Chapter 17.64
PARKING AND LOADING

Sections:

17.64.005    Intent.

17.64.010    Repealed.

17.64.015    General provisions.

17.64.020    Repealed.

17.64.021    Parking lot design standards.

17.64.030    Repealed.

17.64.031    Parking spaces required.

17.64.035    Off-site parking.

17.64.040    Repealed.

17.64.041    Shared use parking.

17.64.050    Central business district.

17.64.055    Fee-in-lieu parking program.

17.64.060    Off-street loading.

17.64.070    Development plan requirements.

17.64.080    Landscaping requirements.

17.64.005 Intent.

The intent of this chapter is to promote the safety, convenience, comfort and common welfare of the public by providing minimum standards to regulate vehicle parking in a safe and efficient manner, to avoid the unnecessary congestion and interference with public rights-of-way, to reduce traffic hazards, and to provide safe operation of traffic circulation. (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 4, 2005)

17.64.010 Space required.

Repealed by Ord. 05-036. (Ord. 454 § 4, 1992)

17.64.015 General provisions.

A. Permanently maintained, free parking facilities for the use of occupants, employees and patrons of buildings shall be provided for all new buildings at the time of construction.

B. Outside the central business district, free parking shall be required for any addition or enlargement of an existing building and for any change in the use of any building that would result in additional parking space being required. The number of parking spaces shall be that specified in this chapter unless it is demonstrated to the zoning administrator that the addition or enlargement of the existing building or the change in the use of any proposed building will not increase parking demand or reduce the total number of pre-existing required parking spaces and that the amount of proposed off-street parking is within 90 percent of the total requirement for all proposed uses and structures, including the enlargement of the existing building.

C. The intended use of all parking spaces required in this chapter is the temporary use by operable vehicles. Parking spaces shall not be used for the storage of delivery vehicles or trailers, motor homes, campers, dumpsters or other objects.

D. No existing parking area and no parking area provided for the purpose of complying with the provisions of this title shall, after January 17, 1978, be relinquished or reduced in any manner below the requirements established in this title. (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 6, 2005)

17.64.020 Development requirements.

Repealed by Ord. 05-036. (Ord. 05-017 § 3, 2005; Ord. 454 § 4, 1992)

17.64.021 Parking lot design standards.

A. Standard parking stalls shall be a minimum of nine feet in width and 20 feet in length.

B. Parking lots with 90-degree parking stalls shall have a minimum aisle width of 25 feet.

C. All parking areas, except for single- and two-family dwellings, shall be designed so no parking space requires the backing of a vehicle into public rights-of-way, except for alleys in the central business district, or across a sidewalk.

D. Turning and maneuvering space shall be located entirely on private property. Vehicles backing into central business district alleys or departing single- and two-family dwellings are exempt from this requirement.

E. Ingress and egress to parking facilities shall be designed to maintain adequate sight distance and safety.

F. A secured wheel bumper to prevent encroachment of vehicles on pedestrian, bicycle or traffic routes shall be provided in parking stalls which are perpendicular to building fronts or abut property lines. This requirement does not apply when a fence or sight-obscuring landscaping occupies the same property line of the parking area or to single-family and two-family residences. The bumper shall not be less than six inches high.

G. No wall, post, guardrail or other obstruction that will restrict car door opening shall be permitted within five feet of the centerline of a parking space.

H. Parking lots shall be designed to avoid erosion damage to grading and surrounding landscaping.

I. Accessible parking for persons with disabilities shall be designed in accordance with the Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities for Americans with Disabilities Act.

1. An access aisle shall be provided of not less than five feet in width for each space, except accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle.

2. Accessible space shall be designated by the international symbol of accessibility.

3. Accessible spaces shall be located near building entrances and have an unobstructed route to accessible entrances and along a path at least 36 inches in width without going behind parked cars.

4. One in every eight accessible spaces, but not less than one, shall be served by an access aisle with a width of at least eight feet and shall be designated “van accessible.”

Total Parking Spaces in Lot

Minimum Required Accessible Spaces

1 – 25

1

26 – 50

2

51 – 75

3

76 – 100

4

101 – 150

5

151 – 200

6

201 – 300

7

301 – 400

8

401 – 500

9

501 – 1,000

2 percent of total spaces

J. Prior to approval by the city for use, all parking facilities within the city shall be permanently surfaced with a suitable gravel base or paved with concrete or asphalt compound.

K. Parking facilities which adjoin the side of a lot in residential districts shall be separated from the residential district by a fence or sight-obscuring landscaping. Fences shall be six feet in height; landscaping shall not be less than four feet. The fence or landscaping shall be maintained in good condition and shall comply with the requirements of PMC 17.60.070.

L. All parking areas in nonresidential use districts and parking areas which serve nonresidential uses shall have lighting which meets the level of illumination, uniformity ratios and minimum lumen intensities specified in the illumination guidelines set by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. The lighting system shall be designed to prevent glare to motorists on public rights-of-way and shall be arranged to reflect the light away from adjoining premises and streets.

M. Signage or other provisions designating parking lot layout shall be required if the city determines that the layout is not apparent to the general public. (Ord. 17-014 § 3, 2017; Ord. 07-032 § 3, 2007; Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 8, 2005)

17.64.030 General conditions.

Repealed by Ord. 05-036. (Ord. 568 § 3, 2001; Ord. 454 § 4, 1992)

17.64.031 Parking spaces required.

A. The following minimum number of free parking spaces shall be provided for all structures and uses. For uses not specifically identified in this section, the requirement for free off-street parking shall be the same as for the use duly determined by the zoning administrator to be the most similar.

Use

Parking Requirement

Automobile service stations, repair garages

Four parking spaces for each vehicle repair bay, plus three parking spaces

Churches, auditoriums, theaters and other similar places of assembly

One parking space for every four seats in the principal auditorium or assembly room

Dance hall, bowling alley or skating rink

One parking space for each 400 square feet of gross floor area

Hospitals, nursing, convalescent homes

One parking space for each three beds based on maximum capacity

Hotel

One parking space for each two guest rooms

Laundromat

One parking space for each 250 square feet of gross floor area

Manufacturing uses; industrial, research, testing, processing, assembling, all industries

One parking space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area, plus one parking space for each 300 square feet of office gross floor area

Medical offices and clinic

One parking space for each 300 square feet of gross floor area

Mortuary

One parking space for each four seats in the principal seating area

Motel

One parking space for each guest room

Post office

One parking space for each 100 square feet of gross floor area

Professional, offices, financial institutions

One parking space for each 300 square feet of gross floor area

Residences, multifamily

One and one-half parking spaces for each one-bedroom unit; two parking spaces for two-bedroom units; two and one-half parking spaces for each three-bedroom unit, plus one guest parking space for each five units

Residences, single-family and two-family

Two parking spaces per dwelling unit up to 1,800 square feet and three parking spaces for each dwelling unit over 1,800 square feet

Restaurants and bars

One parking space for each four seats based on maximum seating capacity

Retail space, under 1,000 square feet

One parking space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area

Retail space, over 1,001 square feet

One parking space for each 350 square feet of gross floor area

Retail space, for furniture, large appliances, carpets or similar use

One parking space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area

Retail, shopping center

One parking space for each 350 square feet of gross leasable space

Rooming houses or boardinghouses

One parking space for every two guestrooms

Schools – Elementary

Two parking spaces for each classroom

Schools – Middle

Three parking spaces for each classroom

Schools – Senior high

One parking space for every three students based on the proposed building capacity at the time of initial construction

Self-storage facilities

One parking space for each 2,000 square feet of gross floor area, plus one parking space for each 300 square feet of gross floor area used for offices

Swimming pools

One parking space for every four persons based on pool capacity

Warehouses, storage and wholesale businesses

One parking space for each 2,000 square feet of gross floor area, plus one parking space for each 300 square feet of gross floor area used for offices, or a minimum of three, whichever is greater

B. Calculation of Amounts of Required Parking.

1. Unless a specific use is listed above, the required number of parking spaces shall be the sum of the combination of uses on the lot.

2. If the calculation of required spaces results in a fraction of a parking space, the number shall be rounded up to the nearest whole number. (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 10, 2005)

17.64.035 Off-site parking.

A. All parking spaces provided shall be on the subject lot with the main building they serve, except that the commission, by conditional use, may permit the parking spaces to be on an abutting lot or any lot within 300 feet of the building if it determines that it is impracticable to provide parking on the subject lot.

1. Effective March 27, 2001, if the commission permits parking spaces to be on a lot other than the subject lot, then the commission, as a matter of law, shall require at a minimum the following conditions: that the off-site lot be made subject to duly recorded enforceable covenants running with the land reasonably acceptable to the city, which covenants:

a. Burden the off-site lot to the extent necessary to provide adequate incremental parking for the benefit of the subject lot;

b. Make the city a third-party beneficiary of the covenants;

c. Prohibit the termination, amendment, or subordination of the covenants without council approval; and

d. Have a priority position prior to any deed of trust, mortgage or other encumbrance that can foreclose out the covenants.

2. The required priority position of the covenants may be obtained by due subordination of any existing encumbrance.

3. Upon the recording of the covenants, the owner of the subject lot must reimburse the city for obtaining a title policy on the off-site lot showing the covenants have the required priority position.

4. The owner of the subject lot shall post and maintain signs on the subject lot and on the off-site lot informing the public of the off-site parking relationship between the off-site lot and the subject lot.

5. If through change of use of the subject lot or otherwise the off-site parking is no longer required or if the extent of such requirement is significantly reduced, then the city, upon the written request duly signed by both the owner of the subject lot and the owner of the off-site lot and delivered to the city manager, shall in due course and after council action allow the termination or amendment of the covenants to meet the then-current requirements for parking for the subject property. (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 11, 2005)

17.64.040 Off-street loading.

Repealed by Ord. 05-036. (Ord. 454 § 4, 1992)

17.64.041 Shared use parking.

Joint use of off-street parking facilities within 600 feet may be permitted by the commission subject to the following conditions:

A. The off-street parking requirements for buildings of limited uses, for example churches, auditoriums, clubs, or lodges, may be supplied through the use of off-street parking facilities provided for other uses, for example, business offices, retail stores, and manufacturing or wholesale buildings whose operations are not normally conducted during the same hours.

B. Off-street parking space designated for joint use shall meet all other requirements as set out in this chapter.

C. Sufficient evidence shall be presented to the commission to demonstrate that there will be no substantial conflict in the principal operating hours of the use or structures for which the joint use is proposed.

D. The owner of the parcel seeking a shared parking agreement has adequate area on the lot or within 300 feet of the lot which could be used for parking in the event it is no longer possible to obtain shared parking.

E. The use of off-street parking space for joint use shall be subject to the prior approval of the commission. (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 13, 2005)

17.64.050 Central business district.

In order to encourage economic growth in the downtown core and permit the redevelopment of property to its highest commercial use, parking requirements may be waived after review by the city council. It is the intent of this clause to provide as much off-street parking as practical while allowing commercial development in the core area. The central business district is described as follows:

Beginning at the intersection of the Palmer/Wasilla Highway and the Glenn Highway centerlines, then north along the centerline of the Glenn Highway to the centerline of W. Auklet Avenue, then east along the centerline of W. Auklet to the east side of parcel 18N02E33 Tract 1-A, then south along the east side of said parcel until the centerline of the alleyway, then east along the centerline of the alleyway to the centerline of N. Bonanza Street, then south along centerline of N. Bonanza Street to the centerline of E. Arctic Avenue, then east along the centerline of E. Arctic Avenue to the centerline of S. Denali Street, then south along the centerline of S. Denali Street to the centerline of E. Cottonwood, then east to the centerline of S. Gulkana Street, then south along the centerline of S. Gulkana to the southeast corner of Tract A, Arbor Estates, then west along the south property line of Tract A to Lot 4, Block 2, Arbor Estates, then south to the southeast corner of Lot 4, Block 2, Arbor Estates, then west along the south property lines of Lots 4, 3, 2, and 1, Block 2, Arbor Estates to the centerline of S. Eklutna Street, then north along the centerline of S. Eklutna Street to the centerline of E. Fireweed Avenue, then west along the centerline of E. Fireweed to the centerline of S. Colony Way, then south along the centerline of S. Colony Way to the junction of S. Colony Way and the Glenn Highway centerlines, then north along the centerline of the Glenn Highway to the point of beginning.

A. The following minimum number of parking spaces shall be provided for all structures and uses in the central business district only. For uses not specifically identified in this section, the requirement for parking shall be the same as for the use duly determined by the zoning administrator to be the most similar.

Use

Parking Requirement

Churches, auditoriums, theaters and other similar places of assembly

One parking space for every five seats in the principal auditorium or assembly room

Dance hall, bowling alley or skating rink

One parking space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area

Hospitals, nursing, convalescent homes

One parking space for each four beds based on maximum capacity

Hotel

One parking space for each three guest rooms

Laundromat

One parking space for each 350 square feet of gross floor area

Medical offices and clinics

One parking space for each 400 square feet of gross floor area

Mortuary

One parking space for each five seats in the principal seating area

Professional, offices, financial institutions

One parking space for each 400 square feet of gross floor area

Residences, multifamily

One parking space per dwelling unit.

Residences, single-family and two-family

Two parking spaces per dwelling unit.

Restaurants and bars

One parking space for each five seats based on maximum seating capacity

Retail space, all types

One parking space for each 500 square feet of gross floor area

B. No required existing parking spaces in the downtown district shall be relinquished as a result of this section.

C. In areas with designated public on-street parking, each 25 feet in front of a lot will be counted towards the parking requirement for the lot.

D. Developers may provide the parking spaces required in this chapter or may apply for a waiver from meeting those requirements and make payment to the city in lieu of parking spaces.

E. Waivers may be granted if the city council determines and cites evidence in its decision that:

1. The property is within the central business district;

2. No parking spaces have been lost due to redevelopment or change of use;

3. There is a city-owned, fee-in-lieu designated public parking area (excluding the parking lots at City Hall and the fire station located on W. Evergreen Avenue and S. Cobb Street) within 600 feet of the building as measured along public rights-of-way;

4. The waiver is for less than 30 percent of the required parking spaces for buildings constructed after December 13, 2005;

5. To the extent practicable, the waiver is for less than 70 percent of the required parking spaces for buildings in existence on December 13, 2005;

6. The waiver furthers the goals of the comprehensive plan.

F. To promote growth in the central business district, the city council may waive the fee-in-lieu fees. (Ord. 16-015 § 4, 2016; Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 14, 2005)

17.64.055 Fee-in-lieu parking program.

For property located in the central business district, an in-lieu parking fee shall be submitted to the city for each required free off-street parking space that is not provided and for which a waiver has been granted. The in-lieu parking fee shall be determined annually based on the costs for planning, acquisition, design, development, construction, financing (including interest on city self-financing), maintenance and operation of off-street parking facilities within 600 feet of the subject building as measured along public rights-of-way.

A. There is created in the city treasury a special fund designated the “parking improvement fund” into which in-lieu parking fees shall be deposited to be expended only for public improvements. The city council may from time to time direct that other monies be transferred into the fund.

B. The fund shall be used exclusively for planning, acquisition, design, development, construction, financing, maintenance and operation of off-street parking facilities within the downtown parking district. (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 15, 2005)

17.64.060 Off-street loading.

A. All uses involving the receipt of or distribution of materials or merchandise by vehicles shall provide and maintain sufficient off-street loading space on the premises so as not to obstruct the freedom of traffic movement on public rights-of-way.

B. On the same lot or premises with every building structure or part thereof erected and occupied for commercial, manufacturing or industrial use, or other uses similarly involving the receipt of or distribution of materials or merchandise by vehicles, there shall be provided and permanently maintained adequate space for standing of vehicles and unloading services in such manner as not to obstruct the freedom of traffic movement upon public rights-of-way. The space shall not be less than 15 feet wide by 25 feet long with a 14-foot height clearance and shall have access to an alley or street. (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 16, 2005)

17.64.070 Development plan requirements.

Plans for all parking and loading areas shall accompany the building plans when the application for a building permit is made. Such plans shall show the following:

A. Area of the lot involved;

B. Layout and dimensions of each parking space;

C. Entrance and exit to the parking area and the direction of traffic;

D. Widths of all curb cuts, entrances, exits and driveways serving each parking or loading area;

E. Lighting plan (see item in parking lot standards);

F. Landscaping (see PMC 17.64.080). (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 17, 2005)

17.64.080 Landscaping requirements.

A. All parking lots shall have landscaping as required by this section, except those parking lots for single-family and two-family dwellings.

B. All required parking lots of five spaces or more shall provide a landscape buffer at least five feet in width along any property line adjacent to a street, except for those in the airport commercial, airport industrial, and industrial districts where they do not border a residential district.

C. For parking lots containing less than five spaces, an area equal to at least five percent of the parking lot shall be in landscaping which is visible to the street.

D. For parking lots containing five or more spaces, an area equal to at least 10 percent of the parking area shall be in landscaping which is visible to the street.

1. Any interior landscaping planter counted towards the percentage requirement must have a minimum five-foot-wide area exclusive of any vehicle overhang. Only low-level shrubs, ground cover and grass shall be used in vehicle overhang areas.

2. Any landscaping between the building and the parking lot counted towards the percentage requirement must have a minimum five-foot-wide area exclusive of any vehicle overhang. Only low-level shrubs, ground cover, and grass shall be used in vehicle overhang areas.

E. No parking lot shall contain 45 or more contiguous parking spaces without a curbed planting area. Interior landscaping planters shall be dispersed throughout the entire parking lot area. Parking lots in the industrial and business park zoning districts may be exempt from interior landscaping requirements. Applications may be submitted to the commission requesting substitution of interior landscaping in exchange for common use area(s) for employees, such as a picnic or exercise area. (Ord. 06-017 § 3, 2006; Ord. 05-036 § 18, 2005)