Chapter 16.55
SHORELINE MODIFICATIONS

Sections:

16.55.010    General shoreline modifications.

16.55.020    Interpretation of shoreline modifications table.

16.55.030    Shoreline modifications table and conditions.

16.55.040    Shoreline stabilization.

16.55.050    Docks, piers, moorage, buoys, floats or launching facilities.

16.55.060    Grading, dredging, dredge material disposal and filling.

16.55.010 General shoreline modifications.

The shoreline modifications chapter shall not be used to authorize a shoreline modification that is not allowed by the underlying zoning, but may add additional restrictions or conditions or prohibit specific modifications within the shoreline jurisdiction. All shoreline modifications in the shoreline jurisdiction must comply with all relevant City code provisions and with the Kenmore Shoreline Master Program. [Ord. 12-0334 § 3 (Exh. 1).]

16.55.020 Interpretation of shoreline modifications table.

The shoreline modification table in KMC 16.55.030 determines whether a specific shoreline modification is allowed within each of the shoreline environments. The shoreline environment is located on the vertical column and the specific use is located on the horizontal row of the table. The specific modifications are grouped by the shoreline modification categories in WAC 173-26-231. The table should be interpreted as follows:

A. If the letter “P” appears in the box at the intersection of the column and the row, the modification may be allowed within the shoreline environment only if the underlying zoning allows the modification.

B. If the letter “C” appears in the box at the intersection of the column and the row, the modification may be allowed within the shoreline environment subject to the shoreline conditional use review procedures specified in Chapter 16.75 KMC, and only if the underlying zoning allows the modification.

C. If a number appears in the box at the intersection of the column and the row, the modification may be allowed subject to the appropriate review process indicated in this section, the specific development conditions indicated with the corresponding number immediately following the table, and only if the underlying zoning allows the modification. If more than one number appears at the intersection of the column and row, both numbers apply.

D. If more than one letter-number combination appears in the box at the intersection of the column and the row, the modification is allowed within that shoreline environment subject to different sets of limitations or conditions depending on the review process indicated by the letter, the specific development conditions indicated in the development condition with the corresponding number in KMC 16.55.030(B), and only if the underlying zoning allows the modification. [Ord. 12-0334 § 3 (Exh. 1).]

16.55.030 Shoreline modifications table and conditions.

A. Shoreline Modifications Table.

Shoreline Modifications Table 

KEY

P – Permitted Modification

C – Shoreline Conditional Use Required

Shoreline modifications are allowed only if the underlying zoning allows the modification

DOWNTOWN WATERFRONT

SHORELINE RESIDENTIAL

URBAN CONSERVANCY

NATURAL

AQUATIC

Shoreline stabilization

 

 

 

 

 

Shoreline stabilization, not including flood protection facilities

P1

P1

C1

C1

C1, P1

Repair or maintenance of shoreline stabilization facilities

P2

P2

P2

P2

P2

Flood protection facilities

P3

P3

P3

C3

P3

Piers and docks

 

 

 

 

 

Docks, piers, moorage, buoys, floats or launching facilities

P4

P4

C4

C4

C4, P4

Fill

 

 

 

 

 

Filling

P5, C5

P5, C5

P5, C5

C5

C5

Breakwaters, jetties, groins, and weirs

 

 

 

 

 

Breakwaters, jetties, groins and weirs

C6

C6

C6

C6

C6

Grading and dredging

 

 

 

 

 

Grading, dredging, dredge material disposal

P5, C5

P5, C5

P5, C5

C5

C5

Shoreline habitat and natural systems enhancement projects

 

 

 

 

 

Habitat and natural systems enhancement projects

P7

P7

P7

P7

P7

B. Development Conditions (Footnotes for the Shoreline Modifications Table in Subsection A of this Section).

1. Shoreline stabilization, including bulkheads, shall be permitted only when it has been demonstrated that stabilization is necessary to protect existing legally established primary structures, public improvements, proposed or existing water-dependent development, or projects for the restoration of ecological functions or hazardous substance remediation, and must meet the standards in KMC 16.55.040. In the Aquatic Environment, stabilization requires conditional use approval, unless located adjacent to a Downtown Waterfront or Shoreline Residential Environment.

2. An existing shoreline stabilization structure may be replaced with a similar structure if there is a demonstrated need to protect principal uses or structures from erosion caused by currents, tidal action, or waves. Normal maintenance and repair is allowed; provided, that all work is conducted in a manner that does not cause a net loss of ecological functions.

3. Flood protection facilities must be consistent with the standards in Chapter 16.90 KMC, Flood Damage Prevention, Chapter 18.55 KMC, and the Integrated Stream Protection Guidelines (Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife, Ecology, and Transportation, 2003).

4. Docks, piers, moorage, buoys, floats or launching facilities shall meet the standards in KMC 16.55.050 and are allowed only for:

a. Water-dependent uses;

b. Public access;

c. Single detached residential units;

d. Joint use facilities for multiple-family dwelling unit developments; or

e. Water-related or water-enjoyment uses only as part of a mixed use development and only if auxiliary to and in support of a water-dependent use.

In the Aquatic Environment, docks, piers, moorage, buoys, floats and/or launching facilities require conditional use approval, unless located adjacent to a Downtown Waterfront or Shoreline Residential Environment.

5. Excavation, dredging and filling must meet the standards in KMC 16.55.060. Fill placed waterward of the ordinary high water mark for any use except ecological restoration or for the maintenance and repair of flood protection facilities requires a conditional use permit. Disposal of dredged material within shorelands or wetlands within the shoreline jurisdiction requires a conditional use permit.

6. Breakwaters, jetties, groins and weirs are only allowed where necessary to support water-dependent uses, public access, approved shoreline stabilization, or other public uses, as determined by the director. Groins are only allowed as part of a restoration project sponsored or cosponsored by a public agency that has natural resource management as a primary function.

7. Shoreline habitat and natural systems enhancement projects may include shoreline modifications of vegetation, removal of nonnative or invasive plants, and shoreline stabilization, including the installation of large woody debris, dredging and filling, provided the primary purpose is clearly restoration of the natural character and ecological functions of the shoreline. Mitigation actions identified through biological assessments required by the NOAA Fisheries Service and applied to flood hazard mitigation projects may include shoreline modifications of vegetation, removal of nonnative or invasive plants, and shoreline stabilization, including the installation of large woody debris, dredging and filling. [Ord. 12-0334 § 3 (Exh. 1).]

16.55.040 Shoreline stabilization.

Shoreline stabilization may be permitted subject to the standards in this chapter, provided:

A. The applicant has demonstrated the following in order to construct new shoreline stabilization:

1. A geotechnical analysis demonstrates that erosion from waves or currents is imminently threatening and that damage is expected to occur within three years if the shoreline stabilization is not constructed;

2. The erosion rate exceeds that which would normally occur in a natural condition;

3. The erosion is not caused by upland conditions on the project site;

4. The proposed shoreline stabilization is the least hardened solution that is feasible to protect the structures or improvements, including consideration of nonstructural alternatives such as slope drainage systems, vegetative growth stabilization, and gravel berms;

5. The proposal is the minimum necessary to protect existing legally established primary structures, new non-water-dependent development, existing water-dependent development or projects for the restoration of ecological functions or hazardous substance remediation;

6. The proposed shoreline stabilization does not interfere with fluvial hydrological and geomorphological processes normally acting in natural conditions; and

7. Adequate mitigation measures that maintain existing shoreline processes and critical fish and wildlife habitat will be provided that ensure no net loss or function of riparian habitat.

B. Shoreline stabilization to replace existing shoreline stabilization shall be placed landward of any existing shoreline stabilization, except that it may be placed waterward directly abutting the old structure only in cases where the existing bulkhead was installed prior to January 1, 1992, and removal of the old structure would result in greater impact on ecological functions.

C. The maximum height of the proposed shoreline stabilization shall be no more than four feet in height on Lake Washington.

D. Shoreline stabilization shall minimize the adverse impact on the property of others to the maximum extent practical.

E. Shoreline stabilization shall not be used to create new lands.

F. Shoreline stabilization shall not interfere with surface or subsurface drainage into the water body.

G. Automobile bodies or other junk or waste material which may release hazardous substances shall not be used for shoreline stabilization.

H. Shoreline stabilization shall be designed so as not to constitute a hazard to navigation and shall not substantially interfere with visual access to the water.

I. Shoreline stabilization shall be designed so as not to create a need for shoreline stabilization elsewhere.

J. Shoreline stabilization shall comply with the Integrated Stream Protection Guidelines (Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife, Ecology, and Transportation, 2003) and shall be designed to allow for appropriate public access to the shoreline. [Ord. 12-0334 § 3 (Exh. 1).]

16.55.050 Docks, piers, moorage, buoys, floats or launching facilities.

A. Any dock, pier, moorage, buoy, float or launching facility authorized by this chapter shall not interfere with navigation.

B. Any dock, pier, moorage, buoy, float or launching facility authorized by this chapter shall be subject to the following requirements:

1. Docks, piers, moorage, buoys, floats or launching facilities shall not exceed the minimum size necessary to serve the use for which they are designed (see KMC 16.55.030(B)(4)).

2. Docks, piers, moorage, buoys, floats or launching facilities serving more than four single-family residences must also meet the standards in KMC 16.50.050.

3. Only joint use boat lift, dock, pier, moorage, buoys, float or launching facilities may be permitted for multiple-family dwelling unit development proposals.

4. Only one boat lift, dock, pier, moorage, buoy, float and launching facility may be permitted for each parcel developed with a single detached residential unit and only if the applicant demonstrates there is no other feasible option for shared use facilities. However, installation or retention of additional watercraft lifts beyond one, without a canopy, at a single residential use waterfront structure is allowed. A maximum of three lifts are allowed at a single residential use overwater structure. However, only two lifts can be ground-based; all other lift(s) must be floating or suspended lift(s).

5. Only joint use docks or piers are allowed on lots with less than 50 feet of waterfront except when lots abutting both sides of the subject lot already have a dock or pier.

6. The only structures permitted in the first 30 feet waterward of the ordinary high water mark are piers and ramps. All floats and ells must be at least 30 feet waterward of the ordinary high water mark.

7. No skirting is allowed on any structure.

8. Surface coverage (includes all overwater portions of the floats, ramps, and ells) shall be limited as follows:

a. Moorage facilities serving only one residential waterfront lot shall not exceed 480 square feet;

b. Moorage facilities serving two residential waterfront lots shall not exceed 700 square feet; and

c. Moorage facilities serving three or more residential waterfront lots shall not exceed 1,000 square feet.

9. To protect anadromous salmon habitat, the following shall apply:

a. Docks with configurations that do not include any or all of the following elements shall be subject to the overall length and square footage limitations of this section and no portion of the dock shall exceed four feet in width, unless allowed in this subsection;

b. Piers shall not exceed four feet wide and shall be fully grated;

c. Ramps shall not exceed three feet wide and shall be fully grated;

d. Ells are allowed only over water with depths of nine feet or greater at the landward end of the ell; ells may be up to six feet wide by 20 feet long with a two-foot-wide strip of grating down the center; or ells may be up to six feet wide by 26 feet long with grating over the entire ell;

e. Floats are allowed only over water with depths of 10 feet or greater at the landward end of the float; and floats may be up to six feet wide by 20 feet long with a two-foot-wide strip of grating down the center;

f. In no case may any moorage facility extend more than 150 feet waterward of the ordinary high water mark;

g. The first (nearest shore) piling shall be steel, four-inch piling and at least 18 feet waterward of the ordinary high water mark. Piling sets beyond the first are not required to be steel, shall be spaced at least 18 feet apart and shall not be greater than 12 inches in diameter;

h. Piles shall not be treated with pentachlorophenol, creosote, chromated copper arsenate or comparably toxic compounds. If ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate pilings are proposed, the applicant will meet all of the best management practices, including a post-treatment procedure, as outlined in the amended Best Management Practices of the Western Wood Preservers; and

i. When steel piles are installed, approved sound attenuation measures must be used.

10. Existing habitat features (e.g., large and small woody debris, substrate material, etc.) shall be retained and new or expanded moorage facilities placed to avoid disturbance of such features.

11. Invasive aquatic weeds may be removed with nonchemical means only, except that milfoil may be removed using chemicals; provided, that the chemicals are applied by a licensed applicator and approved for aquatic use.

12. In order to mitigate the impacts of new or expanded commercial moorage facilities, the applicant shall plant emergent vegetation (if site-appropriate) and a buffer of vegetation a minimum of 10 feet wide along the entire length of the lot immediately landward of the ordinary high water mark. Planting shall consist of native shrubs and trees and, when possible, emergent vegetation. At least five native trees will be included in a planting plan containing one or more evergreen trees and two or more trees that like wet roots (e.g., willow species) per every 100 lineal feet of shoreline. Such planting shall be monitored for a period of five years according to an approved monitoring plan. This subsection is not intended to prevent reasonable access through the shoreline critical area buffer to the shoreline, or to prevent recreational use of the shoreline critical area. This requirement may be waived or reduced for water-dependent transportation uses where it is demonstrated that vegetation could result in safety or navigation hazards.

13. No private moorage or other structure waterward of the ordinary high water mark, including structures attached thereto, shall be closer than 12 feet to any adjacent property line except when there is a mutual agreement of adjoining property owners. Excepted from the requirements of this section are boat lifts or portions of boat lifts that do not exceed 30 inches in height measured from the ordinary high water mark.

14. Proposals to repair existing legally established moorage facilities where the nature of the repair is not described in KMC 16.55.030 shall be considered minor repairs and are permitted, consistent with any applicable standards of this title, KMC Title 18 and any other applicable codes or regulations.

15. No covered boat lift, dock, pier, covered moorage, covered float, or other covered structure is permitted waterward of the ordinary high water mark, except as provided below:

a. Submerged, free-standing mechanical boat lifts associated with single detached residential docks or piers and recreational watercraft may be covered with a canopy, provided:

(1) No canopy shall be more than 25 feet in length or wider than 15 feet;

(2) No portion of the canopy shall exceed a height of 12 feet above the ordinary high water mark;

(3) The canopy shall at no time have any side partly or wholly enclosed;

(4) The highest portion of the canopy shall be located below the lowest grade point on the waterward side of the existing homes on surrounding properties;

(5) Canopies shall be made out of canvas or other such nontoxic materials;

(6) Canopies shall be of a translucent material to allow light transmission;

(7) The total overwater coverage of the piers, floats, ramps, ells, and canopy for a single-family residence with a single-use moorage shall not exceed 600 square feet; and

(8) Only one boat lift canopy per single detached residence shall be allowed.

b. Covered moorage may be provided for commercial boat repair facilities.

16. No dwelling unit may be constructed on a dock or pier.

17. Buoys shall meet the following conditions:

a. Buoys shall not impede navigation;

b. The use of buoys for moorage of recreational and commercial vessels is preferred over pilings or float structures;

c. Buoys shall be located and managed in a manner that minimizes impacts to aquatic habitat;

d. No more than four buoys per acre are allowed.

C. Proposals that do not meet the requirements of subsection (B)(6), (B)(8), (B)(9) or (B)(15) of this section and that are designed to support a commercial or manufacturing water-dependent use, or to provide public access, or to serve residential uses, may be considered by the director. For any alternative proposal, the applicant must demonstrate that the proposed deviation is the minimum necessary to meet the needs of the specific use proposed, and provides an equal or greater degree of protection of ecological functions and anadromous species habitat than would strict adherence to the standards. For purposes of meeting this requirement, the director will review the required habitat management plan to determine whether the project is adequately protective. [Ord. 12-0334 § 3 (Exh. 1).]

16.55.060 Grading, dredging, dredge material disposal and filling.

Grading, dredging, dredge material disposal and filling must be consistent with Chapter 16.90 KMC and may be permitted in shorelines only as follows:

A. Fill may be permitted below the ordinary high water mark only:

1. When necessary to support a water- dependent use;

2. To provide for public access;

3. When necessary to mitigate conditions that endanger public safety, including flood risk reduction projects;

4. To allow for cleanup and disposal of contaminated sediments as part of an interagency environmental cleanup plan;

5. To allow for the disposal of dredged material considered suitable under, and conducted in accordance with, the dredged material management program of the Washington Department of Natural Resources;

6. For expansion or alteration of transportation or utility facilities currently located on the shoreline and then only upon demonstration that alternatives to fill are not feasible; or

7. As part of mitigation actions, environmental restoration projects and habitat enhancement projects.

B. Grading, dredging, and filling shall be located, designed, and constructed to protect shoreline ecological functions and ecosystem-wide processes, including channel migration, and mitigation shall employ the mitigation sequence in KMC 18.55.210.

C. Dredging and dredged material disposal below the ordinary high water mark shall be permitted only:

1. When necessary for the operation of a water-dependent use;

2. When necessary to mitigate conditions that endanger public safety or fisheries resources;

3. For establishing, maintaining, expanding, relocating or reconfiguring navigation channels and basins when necessary to ensure safe and efficient accommodation of existing navigation uses when:

a. Significant ecological impacts are minimized;

b. Mitigation is provided, employing the mitigation sequence in KMC 18.55.210; and

c. Dredging is maintained to the existing authorized location, depth and width;

4. For restoration projects associated with implementation of the Model Toxics Control Act or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; or any enhancement or restoration project;

5. For flood risk reduction projects conducted in accordance with Chapter 16.90 KMC.

D. Dredging is not allowed waterward of the ordinary high water mark for the primary purpose of obtaining fill material.

E. Disposal of dredged material shall be done only in approved upland disposal sites and is not allowed within critical areas or their buffers.

F. Stockpiling of dredged material in or under water is prohibited.

G. In order to ensure that operations involving dredged material disposal and maintenance dredging are consistent with the Shoreline Master Program as required by RCW 90.58.140(1), no dredging may commence in any shoreline environment without the responsible person having first obtained either a substantial development permit or a statement of exemption. A statement of exemption or shoreline permit is not required prior to emergency dredging needed to protect property from imminent damage by the elements if a statement of exemption or substantial development permit is subsequently obtained following the procedures in Chapter 16.75 KMC.

H. The removal of gravel for flood management is allowed only after a biological and geomorphological study shows that extraction has a long-term benefit to flood hazard reduction, does not result in a net loss of ecological functions, and is part of a comprehensive flood management solution. [Ord. 12-0334 § 3 (Exh. 1).]