Chapter 14.08
OLD WORLD BAVARIAN ARCHITECTURAL THEME1

Sections:

14.08.010    Purpose.

14.08.020    Applicability.

14.08.030    Design review board review.

14.08.035    Design review permit – Conditions and effect.

14.08.040    Design elements.

14.08.050    Supplemental regulations.

14.08.060    Small commercial buildings.

14.08.070    Mechanical equipment.

14.08.080    Signs.

14.08.090    Enforcement.

14.08.100    Appendix: Portfolio of Photographs of Old World Bavarian Architecture and Signs for the City of Leavenworth.

14.08.010 Purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to assist all involved in the design of new buildings, structures, walkways, plazas, lighting, or other miscellaneous items identified herein or the alteration of existing buildings, structures, walkways, plazas, lighting, or other miscellaneous items identified herein in order to develop and promote Leavenworth’s Old World Alpine Bavarian village theme. [Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1164 § 1, 2001; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.020 Applicability.

A. Within all of the commercial zone districts of the city and the city’s urban growth area, the following shall conform in exterior design to the Old World Bavarian architectural theme:

1. New buildings, structures, walkways, plazas, lighting, or other miscellaneous items identified herein;

2. Additions, substantial alterations and individual changes to structures and buildings; and

3. Modifications to walkways, plazas, lighting and other miscellaneous items identified herein.

B. For purposes of subsection (A) of this section, the term “substantial alteration” shall be defined as any interior and/or exterior alteration of an existing building or structure, the total cost of which (including but not limited to electrical, mechanical, plumbing and structural changes) within any 18-month period equals or exceeds 75 percent of the value of that building or structure at the time that a permit is applied for. The value shall be determined by using a contractor’s estimate for construction and either the most recent assessed value as stated in the Chelan County assessor’s current year tax records or an appraisal submitted by a licensed real estate appraiser. The estimate and the appraisal shall be dated no later than six months prior to the date of permit submittal.

C. When a permit for new construction and/or an addition is applied for, the entire structure and/or addition shall comply with all of the requirements of this chapter except as follows:

1. For zero lot line buildings, at a minimum, partial-pitched roofs which comply with the requirements of LMC 14.08.040(B) shall be incorporated on all sides of the structure which front on a street and/or alley. At a minimum, the partial-pitched roof shall span the entire length of the wall fronting on the public street and/or alley and shall extend 16 feet from the perimeter edge of the structure back toward the center of the structure, which measurement shall not include that portion overhanging the edge of the structure.

D. When a permit for a substantial alteration is applied for, the entire structure, including all existing components, shall comply with all of the requirements of this chapter, with the exception of roof and wall treatments, which at a minimum shall comply with the following:

1. If the substantial alteration is equal to or greater than 75 percent, but less than 90 percent of the value of the structure (using the valuation methodologies and time frame in subsection (B) of this section), the following requirements shall apply:

a. If the existing roof is not in conformance with the requirements of this chapter, it shall be replaced on all sides of the structure which front on a street and/or alley with a partial-pitched roof which complies with the requirements of LMC 14.08.040(B). The partial-pitched roof shall span the entire length of the wall fronting on the public street and/or alley and shall extend 16 feet from the perimeter edge of the structure back toward the center of the structure, which measurement shall not include that portion overhanging the edge of the structure.

b. If the existing wall treatment is not in conformance with the requirements of this chapter, the entire surface of those walls of the structure which front on a public street shall be resurfaced with wall treatment which complies with the requirements of LMC 14.08.040(C). The remaining walls of the structure (which do not front on a public street) shall not be required to be resurfaced with a compliant wall treatment, but shall be painted in an identical or complementary color to the compliantly surfaced walls. This exception to wall treatment requirements applies only to the wall surfacing materials; all other requirements of this chapter, including, but not limited to, decorative windows, doors, and trims shall apply.

2. If the substantial alteration is 90 percent or more of the value of the structure (using the valuation methodologies and time frame in subsection (B) of this section), the application shall be treated as new construction and/or an addition and the entire structure and/or addition shall comply with the requirements of this chapter except as follows:

a. For zero lot line buildings, at a minimum, partial pitched roofs which comply with the requirements of LMC 14.08.040(B) shall be incorporated on all sides of the structure which front on a street and/or alley. At a minimum, the partial pitched roof shall span the entire length of the wall fronting on the public street and/or alley and shall extend 16 feet from the perimeter edge of the structure back toward the center of the structure, which measurement shall not include that portion overhanging the edge of the structure.

E. Every change to an exterior element of a structure, including, but not limited to, doors, windows, wall finishes, paint, roofing materials, and/or structural elements shall comply with the requirements of this chapter unless such change is routine maintenance and repair; in which case, it may be repaired with a material which is identical to that of the original materials or a material which is determined equally or more compliant by the community development director or his/her designee. This determination of compliance may be remanded at his/her discretion to the design review board. For purposes of this chapter, routine maintenance and repair is defined as corrective and/or preventative actions which do not result in an alteration but which allow for a structure to perform its intended, original purpose.

F. An existing structure which is not compliant with the Old World Bavarian Architectural Theme shall not be relocated to the commercial zone districts or be moved from one place to another within the commercial zone districts. A determination of the compliance or noncompliance of the structure shall be made by making application to the design review board, which shall render findings of fact in making this determination. If a structure can be determined to be compliant with minor improvements which do not exceed 25 percent of the value (using the valuation methodologies in subsection (B) of this section), the structure shall be allowed to be relocated subject to compliance with conditions placed on the permit by the design review board. To ensure that when a structure is placed it shall comply completely and in a timely manner with the permit requirements, the applicant shall be required to bond for all improvements at 150 percent of the total value (using valuation methodologies in subsection (B) of this section) and all improvements shall be completed within 120 days of the date of permit approval. Noncompliance will result in a requirement for the property owner to remove the structure.

G. A change of occupancy which results in physical changes to the structure shall be treated as either new construction, a substantial alteration or changes to individual elements in accordance with how the said change or changes meets the thresholds described in subsections (B) through (F) of this section and shall be held to the requirements as delineated thereto with the following exceptions:

1. An existing single-family residential structure which converts to a use other than an overnight rental and undergoes a change of occupancy pursuant to the building code shall be treated as new construction and shall comply with the requirements of this chapter applicable to new construction; except the roof shall not be required to be brought into compliance; however, fascia shall be trimmed with materials which comply with the requirements of this chapter.

a. When roof materials and/or structural roof components are replaced in a manner which is not routine maintenance and repair (e.g., a patch job), the materials and structural components shall comply with the requirements of LMC 14.08.040(B).

2. An existing single-family residential structure which converts to an overnight rental shall not be required to comply with this chapter except as follows:

a. If there are exterior and/or interior alterations proposed to the structure which exceed 50 percent of the value of the structure (using the valuation methodologies and time frame in subsection (B) of this section) the structure shall be treated as new construction and shall comply with the requirements of this chapter; except the roof structure shall not be required to be brought into compliance with this chapter.

i. When roof materials and/or structural roof components are replaced in a manner which is not routine maintenance and repair (e.g., a patch job), the materials and structural components shall comply with the requirements of LMC 14.08.040(B).

b. When an overnight rental converts to a subsequent use, it shall be required to comply with subsection (G) of this section. [Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.030 Design review board review.

A. No building or structure (regardless of the size), walkway, plaza, lighting or other miscellaneous items identified herein shall be placed, constructed, changed, altered, added to, and/or undergo a change in occupancy status pursuant to the building code in any commercial zone district without first obtaining design review board approval and a permit. All applications for permits for construction, changes, alterations, additions, and/or changes of use of buildings, structures, walkways, plazas, lighting, or other miscellaneous items identified herein shall first be submitted to and be reviewed and approved by the design review board who shall determine if the application is compliant with this chapter for the Old World Bavarian architectural theme.

B. All applications for permits required by this chapter shall be accompanied by a complete set of plans and blueprints clearly defining the construction, changes, alterations, or remodeling and stating the proposed location, dimension, and types of construction and design. The plans and blueprints shall be drawn to scale and shall clearly define the roofing materials and siding materials to be used and also the finish, paint or other materials to be used or applied on all exterior walls, trims, and other details and shall state a contemplated date of commencement and completion of the project, and shall become the property of the city upon submission of the application. All applications submitted shall be accompanied by payment of a permit fee for the amount identified in the city’s fee schedule.

C. The applicant shall submit an accurate colored rendering of the proposal. The colored rendering shall either be done in a form of paint, colored pencils, colored pens, or be computer-generated. Paint chips or paint samples shall be submitted with the colored rendering for all colors included in the rendering.

D. In determining whether the proposed placement, construction, change, addition, or alteration conforms to exterior design of the Old World Bavarian architectural theme, the design review board shall consider the compatibility of the proposed exterior design with the existing design review board approved Bavarian structures and designs in the commercial zone districts of the city and the city’s urban growth area and may, in addition, consult the following publications which contain many examples of architecture, including some examples that are specific to the Old World Bavarian architectural theme:

1. “Bayern in Bildern.” Illustrations of Bavaria. Munchen, L. Muller (1971);

2. “Häuser in den Alpen,” by Viktor Proksch. Pinquin Verlag, Innsbruck, and Umschau Verlag, Frankfurt A.M. (1964) (This book is also available in an English/French version);

3. “Bemalte Fassaden,” by Margarete Baur-Heinbold. Verlag Georg D.W. Callwey, Munchen (1975);

4. “Bayern = Bavaria = La Baviere: e. Bildbd, von Otto Siegner.” Munchen-Pullach: Simon, (1975);

5. “Wohnen im Alpenland,” by S. Staffa. Verlag, Kitzbuhel;

6. “Die Schönsten Bauernhofe Oberbayerns,” by Ottmar Schuberth. Munchen (1999).

E. Copies of the above publications and similar related reference works shall be kept on hand by the city for review by applicants and by members of the design review board.

F. An applicant may submit a preliminary sketch prior to furnishing a complete application for review at a regularly scheduled design review board meeting. Following review by the board, the applicant shall complete the application as directed by the board in accordance with this chapter.

G. Design review applications shall be processed in accordance with the limited administrative review process, pursuant to Chapter 21.09 LMC. In order to schedule a design review board meeting, a complete application shall be received by the community development department at least seven working days prior to the meeting.

H. Changes to a design review board approved design, which are subsequently proposed after the initial approval of the design review board permit, shall require submission of an application to the design review board for approval prior to construction of the change.

I. Supporting reference materials shall be supplied to the design review board by the applicant at the request of the board.

J. The community development director or designee may administratively approve the design of retaining walls, landscaping structures, landscaping planter sign bases, lighting, fences or fence-type walls, garbage enclosures, walkways, plazas or similar structures when they are not proposed in conjunction with a larger project that would require design review board review. In addition, the community development director or designee may administratively approve changes to the individual exterior elements (LMC 14.08.020) which collectively do not exceed five percent of the value of the structure (using the valuation methodologies and time frame in LMC 14.08.020(B)) when they are not proposed in conjunction with a larger project that would require design review board review. Approval shall be subject to the standards contained in this chapter. At the discretion of the director, the application, or portions of the application, may be required to be submitted to the design review board for review and approval.

K. The applicant or a representative of the applicant shall be in attendance at the design review board meeting for an application to be reviewed by the design review board.

L. Chelan County has adopted the city’s codes within the city’s urban growth area, including Chapter 14.08, the Old World Bavarian architectural theme. The city’s design review board will perform reviews of applications for projects located in the urban growth area and relay its findings to the county for inclusion in the county decision-making process. The county is the decision-making authority within the geographic boundary of the city’s urban growth area. [Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1164 § 2, 2001; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.035 Design review permit – Conditions and effect.

Architectural design review permits issued on the basis of plans and applications approved by the design review board or administrative official (as applicable) authorize only the arrangement and design set forth in such approved plans and applications, and no other use, arrangement, design or construction. Use, arrangement, design or construction at variance with that authorized shall be deemed violation of this title and punishable as provided in Chapter 21.13 LMC. [Ord. 1476 § 1 (Att. A), 2014.]

14.08.040 Design elements.

The design review board, in granting or denying approval of a permit in accordance with this chapter, should consider the following criteria. This list is intended to serve as a guide for prospective developers of representative Old World Bavarian design features which have proven effective on commercial buildings in the city. The following design elements shall be incorporated, as applicable, in design proposals brought before the Leavenworth design review board to implement the Old World Bavarian architectural theme in the city of Leavenworth. A minimum of three decorative design details (in addition to structural elements) shall be included on a building or structure. Decorative design details include, but are not limited to, painted trim, decorative fascia, window treatments, balconies, and murals.

A. Shapes.

1. The single most defining shape of Bavarian-Alpine architecture is the low-pitched roof with expansive overhangs, regardless of building size. An alpine roof is designed to hold snow for insulation. The overhangs deal with ice buildup and help keep the area right next to the house free of snow. In the rainy regions of Germany where snow is not prevalent, the roofs are very steep in order to shed water.

2. Buildings are rectangular or are combinations of rectangles.

3. Very large warehouse- or market-type buildings pose special problems to this design theme. They must, however, include traditional Bavarian design elements and materials.

B. Roofs.

1. Roofs have a pitch of three and one-half to five and one-half.

2. Roof overhangs are expansive on the front and sides and usually require rafter and lookout beams. Lookout beams shall be scrolled or have decorative faceplates. The scrolling shall be traditional Rococo, Baroque or folk designs. Lookout beams shall not extend beyond the fascia.

3. Pitched Roof Materials.

a. Tile, simulated tile, standing seam metal, high-profile asphalt shingles, or heavy shakes are acceptable.

b. Acceptable colors for standing seam metal are red, brown, green or gray. Galvanized metal is unacceptable. Tile or asphalt shingle colors should be red, gray, or brown earth tones.

c. Standard overlap metal, plain shingles, and profileless asphalt shingles are not acceptable.

4. Fascia shall be scrolled or multiple profile.

5. When snow guards are used or intended to be used, they shall be included in the overall design review approval.

6. If roof rafters are exposed (open soffit), the underside of the roof covering shall be one of the following materials: resawn plywood, tongue and groove boards (beveled or plain), T-111 run lengthwise, solid wood, or exterior finish sheeting.

C. Walls. Wall treatments shall consist of the following:

1. Stucco or stucco-like material;

2. Wood, usually on the upper level of the wall;

3. A combination of the above;

4. Unacceptable materials or methods are:

a. Metal siding;

b. Stucco board, or panelized preapplied stucco, except that the use of Hardipanel® may be allowed for zero lot line walls where there are no required side yard setbacks and where another building either has already been built to each side of the new building or is being built concurrently, and the walls being covered with Hardipanel® will not be generally visible;

c. Half timbering (see LMC 14.08.100(K));

d. Concrete block (cracked or plain). If concrete block is used, it shall be stuccoed;

5. Retaining walls, landscaping structures, permanent or semi-permanent (because of size and/or weight) landscape planters, landscaping planter sign bases, and similar structures may be constructed of landscaping timbers (not railroad ties), stone, irregularly shaped rock, large boulders, poured concrete, split-faced concrete block landscaping stones, or other new materials as approved by the design review board. Cultured stone that has the appearance of stone, irregularly shaped rock or large boulders is acceptable. Round river rock is not acceptable;

6. Fences or fence type walls may be constructed of decorative metal, wrought iron, wood, stone, stucco, irregularly shaped rock, poured concrete, split-faced concrete block stones, or other new materials as approved by the design review board. Cultured stone that has the appearance of stone, irregularly shaped rock or large boulders is acceptable. Round river rock is not acceptable. Chain link fencing is not allowed in any commercial zone district, except as follows:

a. When required by state or federal law.

b. When deemed necessary by a public safety official for public safety purposes.

c. When used for security purposes on property owned and/or leased by a public entity.

d. When used as temporary construction fencing.

At its discretion, the city may require that shielding components be incorporated into the fencing, apply time limits to the installation, and/or apply other conditions as determined necessary to mitigate impacts.

D. Balconies. Balconies are optional. Where architectural balconies not intended for actual use are proposed, they shall have an apparent means of access, i.e., a door or false door, or large window. If balconies are present, they shall contain traditional design elements, such as:

1. Heavy beam supports;

2. Scrolled slats;

3. Flower boxes. This is the traditional location for them.

E. Doors and Doorways. Doors are constructed of wood or materials with a wood-like appearance; however, doors used for utility and/or service entrances can be constructed of other materials but shall be colored to blend with adjacent surfaces. Many doorways are arched. The arched doorway or entryway should be constructed of wood or stucco.

F. Windows. Window treatment options are:

1. Recessed, with or without painted decorative trim;

2. Shutters are desirable when painted trim is not applied;

3. Painted decorative trim;

4. Grid inserts in the glazing;

5. Flower boxes;

6. Windows may be arched;

7. A combination of the above is acceptable; however, one of the window treatment options in subsections (F)(1) through (5) of this section is mandatory;

8. Flush, unadorned windows are unacceptable.

G. Trim. Trim is the least of the design elements, not the focus of the design.

1. Scrolling. Decorative scroll work shall be required on fascia board and other trim. In general, scrolling follows traditional or Rococo designs. Design details for scroll work shall be included with the application.

2. Stone is used in rectangular linear forms for accents. River rock, concrete block (cracked or plain), and irregular stone slabs are unacceptable.

3. Wood shall not be used as trim over stucco.

H. Decorative Painting. Designs for murals or art work on exterior walls or around windows and doors shall be presented for design review board approval before application to the building.

1. Corner walls may be painted to simulate rectangular stone.

2. Three-dimensional painting is encouraged around windows and doors when shutters are not present. Classic as well as Rococo designs should be used.

3. Murals may be of a traditional Bavarian theme. Scenic murals are also acceptable. All murals are subject to design approval by the design review board. Murals may incorporate a sign, or may stand alone. When a sign is incorporated into the mural, then a sign permit and compliance with Chapter 14.10 LMC, Signs, are required.

I. Colors. Color selection shall incorporate the following:

1. The predominant stucco color is white or off-white. Pastels are acceptable, but only with white or off-white accents on stucco trim. Bold bright colors are unacceptable.

2. All wood trim (including beams, fascia and siding) shall be stained with transparent wood-tone stain. Very seldom is opaque stain or painted (color) trim used over wood. However, hunter green and other accent colors are sometimes used for shutters and flower boxes.

3. A paint chip or paint sample shall be submitted with the colored rendering of a design for all colors incorporated in the rendering. This requirement applies to the sign and architectural theme sections of this code. The sign portion of the mural is not exempt from this requirement, although the rest of the mural is. [Ord. 1442 § 1 (Att. A), 2013; Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1164 § 3, 2001; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.050 Supplemental regulations.

A. The design review board may require the following structures or items to comply to the maximum extent practical and feasible with the Old World Bavarian architectural theme when they are located in any commercial zone district:

1. Street furnishings.

2. Walkways and/or plazas.

3. Garbage enclosures.

4. Kiosks.

5. Public telephone booths.

B. Meters, utility boxes, vents, louvers, conduit covers and other similar items shall be colored to blend with adjacent surfaces.

C. Serving windows to outdoor, privately owned staging areas shall be set back a minimum of eight feet from the sidewalk or public right-of-way.

D. The terms, provisions and requirements of this chapter shall be in addition to and not in lieu of the requirements set forth in the International Building Code and other uniform codes adopted by the city or in any other ordinance, state statute or regulation governing the construction, building, zoning or other similar regulations applicable to the city.

E. The painting of a new or existing building in a color different from the color originally approved shall require approval by the design review board.

F. Buildings shall not be occupied or opened for business until the approved exterior design features of that building are finished. A temporary certificate of occupancy/exemption may be granted by the city with a surety to perform work for not more than the time period allowed by the surety to perform work; provided, that the reason for delayed completion is due to weather or other circumstances beyond the control of the owner.

G. Until all applicable fees, charges, and expenses have been paid in full, as required, no action shall be taken by the city on any application, appeal or request excepting that of design review board consultation.

H. Design review board approved architectural and sign permits shall expire in conformance with LMC 15.04.030 and associated building permits (as necessary).

I. As a condition of approval for the issuance of any design review board approved architectural and sign permit or any permit issued under this title or other associated titles contained in this code, a performance or surety bond may be required, subject to the following:

1. The city attorney shall approve all performance and surety bonds as to form and securities.

2. The director(s) of the affected department(s) shall approve all performance and surety bonds as to amount and adequacy.

3. Alternative sureties may be considered by the city upon approval by the city attorney and the affected departments of the city.

4. The value of the bond/surety shall be equal to at least 150 percent of the estimated cost of the improvement(s) to be performed for improvements completed within a one-year time frame or 200 percent for improvements completed within a two-year time frame, or to be utilized by the city to perform any necessary work, or to reimburse the city for performing any necessary work and documented administrative costs associated with action on the bond/surety. To determine this value, the applicant must submit a bid for the improvements to be performed. If costs incurred by the city exceed the amount provided by the assurance device, the property owner shall reimburse the city in full, or the city may file a lien against the subject property for the amount of any deficit. Upon written request, the city may grant a one-time extension of the bond/surety.

5. Upon completion of the required work by the property owner and approval by the city at or prior to the completion date identified in the assurance device, the city shall promptly release the device.

6. If the performance bond or surety is required, the property owner shall provide the city with an irrevocable notarized agreement, with a form provided by the city or form acceptable to the city, granting the city and its agents the right to enter the property and perform any required work remaining uncompleted at the expiration of the completion date identified in the assurance device.

J. Rain gutters, downspouts, and heat tapes shall be required for all eaves to eliminate the possibility of drainage onto sidewalks. [Ord. 1473 § 1 (Att. A), 2014; Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.060 Small commercial buildings.

Single-story buildings, such as roadside stands, bratwurst stands, etc., that are less than 160 square feet, follow the same low-angle Bavarian-Alpine roof construction as larger buildings. They may have all wood outside wall construction. If all wood siding is used, the siding must be tongue and groove cedar, pine, or squared log construction. Usually the siding is applied horizontally. Plywood siding is unacceptable. Stucco may be used. These buildings should have extensive overhangs front and back, with more modest overhangs on the sides. Natural wood tone stains predominate in Bavaria, with little or no painting of the trim. Most of the ornate features are scrolled trim with window shutter cutouts. Roofing materials are the same as for larger buildings. The overall feeling should be rustic in nature. [Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.070 Mechanical equipment.

All mechanical equipment, e.g., heating and air conditioning equipment, air handling ducts, and compressors, shall be screened from view. False balconies, false chimneys, railings, and parapet walls may be utilized as long as they do not detract from the Bavarian-Alpine theme. Screening plans/designs must be included in architectural elevations presented for board review and approval. [Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.080 Signs.

A. All signs must conform with the city sign ordinance.

B. Examples of approved signs are found in LMC 14.08.100(M).

C. General locations for signing is to be indicated on the design review application drawings, with evidence that flowers and other features will not interfere. [Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.090 Enforcement.

This chapter shall be enforced pursuant to Chapter 21.13 LMC. [Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]

14.08.100 Appendix: Portfolio of Photographs of Old World Bavarian Architecture and Signs for the City of Leavenworth.

The community development director shall make color copies of the “Portfolio of Photographs of Old World Bavarian Architecture and Signs for the City of Leavenworth” available to the public to view. The “Portfolio of Photographs of Old World Bavarian Architecture and Signs for the City of Leavenworth,” dated January 23, 2001, is incorporated herein by this reference and is hereby adopted as part of this chapter. A monetary deposit according to the city’s adopted fee schedule shall be required to check out the portfolio of photographs. The following are included in the portfolio:

A. Typical building shapes;

B. Roofs;

C. Walls;

D. Balconies;

E. Doorways;

F. Windows;

G. Trim;

H. Decorative painting;

I. Colors;

J. Small buildings;

K. Inappropriate design elements;

L. Local Bavarian-Alpine buildings;

M. Signs;

N. Regional Bavarian-Alpine building styles and map. [Ord. 1374 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 1157 § 1, 2001.]


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Prior ordinance history: Ords. 810, 920, 983, 992 and 1155.