Chapter 16.20
FLOOD DAMAGE PREVENTION

Sections:

Article I. General Provisions

16.20.010    Statutory authority.

16.20.020    Findings of fact.

16.20.030    Purpose.

16.20.040    Methods of reducing flood losses.

16.20.050    Applicability.

16.20.060    Areas of special flood hazard – Basis for establishment.

16.20.070    Abrogation and greater restrictions.

16.20.080    Interpretation.

16.20.090    Warning and disclaimer of liability.

Article II. Definitions

16.20.100    Definitions – Generally.

16.20.110    Appeal.

16.20.120    Area of shallow flooding.

16.20.130    Area of special flood hazard.

16.20.135    Basement.

16.20.140    Critical facility.

16.20.150    Development.

16.20.160    Flood or flooding.

16.20.170    Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM).

16.20.180    Flood Insurance Study.

16.20.190    Floodway.

16.20.200    Lowest floor.

16.20.210    Manufactured home.

16.20.220    Manufactured home park or subdivision.

16.20.230    New construction.

16.20.235    Recreational vehicle.

16.20.240    Start of construction.

16.20.250    Structure.

16.20.260    Substantial improvement.

16.20.270    Variance.

16.20.280    Water dependent.

Article III. Administration

16.20.290    Development permit – Required – Application information.

16.20.300    Building inspector – Authority.

16.20.310    Building inspector – Duties and responsibilities.

Article IV. Variances

16.20.320    Appeals.

16.20.330    Conditions for variances.

Article V. Flood Hazard Reduction

16.20.340    General standards.

16.20.350    Anchoring.

16.20.360    Construction materials and methods.

16.20.370    Utilities.

16.20.380    Subdivision proposals.

16.20.390    Review of building permits.

Article VI. Specific Standards

16.20.400    Specific standards designated.

16.20.410    Residential construction.

16.20.420    Nonresidential construction.

16.20.430    Critical facility.

16.20.440    Manufactured homes.

16.20.445    Recreational vehicles.

16.20.450    Floodways.

16.20.460    Wetlands management.

16.20.470    Standards for shallow flooding areas (AO zones).

Article VII. Compliance

16.20.480    Noncompliance – Penalties.

Article I. General Provisions

16.20.010 Statutory authority.

The Legislature of the State of Washington has delegated the responsibility to local governmental units to adopt regulations designed to promote the public health, safety and general welfare of its citizenry. Therefore, the city council ordains as set out in this chapter. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 1.1, 1989)

16.20.020 Findings of fact.

A. The flood hazard areas of the city are subject to periodic inundation which results in loss of life and property, health and safety hazards, disruption of commerce and governmental services, extraordinary public expenditures for flood protection and relief, and impairment of the tax base, all of which adversely affect the public health, safety and general welfare.

B. These flood losses are caused by the cumulative effect of obstructions in areas of special flood hazard which increase flood heights and velocities, and when inadequately anchored, damage uses in other areas. Uses that are adequately floodproofed, elevated or otherwise protected from flood damage also contribute to the flood loss. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 1.2, 1989)

16.20.030 Purpose.

It is the purpose of this chapter to promote the public health, safety and general welfare, and to minimize public and private losses due to flood conditions in specific areas by provisions designed:

A. To protect human life and health;

B. To minimize expenditure of public money for costly flood-control projects including restoration of wetlands and streams;

C. To minimize the need for rescue and relief efforts associated with flooding and generally undertaken at the expense of the general public;

D. To minimize prolonged business interruptions;

E. To minimize damage to public facilities and utilities, such as water and gas mains, electric, telephone and sewer lines, streets, and bridges located in areas of special flood hazard;

F. To help maintain a stable tax base by providing for the sound use and development of areas of special flood hazard so as to minimize future flood blight areas;

G. To ensure that potential buyers are notified that property is in an area of special flood hazard; and

H. To ensure that those who occupy the areas of special flood hazard assume responsibility for their actions. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 1.3, 1989)

16.20.040 Methods of reducing flood losses.

In order to accomplish its purposes, this chapter includes methods and provisions for:

A. Restricting or prohibiting uses which are dangerous to health, safety and property due to water or erosion hazards, or which result in damaging increases in erosion or in flood heights or velocities;

B. Requiring that uses vulnerable to floods, including facilities which serve such uses, be protected against flood damage at the time of initial construction;

C. Controlling the alteration of natural floodplains, stream channels, and natural protective barriers, which help accommodate or channel floodwaters;

D. Controlling filling, grading, dredging and other development which may increase flood damage; and

E. Preventing or regulating the construction of flood barriers which will unnaturally divert floodwaters, or which may increase flood hazards in other areas. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 1.4, 1989)

16.20.050 Applicability.

This chapter shall apply to all areas of special flood hazard within the jurisdiction of the city. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 3.1, 1989)

16.20.060 Areas of special flood hazard – Basis for establishment.

The areas of special flood hazard identified by the Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration in a scientific and engineering report entitled “The Flood Study for the City of Lake Forest Park,” dated April 19, 2005, with accompanying flood insurance rate maps, and any revisions thereto, are hereby adopted by reference and declared to be a part of this chapter. The Flood Insurance Study is on file at the City of Lake Forest Park City Hall, 17425 Ballinger Way N.E. (Ord. 1150 § 2, 2017; Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 636 § 1, 1995; Ord. 419 § 3.2, 1989)

16.20.070 Abrogation and greater restrictions.

The ordinance codified in this chapter is not intended to repeal, abrogate or impair any existing easements, covenants or deed restrictions. However, where the ordinance codified in this chapter and another ordinance, easement, covenant or deed restriction conflict or overlap, whichever imposes the more stringent restrictions shall prevail. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 3.4, 1989)

16.20.080 Interpretation.

In the interpretation and application of this chapter, all provisions shall be:

A. Considered as minimum requirements;

B. Liberally construed in favor of the governing body; and

C. Deemed neither to limit nor repeal any other powers granted under state statutes. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 3.5, 1989)

16.20.090 Warning and disclaimer of liability.

The degree of flood protection required by this chapter is considered reasonable for regulatory purposes, and is based on scientific and engineering considerations. Larger floods can and will occur on rare occasions. Flood heights may be increased by manmade or natural causes. This chapter does not imply that land outside the areas of special flood hazard, or uses permitted within such areas, will be free from flooding or flood damages. This chapter shall not create liability on the part of the city, any officer or employee thereof, or the Federal Insurance Administration for any flood damages that result from reliance on this chapter or any administrative decision lawfully made hereunder. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 3.6, 1989)

Article II. Definitions

16.20.100 Definitions – Generally.

Unless specifically defined in this article, words or phrases used in this chapter shall be interpreted so as to give them the meaning they have in common usage, and to give this chapter its most reasonable application. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.110 Appeal.

“Appeal” means a request for a review of the city council’s interpretation of any provision of this chapter, or a request for a variance. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.120 Area of shallow flooding.

“Area of shallow flooding” means a designated AO or AH zone on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). The base flood depths range from one to three feet; a clearly defined channel does not exist; the path of flooding is unpredictable and indeterminate; and velocity flow may be evident. AO is characterized as sheet flow and AH indicates ponding. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.130 Area of special flood hazard.

“Area of special flood hazard” means the land in the floodplain within a community subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year. Designation on maps always includes the letters A or V. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.135 Basement.

“Basement” means any area of the building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides. See LFPMC 16.20.410, Residential construction, for usage of this defined term. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005)

16.20.140 Critical facility.

“Critical facility” means a facility for which even a slight chance of flooding might be too great. Critical facilities include, but are not limited to, schools, nursing homes, hospitals, police, fire and emergency response installations, and installations which produce, use, or store hazardous materials or hazardous waste. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.150 Development.

“Development” means any manmade change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations or storage of equipment or materials located within the area of special flood hazard. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.160 Flood or flooding.

“Flood” or “flooding” means a general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from:

A. The overflow of inland or tidal waters; and/or

B. The unusual and rapid accumulation of runoff of surface waters from any source. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.170 Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM).

“Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM)” means the official map on which the Federal Insurance Administration has delineated both the areas of special flood hazard and the risk-premium zones applicable to the community. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.180 Flood Insurance Study.

“Flood Insurance Study” means the official report provided by the Federal Insurance Administration that includes flood profiles, the Flood Boundary Floodway Map, and the water surface elevation of the base flood. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.190 Floodway.

“Floodway” means the channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.200 Lowest floor.

“Lowest floor” means the lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area (including basement). An unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for the parking of vehicles, building access or storage, in an area other than a basement area, is not considered a building’s lowest floor; provided, that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable nonelevation design requirements of LFPMC 16.20.410(B). (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.210 Manufactured home.

“Manufactured home” means a structure, transported in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities. For floodplain management purposes, the term “manufactured home” also includes park trailers, travel trailers and other similar vehicles placed on a site for greater than 180 consecutive days. For insurance purposes, the term “manufactured home” does not include park trailers, travel trailers and other similar vehicles. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.220 Manufactured home park or subdivision.

“Manufactured home park or subdivision” means a parcel or contiguous parcels of land divided into two or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.230 New construction.

“New construction” means structures for which the start of construction commenced on or after the effective date of the ordinance codified in this chapter. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.235 Recreational vehicle.

“Recreational vehicle” means a vehicle:

A. Built on a single chassis;

B. Four hundred square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projection;

C. Designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a light-duty truck; and

D. Designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling but as a temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005)

16.20.240 Start of construction.

“Start of construction” includes substantial improvement, and means the date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, placement or other improvement was within 180 days of the permit date. The actual start means either the first placement of permanent construction of a structure on a site, such as the pouring of slab or footings, the installation of piles, the construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation; or the placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings, piers or foundation, or the erection of temporary forms; nor does it include the installation on the property of accessory buildings, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.250 Structure.

“Structure” means a walled and roofed building including a gas or liquid storage tank that is principally above ground. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.260 Substantial improvement.

A. “Substantial improvement” means any repair, reconstruction or improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure, either:

1. Before the improvement is started;

2. If the structure has been damaged and is being restored, before the damage occurred.

B. For the purposes of this definition, “substantial improvement” is considered to occur when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of the building commences, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the structure.

C. The term does not, however, include either:

1. Any project for improvement of a structure to comply with existing state or local health, sanitary or safety code specifications which are solely necessary to assure safe living conditions; or

2. Any alteration of a structure listed on the National Register of Historic Places or a State Inventory of Historic Places. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.270 Variance.

“Variance” means a grant of relief from the requirements of this chapter, which permits construction in a manner that would otherwise be prohibited by this chapter. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

16.20.280 Water dependent.

“Water dependent” means a structure for commerce or industry which cannot exist in any other location and is dependent on the water by reason of the intrinsic nature of its operations. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 2, 1989)

Article III. Administration

16.20.290 Development permit – Required – Application information.

A. Development Permit Required. A development permit shall be obtained before construction or development begins within any area of special flood hazard established in LFPMC 16.20.060. The permit shall be for all structures including manufactured homes, as set forth in Article II of this chapter, and for all development including fill and other activities, also as set forth in Article II of this chapter.

B. Application for Development Permit. Application for a development permit shall be made on forms furnished by the city and may include, but not be limited to: plans in duplicate drawn to scale showing the nature, location, dimensions and elevations of the area in question; existing or proposed structures, fill, storage of materials, drainage facilities and the location of the foregoing. Specifically, the following information is required:

1. Elevation in relation to mean sea level of the lowest floor (including basement) of all structures;

2. Elevation in relation to mean sea level to which any structure has been floodproofed;

3. Certification by a registered professional engineer or architect that the floodproofing methods for any nonresidential structure meet the floodproofing criteria in LFPMC 16.20.420; and

4. Description of the extent to which a watercourse will be altered or relocated as a result of proposed development. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 4.1, 1989)

16.20.300 Building inspector – Authority.

The building inspector is appointed to administer and implement this chapter by granting or denying development permit applications in accordance with its provisions. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 4.2, 1989)

16.20.310 Building inspector – Duties and responsibilities.

Duties of the building inspector, under this chapter, shall include, but not be limited to:

A. Permit Review.

1. Review all development permits to determine that the permit requirements of this chapter have been satisfied;

2. Review all development permits to determine that all necessary permits have been obtained from those federal, state or local governmental agencies from which prior approval is required;

3. Review all development permits to determine if the proposed development is located in the floodway. If located in the floodway, assure that the provisions of LFPMC 16.20.450 are met.

B. Use of Other Base Flood Data. When base flood elevation data has not been provided in accordance with LFPMC 16.20.060, the city council shall obtain, review and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation and floodway data available from a federal, state or other source in order to administer LFPMC 16.20.400 and 16.20.450.

C. Information to Be Obtained and Maintained.

1. Where base flood elevation data is provided through the Flood Insurance Study or required as in subsection B of this section, obtain and record the actual (as-built) elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the lowest floor (including basement), of all new or substantially improved structures, and whether or not the structure contains a basement;

2. For all new or substantially improved floodproofed structures:

a. Verify and record the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level); and

b. Maintain the floodproofing certifications required in LFPMC 16.20.290(B)(3);

3. Maintain for public inspection all records pertaining to the provisions of this chapter.

D. Alteration of Watercourses.

1. Notify adjacent communities and the Washington State Department of Ecology prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse, and submit evidence of such notification to the Federal Insurance Administration;

2. Require that maintenance is provided within the altered or relocated portion of the watercourse so that the flood-carrying capacity is not diminished.

E. Interpretation of FIRM Boundaries. Make interpretations, where needed, as to the exact location of the boundaries of the areas of special flood hazard (for example, where there appears to be a conflict between a mapped boundary and actual field conditions). The person contesting the location of the boundary shall be given a reasonable opportunity to appeal the interpretation, as provided in Article IV of this chapter. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 4.3, 1989)

Article IV. Variances

16.20.320 Appeals.

A. The hearing examiner shall hear and decide any application for a variance from the requirements of this chapter.

B. Those aggrieved by the decision of the city may appeal such decision to the King County superior court.

C. In passing upon such applications, the hearing examiner shall consider all technical evaluations, all relevant factors, standards specified in other sections of this chapter, and:

1. The danger that materials may be swept onto other lands to the injury of others;

2. The danger to life and property due to flooding or erosion damage;

3. The susceptibility of the proposed facility and its contents to flood damage, and the effect of such damage on the individual owner;

4. The importance of the services provided by the proposed facility to the community;

5. The necessity to the facility of a waterfront location, where applicable;

6. The availability of alternative locations for the proposed use which are not subject to flooding or erosion damage;

7. The compatibility of the proposed use with existing and anticipated development;

8. The relationship of the proposed use to the comprehensive plan and floodplain management program for that area;

9. The safety of access to the property in times of flood for ordinary and emergency vehicles;

10. The expected heights, velocity, duration, rate of rise and sediment transport of the floodwaters, and the effects of wave action, if applicable, expected at the site; and

11. The costs of providing governmental services during and after flood conditions, including maintenance and repair of public utilities, and facilities, such as sewer, gas, electrical and water systems, and streets and bridges.

D. Upon consideration of the factors in subsection C of this section and the purposes of this chapter, the hearing examiner may attach such conditions to the granting of variances as it deems necessary to further the purposes of this chapter.

E. The city clerk shall maintain the records of all appeal actions and report any variances to the Federal Insurance Administration upon request. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 836 § 1, 2000; Ord. 419 § 4.4-1, 1989)

16.20.330 Conditions for variances.

A. Generally, the only condition under which a variance from the elevation standard may be issued is for new construction and substantial improvements to be erected on a lot of one-half acre or less in size contiguous to and surrounded by lots with existing structures constructed below the base flood level, providing items listed in LFPMC 16.20.320(D) have been fully considered. As the lot size increases the technical justification for issuing the variance increases.

B. Variances may be issued for the reconstruction, rehabilitation or restoration of structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places or the State Inventory of Historic Places, without regard to the procedures set forth in this section.

C. Variances shall not be issued within a designated floodway if any increase in flood levels during the base flood discharge would result.

D. Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief.

E. Variances shall only be issued upon:

1. A showing of good and sufficient cause;

2. A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship to the applicant;

3. A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization of the public as identified in LFPMC 16.20.320(D), or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances.

F. Variances as interpreted in the National Flood Insurance Program are based on the general zoning law principle that they pertain to a physical piece of property; they are not personal in nature and do not pertain to the structure, its inhabitants, economic or financial circumstances. They primarily address small lots in densely populated residential neighborhoods. As such, variances from the flood elevation should be quite rare.

G. Variances may be issued for nonresidential buildings in very limited circumstances to allow a lesser degree of floodproofing than watertight or dry floodproofing, where it can be determined that such action will have low damage potential, complies with all other variance criteria except subsection A of this section, and otherwise complies with LFPMC 16.20.350 and 16.20.360.

H. Any applicant to whom a variance is granted shall be given written notice that the structure will be permitted to be built with a lowest-floor elevation below the base flood elevation, and that the cost of flood insurance will be commensurate with the increased risk resulting from the reduced lowest-floor elevation. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 4.4-2, 1989)

Article V. Flood Hazard Reduction

16.20.340 General standards.

In all areas of special flood hazard, the standards set out in this article are required. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.1, 1989)

16.20.350 Anchoring.

A. All new construction and substantial improvements shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure.

B. All manufactured homes must likewise be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse or lateral movement and shall be installed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage. Anchoring methods may include, but are not limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors (reference FEMA’s “Manufactured Home Installation in Flood Hazard Areas” guidebook for additional techniques). (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.1-1, 1989)

16.20.360 Construction materials and methods.

A. All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed with materials and utility equipment resistant to flood damage.

B. All new construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage.

C. Electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing and air-conditioning equipment and other service facilities shall be designed and/or otherwise elevated and located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.1-2, 1989)

16.20.370 Utilities.

A. All new and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the system;

B. New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharge from the systems into floodwaters; and

C. On-site waste disposal systems shall be located to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during flooding. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.1-3, 1989)

16.20.380 Subdivision proposals.

A. All subdivision proposals shall be consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;

B. All subdivision proposals shall have public utilities and facilities, such as sewer, gas, electrical and water systems located and constructed to minimize flood damage;

C. All subdivision proposals shall have adequate drainage provided to reduce exposure to flood damage; and

D. Where base flood elevation data has not been provided or is not available from another authoritative source, it shall be generated for subdivision proposals and other proposed developments which contain at least 50 lots or five acres, whichever is less. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.1-4, 1989)

16.20.390 Review of building permits.

Where elevation data is not available either through the Flood Insurance Study or from another authoritative source (LFPMC 16.20.310(B)), applications for building permits shall be reviewed to assure that proposed construction will be reasonably safe from flooding. The test of reasonableness is a local judgment and includes the use of historical data, high water marks, photographs of past flooding, etc., where available. Failure to elevate at least two feet above grade in these zones may result in higher insurance rates. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.1-5, 1989)

Article VI. Specific Standards

16.20.400 Specific standards designated.

In all areas of special flood hazard where base flood elevation data has been provided as set forth in LFPMC 16.20.060 or 16.20.310(B), the provisions set out in this article are required. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.2, 1989)

16.20.410 Residential construction.

A. New construction and substantial improvement of any residential structure shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated one foot above the base flood level.

B. Fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are subject to flooding are prohibited, or shall be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of floodwaters. Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or must meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:

1. A minimum of two openings having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding shall be provided.

2. The bottom of all openings shall be no higher than one foot above grade.

3. Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, or other coverings or devices; provided, that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.2-1, 1989)

16.20.420 Nonresidential construction.

New construction and substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial or other nonresidential structure shall either have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated one foot or more above the level of the base flood elevation; or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, shall:

A. Be floodproofed so that below one foot above the base flood level the structure is watertight, with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water;

B. Have structural components capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy;

C. Be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect that the design and methods of construction are in accordance with accepted standards of practice for meeting provisions of this subsection based on their development and/or review of the structural design, specifications and plans. Such certifications shall be provided to the official as set forth in 16.20.310(C)(2);

D. Nonresidential structures that are elevated, not floodproofed, must meet the same standards for space below the lowest floor as described in LFPMC 16.20.410(B);

E. Applicants floodproofing nonresidential buildings shall be notified that flood insurance premiums will be based on rates that are one foot below the floodproofed level (e.g., a building floodproofed to one foot above the base flood level will be rated as at the base flood level). (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.2-2, 1989)

16.20.430 Critical facility.

Construction of new critical facilities shall be, to the extent possible, located outside the limits of the base floodplain. Construction of new critical facilities shall be permissible within the base floodplain if no feasible alternative site is available. Critical facilities constructed within the base floodplain shall have the lowest floor elevated to three feet or more above the level of the base flood elevation at the site. Floodproofing and sealing measures must be taken to ensure that toxic substances will not be displaced by or released into floodwaters. Access routes elevated to or above the level of the base floodplain shall be provided to all critical facilities to the extent possible. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.2-3, 1989)

16.20.440 Manufactured homes.

All manufactured homes to be placed or substantially improved within zones Al through A30, AH and AE on the community’s FIRM shall be elevated on a permanent foundation such that the lowest floor of the manufactured home is one foot or more above the base flood elevation; and be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system in accordance with the provisions of 16.20.350(B). (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.2-4, 1989)

16.20.445 Recreational vehicles.

Recreational vehicles placed on sites are required to either:

A. Be on the site for fewer than 180 consecutive days; or

B. Be fully licensed and ready for highway use, on wheels or jacking systems, attached to the site only by quick disconnect-type utilities and security devices, and have no permanently attached additions; or

C. Meet the requirements of LFPMC 16.20.440 and the elevation and anchoring requirements for manufactured homes. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005)

16.20.450 Floodways.

Located within areas of special flood hazard established in LFPMC 16.20.060 are areas designated as floodways. Since the floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of floodwaters which carry debris, potential projectiles and erosion potential, the following provisions apply:

A. Prohibit encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements and other development unless certification by a registered professional engineer or architect is provided demonstrating through hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed in accordance with standard engineering practice that encroachments shall not result in any increase of flood levels during the occurrence of the base flood discharge.

B. Construction or reconstruction of residential structures is prohibited within designated floodways, except for (a) repairs, reconstruction, or improvements to a structure which do not increase the ground floor area; and (b) repairs, reconstruction or improvements to a structure, the cost of which does not exceed 50 percent of the market value of the structure either (i) before the repair, reconstruction, or repair is started, or (ii) if the structure has been damaged, and is being restored, before the damage occurred. Any project for improvement of a structure to correct existing violations of state or local health, sanitary, or safety code specifications which have been identified by the local code enforcement official and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions, or to structures identified as historic places, may be excluded in the 50 percent.

C. If subsection (A) of this section is satisfied, all new construction and substantial improvements shall comply with all applicable flood hazard reduction provisions of this article. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.3, 1989)

16.20.460 Wetlands management.

To the maximum extent possible, avoid the short- and long-term adverse impacts associated with the destruction or modification of wetlands, especially those activities which limit or disrupt the ability of the wetland to alleviate flooding impacts. The following process should be implemented:

A. Review proposals for development within base floodplains for their possible impacts on wetlands located within the floodplain.

B. Ensure that development activities in or around wetlands do not negatively affect public safety, health and welfare by disrupting the wetlands’ ability to reduce flood and storm drainage.

C. Request technical assistance from the Department of Ecology in identifying wetland areas. Existing wetland map information from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) can be used in conjunction with the community’s FIRM to prepare an overlay zone indicating critical wetland areas deserving special attention. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.4, 1989)

16.20.470 Standards for shallow flooding areas (AO zones).

Shallow flooding areas appear on FIRMs as AO zones with depth designations. The base flood depths in these zones range from one to three feet above ground where a clearly defined channel does not exist, or where the path of flooding is unpredictable and where velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is usually characterized as sheet flow. In these areas, the following provisions apply:

A. New construction and substantial improvements of residential structures within the AO zones shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated above the highest grade adjacent to the building, one foot or more above the depth number specified on the FIRM (at least two feet if no depth number is specified).

B. New construction and substantial improvements of nonresidential structures within AO zones shall either:

1. Have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated above the highest adjacent grade of the building site, one foot or more above the depth number specified on the FIRM (at least two feet if no depth number is specified); or

2. Together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be completely floodproofed to or above that level so that any space below that level is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy. If this method is used, compliance shall be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect as in LFPMC 16.20.420(C).

C. Require adequate drainage paths around structures on slopes to guide floodwaters around and away from proposed structures. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 5.5, 1989)

Article VII. Compliance

16.20.480 Noncompliance – Penalties.

A. No structure or land shall hereafter be constructed, located, extended, converted or altered without full compliance with the terms of this chapter and other applicable regulations. Violation of the provisions of this chapter by failure to comply with any of its requirements (including violations of conditions and safeguards established in connection with conditions) shall constitute a misdemeanor.

B. Any person who violates this chapter or fails to comply with any of its requirements shall upon conviction thereof be fined not more than $500.00 or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both, for each violation, and in addition shall pay all costs and expenses involved in the case. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the city from taking such other lawful action as is necessary to prevent or remedy any violation. (Ord. 937 § 1, 2005; Ord. 419 § 3.3, 1989)