or overbuilt transportation facility has the tendency to guide growth into the area, whereas, overcapacity deters growth when expensive road improvements must accompany the development. This reasoning is why a lower level of service standard is acceptable in an urban growth area – it guides growth into an area where infrastructure can best support growth.

County road deficiencies will be analyzed and reported in subregional plans. Transit deficiencies are listed in CCC 31.02.430 and nonmotorized deficiencies are analyzed in the bicycle plan, CCC 31.02.440. All marine and air transportation deficiencies are deferred to the Port of Port Angeles Comprehensive Scheme of Harbor Improvements, December, 1986. All State highway deficiencies will be deferred to the Peninsula Regional Transportation Planning Organization Regional Transportation Plan.

The Highway Capacity Manual (1985) software is the methodology to determine highway level of service as revised by the Florida Department of Transportation to accept rural, transitioning, and urban land uses. This software was selected for two reasons: (1) the reference to land use and (2) to achieve consistency with State highways and regionally significant roads. The Peninsula Regional Transportation Planning Organization (PRTPO) is using the same software to determine level of service on regionally significant highways and roads. The County Comprehensive Plan endorses the regional transportation planning of the PRTPO and assumes the level of service standards, deficiencies and system needs of the State highways. A sophisticated traffic computer modeling package, Tmodel II, will be used by the County in cooperation with local jurisdictions. The model will contain the federal classified roads that qualify for ISTEA Surface Transportation Program funds which are rural major collectors, urban collectors, minor and principal arterials. The model will forecast the allocation of traffic to the network of collectors and arterials. Case by case, the new traffic generated from a development can be loaded onto the network to see if the level of service remains adequate. The traffic model will be the best tool available to monitor concurrency.

For comprehensive planning purposes, the County Road Information System (CRIS) was linked to a geographic data layer in the PC ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS). The CRIS contains annually updated road design and road conditions information. GIS analysis and mapping provided a vehicle for deficiency inventory and interactive public involvement. It also performed the trend analysis for forecasting traffic. Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) were delineated from census block numbering areas with some census block modification. The TAZs were analyzed by the GIS for zoning and land use characteristics for the “do nothing” case. The assumption is that as current land use conditions remain and the influx of population rises, growth will occur in the undeveloped regions with development potential. The 1990 Census was used in a linear projection forecast model to determine the amount of growth to be received by the subcensus area. The growth is distributed into the TAZs by proportion of undeveloped parcels. Regional land use alternatives are analyzed for modifying growth patterns of residential and commercial/industrial development. As densities increase or decrease, average daily traffic (ADT) per household is calculated as 10 trips per day, according to the Institute of Transportation Engineers Trip Generation (ITE) Manual, 5th Edition.

The PRTPO has selected a menu of transportation growth rates based on the wide range of census data from the four-county region: Mason, Kitsap, Jefferson and Clallam. The regional road system is analyzed with 1.5 percent, three percent and 4.5 percent transportation growth rates. Clallam County should plan for future regional transportation needs (County arterials) using the lowest transportation growth rate of 1.5 percent, realizing that east and west County will not experience the same growth. For major collectors and streets, the County should plan for future transportation needs using 50 percent of potential build-out as indicated on the County comprehensive land use plan.

31.02.430 Transit demand and supply level of service standards.

The Peninsula Regional Transportation Planning Organization is recommending two measures of level of service, demand and supply, to characterize transit LOS in urban and rural areas. The following two tables summarize the recommended thresholds and point system used in determining Table 11 (Existing LOS Conditions of Transit Routes).

Transit demand LOS is measured by examining the comfort of the transit rider in terms of the availability of a seat for every passenger. Supply LOS is calculated by combining points based on the total travel time for a passenger to complete a trip by bus. This measurement includes the frequency of scheduled trips and the travel time for a bus versus a car.

In general, routes with frequent times of departure and equal or better travel times between a bus and a car are given a LOS A. Conversely, routes traveled much faster by car with infrequent service receive a lower LOS for supply, indicating a need for some improvements. A bus with very few passengers indicates a high level of service, since a passenger is guaranteed their choice of seats. Or, if a bus is filled to twice its seated capacity, requiring passengers to stand, it receives a lower demand level of service.

Table 8
– Methodology for Determining Demand LOS (1)

LEVEL OF SERVICE
(peak run)

DEMAND LOS
Passengers Per Seat (2)

A

< .51

B

.51 – .75

C

.76 – 1.09

D

1.1 – 1.25

E

1.26 – 1.59

F

≥ 1.60

Source:    Highway Capacity Manual, 1985

Notes:    (1) Used for all routes.

    (2) A value of 1.0 indicates that there is an average of one rider per seat during peak run.

Table 9
– Methodology for Determining Supply LOS
Urban and Rural Routes (1)

Supply LOS

Points (2)

Travel Time Comparison (3)

Headway (minutes) (4)

Points (2)

1

< 1.1

U = < 16

R = < 31

.5

2

1.1 – 1.5

U = 16 – 30

R = 31 – 60

1

3

1.6 – 2.0

U = 31 – 45

R = 61 – 90

1.5

5

2.1 – 2.5

U = 46 – 60

R = 91 – 120

2

7

2.6 – 3.0

U = 61 – 75

R = 121 – 150

2.5

9

> 3.0

U = > 75

R = > 150

3

Notes:

(1)    Used for determining supply LOS for urban and rural designated routes operated by Clallam Transit Agency.

(2)    When determining LOS, points are assigned based on values for travel time comparison and minimum headway. By combining the two (2) scores, supply LOS equals:

    A = 1.5 points C = 3.5 – 5 points E = 7.5 – 9.5 points

    B = 2 – 3 points D = 5.5 – 7 points F = 10 or more points

(3)    A ratio of 1.0 indicates that during the peak run, travel time by bus is equal to the time it takes to drive the same route by automobile.

(4)    Headway is the measurement of the time between buses during the peak period.

    U = Urban Routes R = Rural Routes

The term “range of acceptability” implies setting parameters for efficient and comfortable transit travel. The following table shows two (2) types of transit service, rural and urban. Rural transit trips are characterized by better capacity and slower headway. A rural transit rider is more willing to accept reliable infrequent service over standing room only because the rural trip lengths are usually longer. Whereas, an urban transit rider is willing to stand for a short period as long as the service is frequent. Table 10 is a planning guideline for transit performance. Transit service in the unshaded area is not as desirable to the transit agency nor transit user as within the shaded target range. As per Policy No. 15.k (subsection (3)(k) of CCC 31.02.420), transit level of service should not fall below D or concurrency will have to be resolved.

Table 10
– Target Range of Acceptable Transit LOS

Faster

SUPPLY

(total travel time)

Slower

DEMAND

(pass/seat)

A

B

C

D

E

F

A

(<1/2 empty)

A/A

A/B

A/C

A/D

A/E

A/F

B

B/A

B/B

B/C

B/C

B/E

B/F

C

C/A

C/B

C/C

C/D

C/E

C/F

D

D/A

D/B

D/C

D/D

D/E

D/F

E

E/A

E/B

E/C

E/D

E/E

E/F

F (Full)

F/A

F/B

F/C

F/D

F/E

F/F

Urban and Rural Target Range

Extension of Urban Target Range

LOS ≥ D as per Policy No. 15.k

31.02.432 Future transit service needs.

The Clallam Transit System service needs are increasing at a rate faster than fiscally forecasted. The response to ridership increase is fulfilling the County’s objective of alternative means of transportation to a car-dependent community. In becoming compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act, Paratransit has absorbed the additional revenue gains that would otherwise be used to expand service. Some of these service needs are implementing transportation demand management programs that could diminish the number of vehicle trips. Other service needs are bringing service to a new area or increasing the frequency of scheduled route service. The unfunded service needs as proposed in the Clallam Transit System Comprehensive Transportation Plan 1993-1998 are the following:

(1) Expansion to the Sequim shuttle service;

(2) Maintained summer service for Port Angeles/Forks Commuter; nine (9) routed trips/day;

(3) Feasibility study for general public Dial-a-Ride service;

(4) Work commute service to and from Clallam Bay;

(5) Rideshare matching program;

(6) Evening and Sunday service;

(7) Additional morning service;

(8) Olympic Loop (West End) service;

(9) City of Forks shuttle service;

(10) Park-and-Ride facilities.

All of these service needs arrive from a moderately aggressive financial forecast in the Clallam Transit Comprehensive Plan; i.e., the funding goals and expectations are reasonably moderate with the exception of the worker-commute service to Clallam Bay Correctional Center. The implementation of these projects will be deferred for one to two (2) years. Although, the County Comprehensive Plan proposes to make available transit credits to development that cause an impact to the transit system. These credits should be in lieu of road expansion needs since transportation supply management will encourage future ridership. Projects eligible for transit credits should be the aforementioned system needs as well as existing operation and maintenance needs that incur on a regular basis. The transit credit projects should have a direct relationship with the development.

Existing LOS Conditions of Transit Routes

Transit Agency

Route Number

Demand LOS

Supply LOS

LOS Demand Supply

Pass/Seat (Peak Run)

LOS

Headway (minutes)

Points

Travel Time (Bus/Auto)

Points

Total Points

LOS

RURAL ROUTES

Joyce

10

.92

C

120

2

1.2

2

4

C

C/C

Forks

14

.70

B

60

1

1.3

2

3

B

B/B

LaPush

15

.48

A

240

3

1.2

2

5

C

A/C

Clallam Bay

16

.70

B

120

2

1.1

2

4

C

B/C

101 Commute

30

1.06

C

30

.5

1.3

2

2.5

B

C/B

Old Olympic

31

.45

A

120

2

1.4

2

4

C

A/C

Sequim Shuttle

40

.34

A

60

1

1.5

2

3

B

A/C

Dungeness

44

.86

C

120

2

1.12

2

4

C

C/C

Diamond Point

52

.24

A

90

2

1.2

2

4

C

A/C

URBAN ROUTES

College Plaza

20

.96

C

30

1

1.7

3

4

C

C/C

College Connector

21

.65

B

30

1

1.2

2

3

B

B/B

Lincoln

22

.74

B

30

1

1.4

2

3

B

B/B

Cherry Hill

24

.55

B

30

1

1.3

2

3

B

B/B

Westside PA

26

.42

A

30

1

1.4

2

3

B

A/B

31.02.435 Transit-compatible design standards and development checklist.

The design standards for development that is compatible with transit operations and the goals and policies of this transportation plan are found on the following pages. These design standards should be used in conjunction with the “Design Standard Policy Matrix,” goals and policies, in order to implement the standards. Implementation should occur through the following ways: (1) County ordinances, such as zoning and land divisions; (2) development project review, such as SEPA and building permits; and (3) six (6) year transportation improvement program. The transit-compatible development review checklist should be used as a guide to assist in reviewing development projects to ensure conformity with the design standards and policy matrix of the transportation element.

Transit Compatible Development Design Standards

Parking and Bus Access from Road

1. Bus turnouts should be dedicated from County right-of-way and/or private development to a standard turnout area according to road class if Clallam transit System Comprehensive Plan shows an existing bus route or future bus service on the road, when:

a. The County road is improved,

or

b. Building permit process occurs.

2. Pedestrians should have easy access from a transit corridor to building entrances.

Building Orientation

3. Commercial corridors should orient buildings adjacent to the road.

4a. Corner lot buildings should occupy the corner.

4b. Distances from bus stop to building entrance should be minimized.

5. Parking should wrap around the building and not impede pedestrian circulation or access to building entrances.

6. The building should not be situated in the middle of the lot or near the posterior property line from the street.

Pedestrian Facilities to Transit Stops

7. Plat and subdivision approval should include pedestrian easements to transit stops and bus pullout areas. View-blocking fences and walls should be refrained from closing the easement and reducing visibility.

8. Pedestrian walkways (of various materials) should connect bus stops to buildings. Buildings should provide connection to each other, i.e., pedestrian access should serve multiple locations.

9. Parking lot internal circulation plans should provide safe pedestrian entry walkways.

Transit-Compatible Development Review Checklist

Evaluation

YES

Partial

NO

A.

Site Access:

1.

The site is served by transit.

2.

A bus stop, park-and-ride lot, or transit transfer station exists or is planned within one-half (1/2) mile.

3.

A bus stop, park-and-ride lot, or transit transfer station exists or is planned on-site.

4.

The site has reserved parking for carpools/vanpools.

5.

Carpool/vanpool parking is reserved in convenient locations near building entrances.

6.

The site has paved walkways for pedestrian travel through the site and between adjacent uses.

7.

The site has marked bike routes.

8.

The site has bike racks.

9.

The site has lockers and showers for bicyclists.

B.

Site Design:

1.

Buildings are clustered near transit facilities.

2.

Any large parking areas are at the side or rear of the site.

3.

Building entrances face transit facilities, and routes to those facilities are clearly marked.

4.

Buildings are within one-quarter (1/4) mile of a bus stop, rideshare lot, or other public transportation facility.

5.

Paved sidewalks connect building entrances, parking areas, transit facilities, and other site activity centers.

6.

Sidewalks and pedestrian areas have lights for safety at night.

7.

The site is free of barriers (walls, ditches, hedges, roads without safe crossings, etc.) to safe and convenient pedestrian travel.

8.

The site provides shelters, benches, and lighting for transit users.

9.

The site meets ADA requirements.

C.

Parking Management:

1.

The site provided for carpool/vanpool, and compact car parking spaces.

2.

Parking for carpools/vanpools is located near building entrances.

D.

Public Transportation Ridership Incentives:

1.

The developer will distribute information on public transportation and ridesharing options to tenants, employees and customers.

2.

Transit passes or carpool/vanpool subsidies will be provided to employees and residents.

3.

The developer will assist in providing shuttle service between the site and transit facilities.

4.

Transit passes will be sold on site.

5.

The site will have a rideshare coordinator.

Areas for Improvement

Department of Community Development and Clallam Transit System staff will comment on “Partial” and “NO” responses to the preceding evaluation section. Staff will propose changes that are suitable to the proposed use and location of the development.

A. Site Access

B. Site Design

C. Parking Management

D. Public Transportation Ridership Incentives

Design Standard Policy Matrix

Policy

Street Types

Urban

Rural

Residential

Industrial

Commercial

Residential

Commercial

Medium-High Density Direct Access

Medium-High Density Indirect Access

Low Density >1-1/2 Acre

Mixed-Use/
Rural Center

Light/
Industrial Park

Heavy

Free Access

Limited Access

Medium-High Density Direct Access

Medium-High Density Indirect Access

Low Density and Agriculture

Direct Access

Forestry

RH1-7

Deciduous trees should be planted along the street

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH1-8

Passing lanes should be planned

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH2-1

Place new and upgraded service utilities under 12KV underground or on south side of road

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH2-2

Parking facilities adjacent to road should have landscaping

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH2-3

Fencing adjacent to road right-of-way should not detract from the rural character

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH6-2

Consolidated access and ingress/egress easements should be planned

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH6-3

Shared driveway access is desired; development does not preclude a shared access in future

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH6-4

Frontage roads should be planned

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH6-5

Access should be controlled with raised medians with low maintenance, nonlethal vegetation

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH6-6

Deceleration and acceleration lanes should be planned

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

RH8-3

Introduce public awareness signs to watershed protection, bicycle land courtesy, and commuter choices

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

TPS1-7

Safe circulation pattern and amenities in parking lots for bicyclists and pedestrians to access development

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

TPS1-9

Transit shelters with bicycle storage facilities are spaced every (fraction of 1 mile)

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

1

1

1

1-2

1-5

1-5

TPS 1-10

Bicycle storage facilities are a component of development review

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

TPS1-11

Pedestrian facilities are desired; flexibility to alignment and setback is allowed

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

TPS 1-13

Installation of bicycle detection traffic control devices at intersections

Principal Arterial

Minor Arterial

Collector

Minor Collector

Local Access

31.02.440 Clallam County bicycle plan.

The goal of this bicycle plan is to improve conditions for bicycling in Clallam County and to encourage more cycling as a healthy, traffic-reducing alternative to motorized transportation. This plan will enhance the transportation system by providing new levels of personal mobility for a moderate cost while encouraging cleaner air and providing increased access to free or inexpensive opportunities for physical activity to promote a healthier population.

The following recommended improvements will make bicycle commuting a viable option for the portion of the County population for which bicycling is an alternative mode of transportation for going to work, running errands, attending meetings, and doing business.

The majority of this plan is oriented towards improvements specifically for bicyclists. However in rural areas, wider shoulders will also benefit pedestrians, since rural shoulders are used by walkers, runners, horseback riders, families with strollers and wheelchair users.

31.02.441 Existing bicycle facilities.

The first phase of the Olympic Discovery Trail constructed in 1986 was the Waterfront Trail in Port Angeles. This project began at the City Pier on Railroad Avenue and extended eastward to the former mill site of Rayonier, Inc. The initial work on the Waterfront Trail was extended by the City over the next 10 years westward along Marine Drive, through the Daishowa Mill site, to the Coast Guard Station entrance on Ediz Hook. Utilizing the abandoned railroad right-of-way of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad line, County road crews and County-funded contractors extended the trail eastward along the coastline to Morse Creek, through the Morse Creek ravine, to the Deer Park Scenic Gateway – providing 7.7 miles of a scenic and safe alternative trail routing allowing trail users to avoid the higher risk US 101 route. The trail continues off-road 14 miles across the County to Railroad Bridge Park near Sequim. It passes an additional 5.3 miles through Sequim on a separate trail and when complete will traverse an additional eight miles to the Clallam-Jefferson County Line. The Jefferson County portion, when complete, will add 24 miles. Ultimately, the Olympic Discovery Trail will serve as a two-county signed bicycle route running 145 miles from the Port Townsend ferry terminal through Discovery Bay, Gardiner, Blyn, Sequim, Carlsborg, Agnew, and Port Angeles to Forks where extensions of the trail will continue on to LaPush on the Pacific Coast and south of Forks to the south County line. A network of well-marked feeder routes will make this facility accessible to the general population inviting commuting and recreational bicyclists.

Since 1993, Clallam Transit buses have installed bike racks on the front of buses. They accommodate four bicycles at a time to travel any route and allow bus riders to complete their destination by bicycle.

Shoulder width improvements to Old Olympic Highway, from Towne Road to Kendall Road, were a very desired bicycle facility improvement. The completion of the Old Olympic Highway reconstruction projects identified in the Six-Year Transportation Improvement Plan will expand this bicycle facility.

31.02.442 Bicycle routes.

(1) Designated bike route from west to east.

Road Name    Route

101    From Jefferson County Line to Sappho

113 (Burnt Mt. Hwy.)    From Hwy. 101 to Hwy. 112

112    From Burnt Mtn. to Hwy 101 (Lower Elwha Road)

Lower Elwha Road    From Hwy. 101 to Edgewood

Edgewood Drive    From Lower Elwha To Airport

Airport    From Edgewood To Lauridson Blvd.

Lauridson Blvd.    From Airport to M Street

M Street    From Lauridson Blvd. to Hill St.

Hill Street    All

Marine Drive    From Hill Street to Morse Creek via Waterfront Trail

101    Morse Creek to Old Olympic Highway

Old Olympic Highway    From 101 to Sequim-Dungeness Way

Port Williams    From Sequim-Dungeness Way to Brown Road

Brown Road    From Port Williams to West Sequim Bay Road

West Sequim Bay Road    From Port Williams to Highway 101

101    From West Sequim Bay Road to Old Blyn Hwy.

Old Blyn Hwy.    All

101    From Old Blyn Hwy to County Line

(2) The following would be feeder routes to the County bicycle (through) route:

West End

LaPush and Mora Roads    All

112    Neah Bay to Burnt Mtn.

Hoko/Ozette Road    All

Clark Rd./Sol Duc Valley    All

101    From Sol Duc Valley to North Shore

North Shore    All to Spruce Railroad Trail

Joyce Piedmont    From Railroad Trail to Hwy 112

Port Angeles

Front Street    From College Plaza to Waterfront Trail

First Street    From College Plaza to Waterfront Trail

Race Street    Front Street to Hurricane Ridge Road

Sequim (north of 101)

Kitchen-Dick Road    From Lotzgesell to Olympic Discovery Trail

Lotzgesell Road    From Kitchen-Dick to Cays Road

Cays Road    From Lotzgesell to Anderson Road

Anderson Road    From Cays to Sequim-Dungeness Way

Sequim-Dungeness Way    From Lotzgesell Road to City of Sequim

Sequim (south of 101)

River Road    From Hwy. 101 to Happy Valley Road

Happy Valley    From River Road to Hwy. 101

East of Sequim

East Sequim-Bay Road    From 101 to State Park

Diamond Point Road    From 101 to State Park

31.02.444 Bicycle facility improvement needs.

The improvements included below are those which would most significantly contribute to safe cycling in the most cost effective manner. Many recommended improvements simply involve road designs and improvements that foster motorist awareness and consideration of bicyclists. Other improvements are designed to guide cyclists regarding their position on the pavement. Where possible, the listed improvements are referenced by a Clallam County Policy from CCC 31.02.420.

(1) Roads, Shoulders and Bridges.

(a) Roads.

(i) Bicycle facilities should, at a minimum, meet the current AASHTO Guidelines. (Policy 8.a, subsection (1)(h)(i))

(ii) Incorporated or urban growth areas should have designated vehicle-shared or separated bike lanes on Highway 101 and Race Street. (Policies 1.a and 8.b, subsections (1)(a)(i) and (1)(h)(ii))

(b) Shoulders.

(i) As an alternative to bike lanes, shoulders should be sufficient to accommodate cyclists and/or pedestrians. (Policies 5.c, 5.d, and 8.a, subsections (1)(e)(iii), (1)(e)(iv), and (1)(h)(i))

(ii) Shoulder design guidelines for County-designated bike routes with more than 200 vehicles average daily traffic (ADT):

Speed Limit (mph)

Min. Shoulder Width

30 or 35

3'

40 or 45

4'

50 or 55

5'

(iii) Shoulders should be swept regularly to keep pavement free of debris. (Policy 1.a, subsection (1)(a)(1))

(iv) Shoulder should be repaired with smooth patches to prevent accidents.

(v) Shoulder widths should be maintained as future turn lanes are added.

(vi) Fog lines should be repainted as needed to stay visible.

(vii) Shoulders should be unobstructed by overhanging mailboxes.

(c) Bridges. It is recommended that signing and education be used to warn cyclists and motorists of the hazards bridges create for both cyclists and motorists. Bridge improvement, such as a consistent shoulder width between roadway and bridge, is the best method for assuring a high level of safety.

(2) Other Improvements.

(a) Catch basin drain grates should be brought to street level and oriented properly along Highway 101 in urban growth areas. Adjust level of grates to be flush with future pavement overlays;

(b) Install bicycle sensitive traffic signals at major intersections during regular replacement schedule of traffic signal sensors. Mark the bicycle detection zone at those intersections. (Policy 29.l, subsection (5)(l));

(c) Development review should include consideration of traffic impacts to bicyclists and the potential of mitigation for bicycle facilities. (Policy 29.e, subsection (5)(e));

(d) Regular resurfacing projects should encompass the entire length of road rather than brief portions in order that the road conditions for the whole road be unsuitable for only one construction season (rather than have consecutive portions of the same road be unsafe for several maintenance periods).

(3) Bicycle Parking. Convenient, secure, and protected bicycle parking is as crucial to encouraging non-motorized transportation as parking space is to a motor vehicle. County and city building codes, for municipal, commercial, or business development, should include a minimum standard for bicycle parking capacity equal to 10 percent of required motor vehicle parking spaces.

(4) Transit Connections. There is tremendous potential in Clallam County for linking bicycling with transit due to the linear orientation of Highway 101. Several County road collectors, of generally six to eight miles each (ideal bicycle commuting distance), connect with Highway 101. With facilities such as secure bicycle parking and bike racks on buses, bicycling becomes a strong alternative for many commuters living miles outside of urban growth areas.

A very important consideration is that of safety for both bicyclists and pedestrians in crossing the highway to and from transit stops. The most suitable solution may be bicycle/pedestrian overpasses at major intersections, such as the junction of Old Olympic Highway/SR 101, to maintain traffic flow without traffic signals.

(5) Signage. Clear, prominent, and consistent signage to safely and expeditiously guide trail/path users to and along the entire bicycle complex, whether the Olympic Discovery Trail, the Adventure Trail, and the Scenic Bike Route; and to and from other major trails such as the Pacific Northwest Trail and any of the feeder routes.

31.02.510 Affordable housing issues.

(1) As described in detail in the reports referenced at CCC 31.02.280(2), Clallam County has unique local circumstances that result in a very complex housing situation. In the West End, the population has declined but housing is difficult to obtain due to lack of new construction. Eastern Clallam County has experienced rapid growth but affordable housing is in short supply due to demand. Housing prices across the County have risen extensively between 1985 and 2005 due to a variety of factors, including increases in the price of land, costs of construction, financing, regulations, and demand. These increases have reached a level where the average wage earner has difficulty obtaining affordable housing.

(2) Measuring Housing Need: A Data Toolkit for Clallam County includes the following findings:

(a) According to the guideline that paying 30 percent of household income for housing is affordable, nearly half (46 percent) of renter households in Clallam County in 1999 were renting housing they could not afford.

(b) Since 2000, the median price for homes has risen sharply. In the first quarter of 2000, the median price for homes sold was $98,900 and rose to $170,000 in the last quarter of 2004.

(c) A family of four needs to earn $16.75 an hour (about $33,500 a year) to afford to rent a three-bedroom unit at fair market rent in 2005 ($871 a month).

(d) A person receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments in Clallam County ($579 a month in 2005) could afford to pay $174 a month for housing. Fair market rent for a one-bedroom unit in 2005 was $458.

(3) Measuring Housing Need: A Data Toolkit for Clallam County includes the following strategies for providing affordable housing and meeting the demand for diversity of housing choices:

(a) Respond to the needs of the “working poor” by developing a range of affordable housing options near employment sources.

(b) Respond to the need for smaller units and units suitable for the elderly.

(c) Encourage the development of mixed uses in housing construction.

(d) Allow mixed uses in zoning, such as residential, in selected commercial/business areas.

(e) Provide incentives for housing developers to increase affordable housing, such as strategies to reduce development costs, fast-track plan approval, maintaining a file of pre-approved housing plans, reduced impact fees, and providing density bonuses.

(f) Encourage infill development where infrastructure is in place.

(g) Work with existing and new employers to develop housing options for current and planned employees.

(h) Allow residential accessory housing.

(i) Establish inclusionary zoning ordinances and other incentives for developers to reduce housing costs such as density/parking adjustments and fee reductions.

(j) Remove regulatory barriers to affordable housing by periodically reviewing and modifying ordinances, codes, and zoning regulations.

(k) Provide “fast-track” approval for reasonable accessibility modifications.

(l) Encourage design competitions to increase the amount of attractive affordable housing, and the availability of pre-approved plans.

(m) Support the development of community land trusts.

(n) Expand new affordable options with CDBG (Community Development Block Grant) resources.

(o) Link long-range plans for new and/or upgraded infrastructure development with planning for inclusion of development of affordable and accessible housing.

31.02.520 Affordable housing goals.

(1) Clallam County’s affordable housing efforts should be directed at preserving and creating housing that is affordable to those with very low, low, and moderate income, defined as:

(a) “Very low income” means a household income below 50 percent of the Countywide median.

(b) “Low income” means a household income between 50 and 80 percent of the Countywide median.

(c) “Moderate income” means a household with income within the range of 80 to 95 percent of the Countywide median.

(2) Based on extensive local need for affordable housing as well as its unique local circumstances, the County shall encourage retention and creation of affordable housing, as defined in subsection (1) of this section, as follows:

(a) By encouraging participation in, and assisting where possible, the efforts of the Shelter Providers Network, the Homelessness Task Force, the Housing Authority of Clallam County, and the Clallam County Affordable Housing Task Force by identifying, pursuing, coordinating, and facilitating the distribution of available relevant federal, state, or private funding to assist these agencies in their efforts to end and prevent homelessness, and to provide and maintain affordable housing in Clallam County.

(b) By ensuring that its policies and regulations encourage the retention and creation of affordable housing developments that are not subject to procedural and/or development standards not required of other residential developments.

(c) By working together with local cities to:

(i) Preserve existing affordable housing by placing a high priority on providing infrastructure and urban services to serve high-density housing developments in urban growth areas.

(ii) Encourage the creation of additional affordable housing by inventorying and designating land within urban growth areas that is available and suitable for high-density housing developments.

(iii) Coordinate plans to develop new and/or upgraded infrastructure with retention and/or creation of affordable and accessible housing.

(iv) Identify and implement other coordinated strategies to preserve or create affordable housing in urban growth areas.

(v) Continue to coordinate implementation of the “affordable housing” policies set forth in the 1992 Clallam County Countywide Planning Policy adopted by the County and cities.

(d) By allowing mobile homes and modular homes as single-family residences.

(e) By allowing accessory housing units (“AHUs”) as allowed land uses in most zones.

(f) By allowing flexible zoning and cluster development techniques that allow for a range of lot sizes and clustering of lots closer to required services.

(3) Clallam County should consider the following strategies to encourage the retention and creation of affordable housing:

(a) Forming, coordinating, supporting and/or participating in the Clallam County Affordable Housing Task Force which would be comprised of representatives from local governments, local agencies working on homelessness and/or affordable housing issues, financial institutions, major employers, developers, contractors, real estate, chambers of commerce, economic development professions, and the like, which would have the following goals:

(i) The compilation or commissioning of updated assessments of the County’s housing inventory and needs considering such issues as evolving demographics, employment patterns, market changes, affordable housing needs and other relevant local circumstances, preferably to be completed one year prior to the GMA-mandated review of the County’s Comprehensive Plan with such assessment submitted to the Planning Commission for review and forwarding to the Board of County Commissioners for consideration of adoption and made available to the public.

(ii) The coordination of efforts to develop affordable housing by involving relevant agencies, programs, and funding; identifying available land in urban growth areas suitable for the development of affordable housing; and developing mechanisms for rapid review and financing of proposed affordable housing projects.

(iii) The development of educational materials that increase awareness of incentives and strategies offered by local jurisdictions and other agencies to develop affordable housing and that promote acceptance of new affordable housing developments within local communities.

(iv) The identification of existing local policies and regulations that discourage the preservation or creation of affordable housing and the development of proposed policies and regulations for consideration by relevant local governments that would encourage preservation or creation of affordable housing.

(b) Zoning and subdivision provisions that broaden the range of affordable housing choices through expanded opportunities such as townhouses, condominiums, multiplex rental housing, multi-story housing, and high-density cottage units clustered around common green spaces; and low-density attached units mixed with large open-space remainder lots.

(c) The preservation of existing mobile home parks; i.e., through the adoption of a new urban mobile home park overlay designation resulting in assessments limited to park use thereby providing property tax relief to the owners. Such designation would be available to park owners by agreement and would be effective for a minimum time period, such as five years, to be established by regulation.

(d) Mixed use developments that include affordable housing opportunities in certain commercial zoning districts, including above commercial facilities.

(e) Incentives, such as density bonuses, that would allow residential developments to be financially viable even with a partial set-aside of below-market-rate units.

(f) Pre-approved affordable housing plans and other development permitting strategies that reduce costs, permit fees, and waiting times.

(g) Identifying and marketing publicly owned land in urban growth areas suitable for the development of very low-income housing.

31.02.610 Economic development issues.

The Growth Management Act encourages economic development throughout the State that is consistent with adopted comprehensive plans, promotes economic opportunity for all citizens, especially for unemployed and for disadvantaged persons, supports growth in areas experiencing insufficient economic growth, all within the capacities of the area’s natural resources, public services, and public facilities.

RCW 36.70A.070(7) more specifically requires that Comprehensive Plans include, “(A)n economic development element establishing local goals, policies, objectives, and provisions for economic growth and vitality and a high quality of life. The element shall include: a summary of the local economy such as population, employment, payroll, sectors, businesses, sales, and other information as appropriate; a summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the local economy defined as the commercial and industrial sectors and supporting factors such as land use, transportation, utilities, education, work force, housing, and natural/cultural resources; and an identification of policies, programs, and projects to foster economic growth and development and to address future needs.”

(1) Population. As of 2005, the Forecasting Division of the Washington State Office of Financial Management (OFM) estimated Clallam County’s population (including incorporated areas) at 66,800, which is approximately a four percent increase (one percent annualized rate) from the Census population of 64,179 in 2000 and approximately 18 percent increase (1.2 percent annualized rate) from the Census population of 56,464 in 1990. According to the OFM, the majority of population increase has been due to in-migration. In 2002, OFM projections estimated that Clallam County’s resident population would increase to as much as 72,383 by 2010 and 81,894 by 2020.

(2) Employment. The Washington State Employment Security Department (WSESD) maintains a database of employment data called the Quarterly Census Employment and Wages (QCEW). The data is categorized according to the “North American Industry Classification System” (NAICS) a standardized system used by federal statistical agencies for classifying business establishments. The QCEW data provides information on the number of firms, employees, and wages per NAICS category. It should be noted that since the data is obtained from tax information that the data is underestimated because it only reflects those businesses in Clallam County that have unemployment insurance and are not sole proprietorships. In addition, WSESD suppresses some of the data specifics to ensure confidentiality to individual businesses. There are two forms of suppression:

(a) If there are less than three firms for a NAICS classification, then the information is suppressed and reported as an * in the database; and

(b) If any one firm contains more than 80 percent of the employee wage, then the information is suppressed and reported as an * in the database.

The QCEW data is designated into 23 main NAICS business categories with smaller classifications under each larger division. For these purposes only the large business categories have been included and where specified some of the business categories have been combined. For example, real estate has been combined with finance and insurance forming a sector called finance, insurance, and real estate (F.I.R.E.). The following employment, payroll and covered wage, and business sector and trend information in this section is based upon 1994 through 2004 QCEW data. The total wages and average monthly wage per sector have been converted to 2004 dollars for easier comparison among QCEW data from different years. Table 31.02.610(A) provides a listing of the industry categories, average number of firms, average number of employees, and total wages for Clallam County in 2004.

Table 31.02.610(A) WSESD QCEW 2004 Data for Clallam County

Average Number of Firms

Average Number of Employees

Total Wages

Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting (A.F.F.H.)

91

581

$18,676,935

Accommodations and Leisure1

229

2,386

$27,778,696

Construction

329

1,314

$42,154,454

Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate (F.I.R.E.)

136

716

$19,235,932

Government2

102

6,465

$234,526,221

Healthcare and Social Assistance3

203

2,106

$47,250,634

Information

21

307

$8,846,116

Manufacturing

80

1,254

$45,414,342

Mining

4

15

$379,792

Retail/Wholesale Trade

324

3,687

$92,712,114

Other Services4

740

2,091

$49,057,304

Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities (T.W.U.)

86

551

$15,578,572

TOTALS

2,345

21,473

$601,611,112

Source: WSESD (2005)

1Accommodations and leisure refer to accommodations, food services, arts, entertainment, and recreation.

2Government is comprised of public education; cities, counties, tribes, state, and federal agencies; and the hospital.

3Health care and social assistance includes ambulatory health care services, nursing and residential care facilities, and social assistance such as emergency relief, child day care, and community food and housing services.

4Other services include administrative, waste, professional and technical, and educational services; repair and maintenance; personal and laundry; membership organizations and associations; private households; and all other services not separated into other categories listed above.

Washington State Employment Security Department Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) figures estimated County resident civilian employment in 2004 of 26,700 workers out of a total work force of 28,670, with an estimated 1,970 being unemployed. LAUS data differs from QCEW data because it reflects employment for civilian residents of Clallam County even if they are working in another county and includes employees that are not covered by unemployment insurance while QCEW data deals only with jobs in Clallam County and only those jobs covered by unemployment insurance. Using QCEW 2004 data, government employees (including those employed by public education, the hospital, and cities, counties, tribes, state and federal agencies) comprised the largest number of employed in Clallam County, with 6,465. Retail/wholesale trade employees had the second largest numbers (3,687), while accommodation and leisure activities (including food services, arts, entertainment, and recreation) and health care/social assistance workers comprised the third and fourth largest numbers of employed (2,386 and 2,106 workers, respectively).

According to the Washington State Employment Security Department (LAUS) figures, Clallam County’s unemployment rate was higher than the Washington state average between 1998 and 2004. Generally, its rate was more than one percent higher than the Washington state average. However, in 2004, County unemployment rates decreased to 6.9 percent, settling just above the State average of 6.2 percent.

The Washington State Employment Security Department (WSESD) using QCEW data reports that there was a total monthly average of 2,345 employers (excluding sole proprietorships as discussed earlier) in Clallam County in 2004. The largest number of firms occurred in the services industry. Based on the number of employers per sector as of 2004, the majority of County businesses were service-oriented (excluding healthcare and social assistance) at 740, followed by construction trades (329) and retail and wholesale (324). Mining and information sectors had the least number of firms at four (4) and twenty-one (21), respectively.

(3) Payroll. As of 2004, government, services (including health/social services and other services), and retail/wholesale trade industries comprised the top three wage providers in Clallam County, at approximately $234 million (m), $96 m (including $47 m for health/social services), and $93 m, respectively. At the opposite end of the scale, the mining industry provided approximately $0.4 m in wages, while the transportation/warehousing/utilities and agriculture/forestry/fishing industries generated approximately $16 m and $19 m, respectively (WSESD, 2005).

(4) Business Sectors and Trends. Businesses in Clallam County have historically been centered around natural resource-based industries such as timber extraction, fishing, and wood products manufacturing. In recent decades however, service-related industries have outpaced the growth of large-scale resource-based businesses. Based on the number of employers per sector as of 2004, the majority of County businesses were service-oriented (excluding healthcare and social assistance), followed by construction trades and retail and wholesale. Though timber extraction, fishing, agriculture, mineral extraction, and other natural resource industries have declined in recent years, they are still important facets of Clallam County’s economy. The conversion of natural resources to product continues to be a substantial industry, providing living wage jobs to large segments of the County’s population. Wood products manufacturing, for example, provided over $15 million in wages, in 2004 (WSESD, 2005). Sustainable economic development in Clallam County will require support and balance between a diverse range of industries in order to avoid major County-wide impacts, due to market fluctuations within a single or limited number of industries.

Figures 31.02.610(A), (B), and (C) depict QCEW data for Clallam County for the time period of 1994 through 2004 in order to visualize trends in the business sectors. All total wages per sector have been converted to 2004 dollars for easier comparison among data from different years. Changes in total wages, number of employees, and number of firms have been calculated both as a change in percent from 1994 to 2004 and as an annualized average growth rate in percent. For example, given the text twenty-four (24) percent (2.5 percent) or (twenty-four (24) percent, 2.5 percent) the first percentage indicates the percent change from 1994 to 2004, in this case twenty-four (24) percent, and the second percent will be the annualized growth rate, in this case 2.5 percent.

Based on the Washington State Employment Security Department total wages per sector data, total wages increased steadily from 1994 through 2004, approximately a twenty-seven (27) percent (2.4 percent annualized rate) increase from 1994 through 2004. Out of a total of twelve (12) sectors listed in Table 31.02.610(A) and shown in Figure 31.02.610(A) the strongest growth from 1994 through 2004 occurred within services (excluding health/social services) (seventy-five (75) percent, 5.7 percent), construction (sixty (60) percent, 4.8 percent), health/social services (fifty-five (55) percent, 4.5 percent), and government (thirty-seven (37) percent, 3.2 percent). Increases in growth also occurred in retail/wholesale (thirty-one (31) percent, 2.8 percent), agriculture/forestry/fishing (thirty (30) percent, 2.6 percent), information (twenty-two (22) percent, 2.0 percent), F.I.R.E. (finance, insurance, and real estate) (nineteen (19) percent, 1.8 percent), transportation/warehousing/utilities (fourteen (14) percent, 1.3 percent), and accommodation and leisure industries (eleven (11) percent, 1.1 percent). During this timeframe, the mining industry significantly declined (negative fifty-nine (‑59) percent, -8.5 percent), as well as manufacturing (negative twenty-six (-26) percent, -2.9 percent). Government had significantly higher total wages than any of the other business categories. Retail and wholesale trades had the second highest total wages for the 1994 through 2004 timeframe.

Figure 31.02.610(A) – Total Wages in Clallam County from 1994 through 2004.

The average number of employees increased steadily from 1994 through 2004, showing a similar pattern of approximately twenty-one (21) percent (1.9 percent annualized rate) overall employee increase from 1994 through 2004 as shown in Figure 31.02.610(B). Government had significantly higher total number of employees than any of the other business categories with retail and wholesale trades second. The strongest growth in employees from 1994 through 2004 occurred within construction (forty-seven (47) percent, 3.9 percent), health/social services (forty-one (41) percent, 3.5 percent), services (excluding health/social services) (forty (40) percent, 3.4 percent), and government (thirty-three (33) percent, 2.9 percent). Increases in growth also occurred in agriculture/forestry/fishing (twenty-three (23) percent, 2.1 percent), retail/wholesale (twenty-two (22) percent, 2.0 percent), transportation/warehousing/utilities (twenty-one (21) percent, 2.0 percent), information (9.3 percent, 0.9 percent), F.I.R.E. (finance, insurance, and real estate) (eight (8) percent, 0.8 percent), and accommodation and leisure industries (4.6 percent, 0.5 percent). During this timeframe, the number of employees for the mining industry significantly declined (negative fifty-four (-54) percent, -7.6 percent), as well as for manufacturing (negative twenty-one (-21) percent, -2.3 percent).

Figure 31.02.610(B) – Average Number of Employees in Clallam County from 1994 through 2004.

The average number of firms in the County has generally increased from 1994 through 2004 with a dip in 1997 and decline from 2003 to 2004 as shown in Figure 31.02.610(C). The general increase is mostly a reflection of the strong growth in the number of firms in the services sector, an approximate increase of thirty-seven (37) percent (4.6 percent annualized rate). Increases from 1994 through 2004 occurred for health care and social assistance (seventeen (17) percent, 1.9 percent), information (fourteen (14) percent, 1.6 percent), government (eleven (11) percent, 1.2 percent), construction (four (4) percent, 0.4 percent), transportation/warehousing/utilities (two (2) percent, 0.2 percent), and accommodations and leisure (two (2) percent, 0.2 percent). The number of businesses decreased for mining (negative one hundred (-100) percent, -6.7 percent), agriculture/forestry/fishing (negative forty-four (-44) percent, -3.6 percent), F.I.R.E. (negative nine (-9) percent, -0.8 percent), and retail/wholesale (negative one percent, -.1 percent).

Figure 31.02.610(C) – Average Number of Firms in Clallam County from 1994 through 2004.

(5) Sales Trends. Sales in Clallam County have generally grown throughout the last decade, from a total of approximately $549 million in 1995 to $896 million in 2004. The largest sales increase occurred in 2004, with an approximately seventeen (17) percent gain compared with 2003.

According to the Washington State Department of Revenue, manufacturing showed the strongest sales gains, increasing approximately eighty (80) percent (sixteen (16) percent annualized rate) between 1998 and 2002. Sales in wholesale trades, however, decreased by approximately nineteen (19) percent (negative five (-5) percent annualized rate) over the same timeframe.

(6) Housing. The amount of construction activity is an indicator of economic growth in the County. Construction of homes represents the greatest percentage of construction activity within Clallam County. Figure 31.02.610(D) shows the amount of residential building activity based on the number of building permits for new homes requested from 1995 through 2004 in unincorporated Clallam County; the cities of Forks, Port Angeles, and Sequim; and the total for Clallam County. The total valuation of building permits for these new homes is shown in Figure 31.02.610(E). The dollar valuations for new residential buildings for 1995 through 2004 have been converted to 2004 dollars for easier comparison of data from different years. (Valuation of new modular/manufactured homes was included for the cities and unincorporated County, except for the city of Forks because Forks does not require cost valuations on permits for new modular/manufactured homes.)

Figure 31.02.610(D) – Total Number of Residential Building Permit Requests from 1995 through 2004 in Clallam County.

The number of total building permits in the County decreased from 1995, reached a relative maximum in 1999, decreased sharply by 2000, and has generally increased since 2000. The unincorporated area had its largest number of building permits in 1995 when there were 539 permits requested. From 1996 through 2004 the number of permits requested has remained in the range of 396 to 511 building permits. There has been a fairly steady increase in new residential housing permits in the cities since 1999, reaching a high of 208 building permits in 2004. In 1995 the building permits for the cities were about fifteen (15) percent of the total; by 2004, building permits for the cities were about thirty-two (32) percent of the total building permits for the County.

Figure 31.02.610(E) – Total Dollar Valuation of Residential Building Permits from 1995 through 2004 in Clallam County.

Overall, the County has had a steady increase in the total dollar valuation of new residences in the County since 1997 with a sharp increase from 2002 to 2003 followed by a decrease in 2004. The total dollar valuation for new residences in the cities has increased steadily from 1999 through 2004, with the majority of the increase for the cities occurring in Sequim. The cities’ share of the total dollar valuation of residential building permits in the County increased from sixteen (16) percent in 1995 to thirty-three (33) percent in 2004.

Housing costs in Clallam County have risen significantly since 1998. The rising cost of new and used homes and land has become of concern for many industry sectors such as construction trades, due to a limited workforce able to afford housing within the County.

Average Clallam County Single-Family Dwelling prices (County Average):

1998

2004

New

$148,758

$244,786 (64 percent increase, 8.7 percent annualized)

Used

$128,140

$188,834 (47 percent increase, 6.7 percent annualized)

Source: Digest of Real Estate and Loan Transactions – Clallam County Profile.

Median Home Prices as of 1st quarter 2005:

Clallam County

$172,100

Washington State

$238,900

Source: Washington Center for Real Estate Research/Washington State University.

(7) Supporting Factors.

(a) Land Use Issues. Figure 31.02.610(F) shows the location of Clallam County economic development nodes where commercial, industrial and/or mixed use (C/I) zoning are supported by the land use elements of Clallam County and the cities of Forks, Port Angeles, and Sequim comprehensive plans. In 2004, Clallam County conducted a study of C/I zoned land availability within the County’s six (6) urban growth areas (UGA) and rural commercial nodes. To account for regional differences, land availability was analyzed based on the County’s four (4) Comprehensive Plan Planning Regions: Sequim-Dungeness, Port Angeles, Straits, and Western Planning Regions. Figure 31.02.610(F) shows the location of Planning Regions, UGA, and rural commercial nodes.

The results of the 2004 Clallam County Commercial and Industrial Land Availability study included land use and land availability statistics and maps generated for each UGA and Rural Commercial node represented on Figure 31.02.610(F). In summary, the 2004 study found that there were approximately 8,290 acres of C/I zoned lands in Clallam County. Of that total, approximately 2,832 acres were determined to be vacant and another 753 acres were developed but identified as having a high redevelopment potential. Seventy-three (73) percent of vacant lands were privately owned, with twenty-seven (27) percent publicly owned. Table 31.02.610(B) and Figures 31.02.610(G) and 31.02.610(H) summarize land use characteristics of C/I zoned areas for the County’s six (6) urban growth areas and sixteen (16) rural commercial nodes identified on Figure 31.02.610(F).

Rural commercial zones shown on Figure 31.02.610(F) that are not denoted by a node number were not analyzed for land availability. These rural commercial nodes are isolated and generally developed. In most cases, they are under single ownership.

Table 31.02.610(B)

Commercial/Industrial Zone Land Use in Clallam County

Planning Region

Developed (acres)

Vacant- Private (acres)

Vacant-Public (acres)

Totals
(acres)

Sequim Region

837

702

76

1614

Sequim UGA

416

3441

46

806

Carlsborg UGA

150

58

<1

208

Rural Commercial

271

300

30

600

Port Angeles Region

1676

480

438

2594

Port Angeles UGA

1412

348

4302

2190

Rural Commercial

264

132

8

404

Straits Region

430

290

67

787

Joyce UGA

155

70

3

228

Clallam Bay/Sekiu UGA

274

220

64

558

Rural Commercial

N/A3

Western Region

1469

1361

465

3295

Forks UGA

627

794

27

1448

Rural Commercial

842

567

4384

1848

TOTALS

4412

2832

1046

8290

1Vacant C/I zoned lands within the Sequim UGA include city-approved commercial developments covering ninety-seven (97) acres with more than 540,000 square feet of commercial space planned.

2Vacant land includes 260 acres of Port-owned land around William Fairchild International Airport.

3Not applicable. No rural lands were analyzed in Straits Planning Region.

4Vacant land includes city of Forks owned land surrounding Quillayute Airport.

Source: Clallam County Department of Community Development, 2004.

Figure 31.02.610(F) – Clallam County Planning Regions, Urban Growth Areas, and Rural Nodes.

Figure 31.02.610(G)

Acres of Vacant and Developed Commercial and Industrial Land within Clallam County UGAs

Notes:

1. Vacant C/I zoned lands within the Sequim UGA include city-approved commercial developments covering ninety-seven (97) acres with more than 540,000 square feet of commercial development.

2. Vacant land includes 260 acres of Port-owned land around William Fairchild International Airport.

Source: Clallam County Department of Community Development, 2004.

Figure 31.02.610(H)

Acres of Vacant and Developed Commercial and Industrial Land within Rural Nodes by Planning Region in Clallam County

Source: Clallam County Department of Community Development, 2004.

(b) Transportation Issues. The remaining two (2) lane portions of US 101 between Port Angeles and Sequim (and east, to the Hood Canal Bridge) have been identified as issues, due to safety concerns and efficiency of transporting products in and out of the area. Since there is no rail transport available in Clallam County, this issue is of particular concern to industries and businesses in the area.

Clallam County has had a fixed-route public transportation system, Clallam Transit, since October 1980. In 2004, the Clallam Transit System tallied 897,110 total passengers with an average monthly ridership of 62,449, covering a service area of 1,753 square miles with thirteen (13) routes. The Clallam County public transportation system increases the mobility of our citizens regardless of age or abilities, which supports economic development.

There are a total of five (5) general aviation airports in Clallam County (Forks, Quillayute, Fairchild, Sekiu, and Sequim Valley). Airport services at these facilities include passenger and freight transportation, flight instruction, and other related commercial services. Protection of these facilities from incompatible uses is mandated by the Growth Management Act, and is an important element in continued economic growth throughout the County.

To enhance the transportation network in Clallam County, it is recognized that barge transportation with its accompanying upland support facilities needs to be explored. There is limited cargo handling capabilities due to a lack of infrastructure and upland storage areas at marine terminals and the age of infrastructure. Adequate infrastructure should be ensured for the existing ferry services and be explored to support cruise ship operations.

(8) Economic Development Strategy. The Clallam netWorks Economic Development Council (EDC) is a nonprofit organization created to enhance and stabilize the economic environment. The EDC is supported in-part, by County tax dollars. Since 2000, the EDC has promoted an “industry cluster” approach to economic development, encouraging collaboration between similar businesses by facilitating the formation of “cluster teams” to identify and find solutions to industry needs. Industry cluster teams are composed of representatives from the same or similar industries for the purpose of identifying and discussing workforce and industry issues as well as initiating projects that positively impact economic development.

As of 2005, the following industry cluster teams have been organized and actively participate in the program: Agriculture, Building Trades, Education/Training Centers of Excellence, Finance (“Olympic Peninsula Finance Advisory Network” (OPFAN)), Forest Resources, Health Services (“Transforming Healthcare in Clallam County” (THCC)), Information Technology, Marine Services, and Tourism (Tourism Strategic Planning Team).

(a) Agriculture. The Agriculture Industry Cluster Team consists of local agricultural producers of produce, seed, livestock, fiber, lavender and cheese products, in addition to the WSU Extension, conservation organizations such as “Friends of the Fields,” education representatives, and private citizens. Interest has more recently broadened to include nonagricultural food enterprises such as seafood and artisan bread. The Agriculture Industry Cluster Team seeks to further the development of agriculture industry through the preservation of farmland and the establishment of essential infrastructure for community-based processing and direct marketing of locally produced agricultural goods.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

Productive soils and climate, combined with extensive irrigation infrastructure and a strong existing knowledge base among existing farmers;

•    

Growing and profitable market for value added products including lavender provides agri-tourism opportunities for small farms;

•    

Close proximity to Puget Sound wholesale food markets relative to California (two (2) days closer).

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Limited agricultural land base, with rising pressure to convert to nonagricultural uses;

•    

Lack of available agricultural supply and processing infrastructure; difficult for start-up farms to compete, due to low production capacity and underdeveloped local markets;

•    

Competition for limited water resources.

(b) Building Trades. The Building Trades Cluster Team is a formation of the North Peninsula Builders Association, the realtors associations, and interested citizens. Cluster members include contractors, tradesman, vendors, developers, sales people, as well as residential and commercial lenders. The Building Trades Cluster is committed to providing a wide variety of product at the least possible cost.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

Growing demand for building trades services, especially with Clallam County’s national reputation as a retirement area;

•    

Diverse local base of small, independent businesses and skilled craftsmen and artisans.

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Accurate data on economic contribution of sole proprietors in the industry;

•    

Shortage of skilled labor in the present population forces out-of-area contracting and job recruitment;

•    

Rising costs of land and housing are a barrier to market entry and affordable workforce housing;

•    

Lack of affordable medical health care/insurance results in large number of uninsured workers.

(c) Education. The “Education/Training Centers of Excellence” cluster team is made up of workforce professionals and educators from local school districts, the Skills Center, Peninsula College, four (4) year universities, Olympic Park Institute, the Employment Security Department/WorkSource, the Port of Port Angeles, Northwest Services Council, and private business owners that provide training. The members work together to improve economic conditions on the North Olympic Peninsula by developing business opportunities through increasing access to high quality education and training.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

Diverse local base of potential educators in fields such as information technologies, environmental sciences, law enforcement, aerospace, marine trades, manufacturing, and education;

•    

Support from the local community, I-5 corridor entities and other rural colleges;

•    

Existing training facilities, technological infrastructure (fiber-optic capacity), and industry infrastructure.

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Limited training funds (e.g., educational industries, businesses, federal training development grants);

•    

Lack of community awareness regarding training needs;

•    

Geographic and economic isolation from I-5 corridor and associated “mainstream” resources.

(d) Finance. The Olympic Peninsula Finance Advisory Network (OPFAN) cluster team consists of representatives from local financial institutions, government representatives (Clallam County, Port of Port Angeles, USDA), educational representatives and financial consultants. OPFAN will assist new and existing businesses in locating sources of capital to start-up, enhance, and assure economic growth on the Olympic Peninsula. The intent of OPFAN is to provide financial consulting, education, and counseling and to act as a centralized resource group for possible sources of business financing.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

High level of cooperation and collaboration within OPFAN and with other entities such as the Clallam Business Incubator;

•    

Multiple local lending resources;

•    

Growing market for expansion within the institutional banking community.

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Lack of private banking support for economic development activities;

•    

Limited OPFAN involvement by local banking institutions.

(e) Forest Resources. The Forest Resources Cluster Team is made up of representatives from logging and trucking companies, local wood products manufacturing industries, government representatives (USDA, DNR, Clallam County, city of Forks, etc.), timber companies, and private citizens. The Forest Resources Cluster Team seeks to identify opportunities to enhance the economic value of forest products business on the North Olympic Peninsula.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

Vast timber resources and wood product manufacturing facilities exist and continue to develop within the County;

•    

Community is generally supportive (especially in the west part of the County) of timber resource management and associated industry;

•    

Education, research institutions, and training centers exist within the County to support the need for trained and skilled forest resource workers;

•    

Wood biomass offers the opportunity for energy production.

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Transportation disadvantage relative to many Puget Sound area mills;

•    

Market fluctuations and cyclical nature of industry reduces profitability and investment interest;

•    

Increasing environmental issues and associated regulations result in prolonged planning process for harvest management by government agencies, expensive mitigation requirements, and reduced predictability for future harvest prospects;

•    

Substitute products for structural wood components (steel, concrete, etc.).

(f) Health Services. The Health Services Cluster Team (“Transforming Healthcare in Clallam County” (THCC)) is composed of a wide variety of representatives from local public and private medical facilities, tribal clinics, County and city representatives, citizen groups, and other community representatives. The Health Services Cluster Team seeks to improve the quality, connectivity and financing of health care in Clallam County through the implementation of sustainable community focused programs that enhance existing healthcare efforts and encourage the seamlessness of delivery of care.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

Strong support for healthcare improvement from the local community, healthcare institutions, government agencies, and elected representatives;

•    

Partnerships exist and are expanding between local and national organizations, in addition to Medicare, Medicaid, and Tricare;

•    

Coordination efforts provide opportunity to transform healthcare access and delivery on a County-wide level.

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Limited funding to accomplish THCC objectives;

•    

Deterioration of Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement rates;

•    

Distance to specialized equipment and health services in the I-5 corridor.

(g) Information Technology. The Information Technology Cluster Team consists of technology business owners, managers, and other members of the community interested in promoting a healthy technology business environment in Clallam County.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

Continuous and redundant fiber-optic loop has allowed for global connectivity three (3) times faster than comparable rural areas, making Clallam County an attractive location for IT-based or reliant industries;

•    

Growing demand for IT services by all business, government, and health-care sectors;

•    

Low overhead required to operate in Clallam County, relative to metropolitan areas;

•    

Conducive environment for conducting international business.

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Competition from foreign low-wage workforce, and other jurisdictions attempting to brand as technology centers;

•    

Lack of stable, predictable and inexpensive transportation system;

•    

Lack of a clear, community-wide vision to become a technology center.

(h) Marine Services. The Marine Services Industry Cluster team consists of representatives from local marine transportation industries, government agencies (Port of Port Angeles, city of Port Angeles, USCG, Employment Security Dept.), Peninsula College, aquaculture industry, tribes, topside marine repair and fabrication businesses, and others. The Marine Services Cluster Team values cooperation among marine resource companies and with all marine organizations, while working together toward a common goal of a sustainable, thriving use of natural harbors, the Straits of Juan de Fuca and the rest of Clallam County’s marine resources.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

Vast marine resources, including the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Pacific Ocean, the longest County shoreline in the State, natural deep-water harbor, fish and shellfish resources;

•    

Expanding waterfront-based marine industries, including a growing yacht construction business, topside repair, launch services, marine fabrication, automobile and pedestrian transportation service, and growing marine tourism market;

•    

Existing marine infrastructure, including four deep-water marine terminals, log storage areas, protected marinas, U.S. Coast Guard base, existing successful aquaculture (Atlantic salmon) facility.

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Extensive natural and cultural resources along shoreline areas limit new infrastructure development potential;

•    

Geographic isolation and lack of rail connection between Port facilities and I-5 corridor;

•    

Limited cargo handling capabilities, due to a lack of infrastructure and upland storage area at marine terminals and age of infrastructure.

(i) Tourism. The Tourism Cluster Team is made up of representatives from the County, cities, Port Angeles and Sequim-Dungeness Valley Chambers of Commerce, the Port Angeles Downtown Association, resort operators, private marketing and communications firms, local tour-guide businesses, local wineries, marine transportation companies, and others. The Tourism Cluster Team is committed to enhancing the economic well-being of the North Olympic Peninsula by using the region’s resources to attract guests to the area, and to show the economic strength of the industry and the impact tourism has on other areas of the economy.

(i) Industry strengths/opportunities:

•    

Marketing coordination with surrounding jurisdictions, municipalities, and within industry;

•    

Tremendous recreational opportunities exist within Clallam County including: Olympic National Park (ONP); County and State parks; National and State forestland; Strait of Juan de Fuca (fishing, shellfishing, boating, kayaking, sightseeing, transportation to British Columbia and the San Juan Islands); Native American communities; Olympic Discovery Trail; competitive biking, year-round touring and mountain biking, and commercial bike, walk and run events; and miles of shoreline, rivers, lakes, wildlife viewing and hunting;

•    

Festivals and events such as the Sequim Lavender Festival, Dungeness Crab and Seafood Festival, Sequim Irrigation Festival, Jazz in the Olympics, Juan de Fuca Festival, Salmon Derby, the North Olympic Discovery Marathon, etc. For example, the Lavender Festival attracts more than 25,000 people and continues to increase in attendance each year;

•    

Tribal tourism projects provide a unique opportunity for tourism industry enhancement;

•    

Proximity to Victoria, BC, provides unique opportunity for joint marketing and coordination.

(ii) Industry weaknesses/threats:

•    

Limited lodging and organized recreational activities;

•    

Lack of consistent regional branding.

31.02.620 Economic development goals.

(1) Goal 1. Provide for sustainable economic growth, diversity and vitality throughout the County while maintaining a high quality of life and a healthy environment.

(a) Policy 1. Make continuous, concerted efforts to retain industries and to facilitate expansion of our existing industrial and business base.

(b) Policy 2. Pursue strategies to attract businesses and emerging industries paying wages which diversify the economic base, exceed the County average annual wage, provide health care benefits, and offer employees upward career mobility.

(c) Policy 3. Support public-private business partnerships involving the Economic Development Council, cities, Port of Port Angeles, chambers of commerce, tribes, special districts (such as PUD 1) and business interests to provide business assistance, planning, financial management aid, grant assistance, planning, financial management aid, grant assistance and business mentoring.

(d) Policy 4. Continuously develop and maintain updated land use plans and regulations which encourage business location and retention in appropriately designated areas including urban growth areas, rural centers and villages, existing LAMIRDs, rural commercial areas and other planned business and industrial locations.

(e) Policy 5. Encourage home-based businesses in rural areas, provided they are compatible with the character of the surrounding area and do not result in nonresidential clusters or strips.

(f) Policy 6. Establish standards for home-based businesses and farm sales, which address impacts related, but not limited to air and water quality, aesthetics, noise, lighting and traffic, in order to assure compatibility with neighboring properties.

(g) Policy 7. Support bed and breakfast inns associated with a single-family owner-occupied dwelling. Provide design and operational guidelines covering number of rooms, appearance, signage, parking, length of stay, and source of potable water and sewage disposal.

(h) Policy 8. Advocate solutions to local industry issues in order to expand employment opportunities and revenue generation.

(i) Policy 9. Encourage County representation in programs such as Clallam netWorks Education/Training Centers of Excellence and the Job Fair Development Team.

(j) Policy 10. Sector-specific policies and strategies to promote economic vitality and diversity:

(i) Forestry, agriculture and mineral resources:

•    

Encourage growth of aquaculture and shellfish industries, consistent with regional comprehensive plans, and within the limits of applicable local, state and federal regulations;

•    

Develop incentives and provide funding options, for the conservation of the County’s forest, agricultural and mineral resource land base;

•    

Work to promote a strong, economically viable and ecologically responsible agricultural economy;

•    

Amend zoning standards to allow for small-scale, on-farm enterprises in rural areas, subject to standards addressing public health, safe vehicular access, available parking, rural character, and impacts to properties in the vicinity;

•    

Support efforts to educate and communicate to the public, the economic value of natural resource-based industries including positive fiscal and social impacts, jobs, health benefits and food security;

•    

Support and facilitate the expansion of existing wood processing capacity;

•    

Recognize and endorse the forest resources industry as an economically significant industry in which Clallam County has unique qualities and competitive advantages;

•    

Ensure that adequate industrially-zoned land exists within the County to support processing and manufacturing of raw materials and food products that are locally grown, harvested, or extracted;

•    

Identify and protect mineral resource lands in the County, in order to provide a cost-effective supply of materials to local mineral resource-based businesses and to assure adequate reserves for future generations;

•    

Work with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to increase Forest Board Trust Land payments generated from timber harvest activities.

(ii) Marine services:

•    

Recognize and endorse marine services as an economically significant industry in which Clallam County has unique qualities and competitive advantages;

•    

Support the development and maintenance of essential marine infrastructure within the County, including marinas, industry piers, boat ramps and recreational access facilities.

(iii) Construction and building trades:

•    

Develop and maintain a skilled workforce from the local population by promoting collaboration and shared resources, in order to meet employment demand;

•    

Encourage representation of construction and building trades in County permitting and land use planning efforts;

•    

Continue support of Clallam County Permit Advisory Board.

(iv) Tourism and recreation:

•    

Support development of a comprehensive tourism plan that provides for cooperative planning between industry and government agencies to prioritize, coordinate and develop tourism throughout the County;

•    

Support the tourism/hospitality cluster team, in order to establish a strategic regional tourism plan;

•    

Support creation of a joint executive tourism task force with Victoria, BC, industry personnel to establish areas of common interest;

•    

Encourage the development of a marketing task force, in order to establish area branding and packaging of local products and events;

•    

Promote the Olympic Peninsula Region as a destination site by comprehensive marketing and utilization of existing media outlets;

•    

Explore avenues of cooperation with area governments, real estate developers and others to develop tourism retirement and recreational communities;

•    

Encourage the promotion of tourism and recreational opportunities in Clallam County through advertising, signage, brochures, and other informational materials that could be made available, or referenced at public facilities, rights-of-way and websites;

•    

Support master planned resorts with primary focus on destination resort facilities consisting of short-term visitor accommodations associated with a range of developed on-site indoor or outdoor recreational facilities;

•    

Support cultural, heritage and social activities emphasizing natural attractions, places and activities unique to our area;

•    

Promote the County as an international destination;

•    

Encourage public access to bodies of water used for recreation by local residents and tourists through signage, maps and public information programs to identify areas and features of interest;

•    

Encourage development of private and public parks, campgrounds, rest areas, convention facilities, overnight facilities and recreational areas designed to accommodate multi-use activities such as biking, hiking, camping, horseback riding, etc.;

•    

Encourage tourism boards and Jefferson County to actively promote trail usage such as the Olympic Discovery Trail, events such as the North Olympic Discovery Marathon, commercial bicycle touring to the Olympic Peninsula, and Hurricane Ridge and the coastal camp sites as destinations for distance bicyclists;

•    

Support efforts to maintain healthy fish stocks, in order to provide stable sport fishing seasons for the tourism industry and economic needs of rural communities such as Clallam Bay and Sekiu;

•    

Success of tourism and recreation policies and strategies should be evaluated based on tourism tax receipts, number of lodging night stays, attendance at selected events and attractions, or similar indicators.

(v) Other sectors:

•    

Support Clallam netWorks (EDC) efforts to recruit and promote the organization of additional industry cluster teams not yet identified in this document.

Progress in achieving sustainable economic growth, diversity, and vitality will be measured by increases in overall employment rate, labor force as a percentage of population, average covered wage rates, new business startups, decreases in Medicare/Medicaid reimbursements at Olympic Medical Center, or similar indices reviewed on an annual basis.

(2) Goal 2. Work to provide the infrastructure and funding necessary to support planned economic development in advance of need, in order to accommodate and attract industrial and commercial operations in appropriate areas of the County.

(a) Policy 1. Support preparation of a “Strategic Infrastructure Development Plan” that when implemented, could prioritize capital facilities expenditures for strategic infrastructure investments that accommodate growth and encourage quality housing and economic development within appropriate areas.

(b) Policy 2. Identify state and federal funding and other support available for infrastructure projects, as well as resources of local special districts, such as school, water, and sewer districts that can assist in accomplishing community investment goals.

(c) Policy 3. Support widening US 101 to four lanes from Port Angeles to the Hood Canal Bridge and/or other appropriate transportation improvements to decrease commercial transportation costs and to improve safety.

(d) Policy 4. Develop joint service agreements and interlocal agreements with other agencies where feasible to co-finance capital projects.

(e) Policy 5. Lead the development of job-related public facilities within Clallam County, through utilization of the Opportunity Fund Program (OFP).

(f) Policy 6. Coordinate regional infrastructure provisions and financing among jurisdictions, developers, business owners and service providers. Facilitate development of a joint plan for infrastructure development to enhance industrial and commercial growth in designated areas.

(g) Policy 7. Recognize that barge transportation with accompanying upland support facilities needs to be explored to support transportation network.

Progress in meeting this goal and its policies will be measured by annual progress towards completion of projects listed in the Capital Facilities Budget, Six-Year Transportation Improvement Plan or similar documents.

(3) Goal 3. Environmental Stewardship. Encourage economic development that fosters protection of the natural environment and water resources that are vital to sustaining the County’s tourism, natural resource-based industries, and quality of life.

(a) Policy 1. Make environmental protection a business opportunity by marketing our pristine environment as an ideal location for recreation and the conduct of environmental research.

(b) Policy 2. Protect the natural environment and utilize renewable resources for long-term sustainable economic development including protection of existing farmland.

(c) Policy 3. Implement cooperative and coordinated surface and groundwater management policies to ensure the future availability and quality of water throughout the County.

(d) Policy 4. Adopt and provide funding for implementation of a comprehensive storm water management ordinance.

(e) Policy 5. Support programmatic environmental impact statements in advance to determine the cumulative impacts of potential projects within established industrial parks and/or other subareas designated for commercial or industrial uses, in order to streamline permit review processes for those areas.

(f) Policy 6. Meet Clean Air and Clean Water Act standards.

(g) Policy 7. Ensure that the new industrial developments do not exceed existing State noise regulations.

Progress in meeting this goal and its policies will be measured by quality of life opinion surveys, scientific surveys, research activities and compliance with applicable local, State and federal environmental standards.

(4) Goal 4. Communication and Outreach. Establish and maintain productive relationships with the public, other government agencies and industry clusters. Promote and utilize multiple modes of communication and outreach.

(a) Policy 1. Participate with local business leaders and organizations like the Economic Development Council, chambers of commerce, real estate professionals, permit advisory boards, downtown associations, industry cluster teams, and other groups to address current and changing business and job requirements.

(b) Policy 2. Continue to solicit public input and review recommendations from advisory committees, focus groups and others.

(c) Policy 3. Engage tribal governments in economic development initiatives and conduct outreach to tribal communities.

(d) Policy 4. Use local and regional media, in cooperation with other economic development agencies or groups, to improve perceptions about Clallam County as a good place to locate a business or industry.

(e) Policy 5. Continue to improve the County’s website and provide links to other local sites hosted by other entities such as cities, tribes, chamber(s) of commerce, and the EDC to promote economic development opportunities within Clallam County.

(f) Policy 6. Explore the possibilities of providing permit, licensing, tax and fee payments, and other transactions available to the public on-line.

(g) Policy 7. Continue to support an industry cluster approach to economic development by assisting the Economic Development Council and others with efforts to improve community knowledge and understanding of the industry clusters, facilitating connection of resources between clusters, and supporting cluster group initiatives.

(h) Policy 8. Continue participation in the development of an economic development marketing strategy for the community.

Progress in meeting this goal and its policies will be measured by increased public participation in County activities, positive media coverage, increased public-private and intergovernmental cooperative economic development efforts, and wider use of secure Internet transactions by customers doing business with the County.

(5) Goal 5. Regulatory Framework. Implement Clallam County development regulation in a consistent, fair, predictable, and expeditious manner, and coordinated between governmental, business and other organizational entities.

(a) Policy 1. Enact regulations and standards which encourage development of appropriate commercial, business and residential areas, and regularly review such regulations to enhance their consistency, predictability, timeliness and to decrease business costs.

(b) Policy 2. Coordinate regulations, guidelines, infrastructure plans, and funding packages with other public agencies and communities within urban growth areas.

(c) Policy 3. Work with real estate and development interests toward common goals that are beneficial to the developer and the community.

(d) Policy 4. Advocate pre-application meetings with County staff to identify problems before significant resources have been invested in a project proposal.

(e) Policy 5. Provide a streamlined permitting system with consolidated review of permits, a single staff contact assigned to coordinate reviews for a particular project, and contracted review of applications, when necessary.

(f) Policy 6. Develop expedited permit procedures within designated development areas, where environmental and compatibility issues have been addressed through zoning performance standards, or conditioned through the plat review process.

(g) Policy 7. Maintain an active role in the implementation of Washington State permitting processes such as hydraulic or water quality permits.

(h) Policy 8. Support the Washington State Department of Ecology’s efforts to streamline the water rights application process.

(i) Policy 9. Provide for administrative review of small scale and low impact commercial project where feasible, through the adoption of specific performance standards and ongoing review and updates to the use tables in each respective zoning district.

(j) Policy 10. Continue to review the Comprehensive Plan and implement development regulations which accommodate population, housing and employment forecasts, and adjust as necessary to meet demands.

(k) Policy 11. Review County rules and regulations regarding economic development and eliminate or revise those which are not necessary for public health, safety, or well-being.

Progress in meeting this goal and its policies will be measured by reduced permit processing time, reduced permit appeals, and building permit activity.

(6) Goal 6. Improving Accountability. Continuously evaluate progress towards timely implementation of goals with the public, elected officials, economic development leaders and industry representatives.

(a) Policy 1. Invite and encourage broad representation from organizations and citizens in the review and update of the Clallam County economic development element and implementing land use regulations.

(b) Policy 2. Adopt specific performance measures with which to gauge progress in meeting our economic and community development goals.

(c) Policy 3. Provide County representation in economic development forums, in order to support the economic progress of the County and the Comprehensive Plan.

Progress in meeting this goal and its policies will be measured by (1) active participation of Economic Development Council, Chamber of Commerce, real estate, building and development, Downtown Association, and/or industry cluster team representatives on appropriate County boards, committees, task forces or other work groups involved in economic development, infrastructure, environmental protection or other activities described within this section; (2) active participation in economic development forums; and (3) measurable progress toward accomplishing all the implementation tasks outlined in the annual work plans.

31.02.710 Utility issues.

The utilities element of the County-wide Comprehensive Plan consists of the general location and distribution of electrical and telecommunication service throughout the County.

Electrical service to the citizens and businesses of Clallam County outside the City of Port Angeles is provided by the Public Utility District No. 1 of Clallam County. Formed in 1940, this publicly owned utility first began electric service in 1943. The P.U.D. provides standard retail electric service to residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, and schools. Power is supplied to the P.U.D. by the Bonneville Power Administration via delivery points at Fairmont, Happy Valley, Port Angeles, and Sappho. The P.U.D. delivers this power via a sixty-nine (69) KV sub-transmission system to twenty-six (26) distribution substations from which power is supplied to the urban and rural areas by seventy-one (71) distribution circuits. The system capacities in 1994 are:

Bonneville Power System    425,000 KVA

PUD substation power system    274,349 KVA

Latest system peak demand    151,263 KVA

Telecommunication service is provided throughout the County by several private companies, providing standard, long-distance and cellular communication service. The telecommunication network to Clallam County is vital to quality of life of its citizens and economic development of the community. Improvements to this network can enhance the ability to transfer information and enable more businesses to locate in the County.

31.02.720 Utility goals.

(1) PUD No. 1 of Clallam County and Port Angeles City Light should coordinate planning and service delivery to the Port Angeles Urban Growth Area.

(2) PUD No. 1 of Clallam County should plan electric service delivery based on County and city comprehensive plans.

(3) Utility lines shall be underground for new land divisions. The County, city and service providers should work to place existing above-ground utility lines underground along major highway corridors inside urban growth areas.

(4) The County should support expansion of the telecommunication network. Fiber optic cables and cellular service should be enhanced to serve the economic development goals of the County. Cellular sites should be placed in locations which provide required service without significantly impacting scenic qualities of the area.

(5) The City of Port Angeles shall be the ultimate provider of water, sewer, stormwater, and electric utility services within the Port Angeles urban growth area unless other agreements with the City provide for PUD service within the UGA.

31.02.810 Capital Facilities Plan issues.

The Capital Facilities Plan (CFP) is one element of Clallam County’s Comprehensive Plan that is required by the Growth Management Act. This Comprehensive Plan coordinates land use elements with the capital facilities and transportation elements. This internal consistency and coordination ensures that the forecast of future needs is accurate, and that the land use element is reassessed if funding falls short of meeting existing and future capital facilities needs. Please refer to the transportation element for transportation system improvements. The full Capital Facilities Plan is hereby incorporated by reference to this Comprehensive Plan as Appendix A.

The CFP is a twenty (20) year plan with a six (6) year financial element for construction and maintenance of the County’s capital facilities. The County capital facilities covered in this Plan include roads, sewer, general administration, courts, detention and corrections, law and justice, parks, recreation and open space, flood control devices, solid waste and equipment maintenance facilities. This plan does not include facilities owned and managed by other public entities, such as the public utility district, schools, fire districts, etc. At such time as these public entities complete inventories and set service levels, this chapter can be amended to include those facilities. They will then be expected to go through the committee process and the public hearing process to determine if they should be added to this Plan.

The Capital Facilities Plan includes four (4) major steps: (a) an inventory of existing capital facilities; (b) a forecast of the future needs; (c) proposed locations and capacities of capital facilities; and (d) a six (6) year financing plan.

The Growth Management Act requires that adequate public facilities and services necessary to support development be available at the time of development. This plan identifies flood protection as the only necessary County public facilities at the time of development. Those County public facilities identified in this Plan that are needed within six (6) years of development are: sewer (Clallam Bay/Sekiu), parks, recreation and open space, and solid waste.

Financing improvements to County public facilities can occur in one of two (2) basic manners: tax sources, such as property, sales or real estate excise taxes; or through private sources, such as mitigation requirements or development impact fees. This plan identifies use of tax sources, including an increase in the real estate excise tax and mitigation requirements to finance needed capital facility improvements. This plan does not identify development impact fees as a source of public facility and service funding.

New development often pays for the cost of extending new public facilities and services. For example, if a development is proposed on a County road that is not adequate to handle traffic, the County is able to require the developer to pay the costs of improving the County road. Water and sewer systems are similarly financed; if a developer proposes to extend water and sewer to a property, it is the responsibility of the developer to pay the costs for extension of those services.

Another way that development pays for the cost of extending new public facilities is through development fees. For example, the cities require anyone who hooks up to the sewer or water system to pay a hook-up fee. This fee is put into a special account for the eventual planning and upgrade of the system, such as the sewer treatment facility. This hook-up fee is in addition to requiring the developer extend the actual collection or distribution lines.

Chapter 82.46 RCW authorizes counties and cities to impose an additional excise tax on the sale of real estate to finance public facility construction. This additional tax is authorized in two (2) increments of one-quarter of one percent of the sale price. Clallam County adopted the first one-quarter of one percent in 1990 and has set aside funds for capital improvements. Another new taxing source which is considered for purchase of parks and open space lands is the Conservation Futures Tax, Chapter 84.34 RCW This source is taxed on all parcels of property at a rate up to $0.0625 per $1,000 assessed valuation.

This way of paying for public facility and service extension is based on three (3) principles: (a) setting level of service standards for public facilities and services; (b) ensuring that public facilities and services necessary to support development are adequate to serve the development at the time the development is available for occupancy (called “concurrency”); and (c) requiring development to pay fees for the new facilities rather than rely solely on property taxes or grants to fund development of these public facilities (development impact fees).

The State limits the use of development impact fees to only those system improvements that are reasonably related to the new development, and specifically only for public streets and roads, public parks, open space and recreation, schools and fire protection facilities in areas that are not part of a fire district. (Fire facilities are generally not eligible in most of Clallam County rural or urban lands because the areas are part of a fire district.) Development impact fees cannot be used to pay for getting existing facilities up to adopted standards, or for operation and maintenance of the facilities. Development impact fees also cannot be used as the sole source of funding new facility construction, but may be used to “balance” other funding sources, such as property taxes.

The level of service summary shows that the County may expend up to $6,700,000 over the next six (6) years to maintain the level of services which citizens now enjoy. Of these costs, revenue sources of $1,380,000 have not been identified, although $1,100,000 may be eliminated by being able to use the old Courthouse in the solution of office space. There is also about $2,000,000 in parks and recreation which will be spent over the next twenty (20) years, not necessarily by the year 2000. These facts bring the funded portion of the Plan in line with revenues.

There is a problem with this positive outlook. There are no costs as of yet to resolve the Jail prisoner separation problem. This is still in the analysis stage and could be a significant impact on the Capital Facility Plan. One possible solution for this problem lies in the reuse of the old Juvenile Facility which becomes available in late 1994. The alternatives could range in cost from $100,000 to over $1,500,000. This Plan is expected to be modified when this data is available.

The funding to make this Plan work includes the second one-quarter percent local real estate excise tax as allowed under Chapter 82.46 RCW. This revenue source would be in lieu of development impact fees. This presents a logical method for financing the needed capital facilities without the negative aspect of impact fees reducing development. The other significant revenue source is the use of conservation futures and bonds for the large expenditures in park land. Thus, the people will have a say in the approval of those large acquisitions which impact them the most and advance the park system the most. If funding sources are not realized, then either the LOS Standards will have to be adjusted in recognition of the ultimate abilities of the County resources, or limits on future development and land uses will have to be enacted.

Throughout the Capital Facilities Plan, noncapital alternatives are presented to reduce the financial impact of needed capital facilities. It is expected that these alternatives will lessen the imbalance in the financial resources of the plan. Also, not all of the park expenditures are necessary to accomplish the plan. Only those which present the best opportunity for park enhancement will be accomplished and thus some savings should be realized.

31.02.820 Goals of the Capital Facilities Plan.

(1) Ensure that County public facilities necessary to support development shall be adequate to serve the development at the time the development is available for occupancy and use without decreasing current service levels below locally established minimum standards.

See Table 12 for County public facilities which require concurrency with development.

Table 12
– Concurrency Requirements

Facility

At Time of Development

Within Six (6) Years of Development with Financial Commitment

No Requirement

Parks and Recreation

No

Yes

N/A

Solid Waste

No

Yes

N/A

Sanitary Sewer

No

Yes

N/A

General Administration

No

No

No Requirement

Courts

No

No

No Requirement

Detention and Correction

No

No

No Requirement

Law and Justice

No

No

No Requirement

Flood Control Devices

Yes

N/A

N/A

Equipment Maintenance Facilities

No

No

No Requirement

Schools

No

No

No Requirement

(2) Encourage development in urban areas where adequate public facilities exist or can be provided in an efficient manner.

(3) Encourage the retention of open space, development of recreational opportunities, access to natural resource lands and water, and development of parks. Existing managed public access to public forest lands for recreation should be maintained.

(4) Establish level of service (LOS) standards for County public facilities.

(5) Prepare a six (6) year financial plan for any public facilities which need to be developed as a result of LOS requirements and projected changes in population. The six (6) year financial plan should be based on cost estimates for capital improvements which are identified in the plan. See Table 14 and 15 for a summary of the financing plan.

(6) Allow private investment to assist in the accomplishment of achieving LOS.

(7) Ensure that the costs of operation and maintenance are analyzed to assure that future budgets will be able to maintain facilities.

(8) Coordinate the Capital Facilities Plan with other elements of the Clallam County Comprehensive Plan.

(9) The Capital Facilities Plan should be coordinated and be consistent, where possible, with the plans and policies of other entities within the region, adjacent counties, and municipalities.

(10) The street and utility LOS standards adopted by the City of Port Angeles in its Capital Facilities Plan and/or urban services ordinance shall apply within the Port Angeles urban growth area.

31.02.910 Generalized land use maps.

The “Generalized County-wide Comprehensive Plan Map” in this section depicts the general location and distribution of County urban growth areas, rural lands and commercial forest lands. These three (3) general land uses form the framework for more specific land use designations, which are found in one of the regional subarea plans.

The Generalized County-wide Comprehensive Plan Map does not depict precise boundaries or locations of the three (3) general land uses. The specific locations are identified in one of the regional subarea plans. The Generalized County-wide Comprehensive Plan Map does identify the general locations of these land uses, however, and regional subarea plans must be consistent with these designations. For example, the Generalized County-wide Comprehensive Plan Map identifies eight (8) urban growth areas for Clallam County. It is expected that regional subarea plans will include these urban growth areas in the regional plan, and will not add any additional urban growth areas. However, the precise boundaries of the urban growth areas is left to the discretion of the regional plans, provided that the designations are consistent with the policies contained in CCC 31.02.200 (Urban Growth and Sprawl).

Similarly, any change in the designation of commercial forest lands to urban growth areas or rural lands would require an amendment to the Generalized County-wide Comprehensive Plan Map.

This framework of a generalized land use map ensures that distribution of growth and conservation of rural and resource lands is accomplished from a County-wide perspective, while allowing for flexibility and local determination of precise boundaries in regional subarea plans.

Adoption and/or amendments to regional subarea plan maps must be found to be consistent with this Generalized County-wide Comprehensive Plan Map.

Clallam County Generalized County-wide Comprehensive Plan Map

Clallam County Mineral Overlay Map