Chapter 18.40
OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING

Sections:

18.40.010    Purpose.

18.40.020    Provision of parking facilities.

18.40.030    Parking use requirements.

18.40.040    Number of parking spaces required.

18.40.050    Size of parking spaces.

18.40.060    General development standards for parking areas.

18.40.070    Additional standards for residential parking areas.

18.40.080    Additional standards for commercial and industrial parking areas.

18.40.085    Maintenance.

18.40.090    Landscape regulations for parking areas.

18.40.100    Required off-street loading spaces.

18.40.110    Development of parking structures.

18.40.120    Parking for the Gardena Boulevard commercial uses.

    Prior ordinance history: Ordinances 587, 1037 and 1265.

18.40.010 Purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to establish minimum standards for the development of off-street parking facilities for the general welfare and convenience of the public utilizing the various land uses within the city; to establish the number of parking spaces required for various uses and accommodate anticipated demand; to promote compatibility between various uses so as to avoid the adverse impacts of vehicular traffic and parking congestion; and to protect property values by the provision of landscaping, walls, setbacks, and other amenities; and to allow limited flexibility when necessary to meet goals and policies of the general plan. (Ord. 1832 § 1, 2021; prior code § 10-3.2001)

18.40.020 Provision of parking facilities.

The off-street parking facilities required by this chapter, including loading facilities and landscaping, shall be a continuing obligation of the property owner so long as the use requiring the same continues. It is unlawful for an owner of any building, structure or use to discontinue or dispense with the requirements of this chapter. Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to prevent the voluntary establishment of facilities in excess of those required by this chapter provided all standards governing the location, design and operation of such facilities are adhered to.

A. At the time of the construction of any building or structure, or at the time such building or structure, other than a single-family residence, is enlarged by the addition of floor area, dwelling units, guest rooms, seats, or otherwise, off-street parking therefor shall be provided for the total resulting building or structure as set forth in this chapter.

B. In case of a change in use where the new use has a higher parking requirement than the previous use, parking shall be provided for the new use based on the difference between the number of parking spaces required for the new use as set forth in this chapter and the number of existing parking spaces allotted for the area to be occupied by the new use.

C. In case of a change in use where the new use is of the same intensity as the previous use, the provisions of Section 18.40.040 shall not apply.

D. In case of a change in use where the previous use cannot be ascertained, it will be presumed that the new use is of higher intensity, and parking for such new use shall be provided pursuant to subsection B of this section.

E. In the case of an addition to a single-family residence, the requirement for a two-car garage shall be triggered where the addition consists of twenty percent or more of existing square footage, or three hundred square feet, whichever is less. The community development director may waive the requirement for a two-car garage, or only require a one-car garage, if he determines that it is not physically possible to provide for a two-car garage. (Ord. 1738 § 34, 2012: prior code § 10-3.2002)

18.40.030 Parking use requirements.

For any land use, a minimum number of off-street parking spaces shall be provided as required by this chapter; provided, however, the community development director may require an additional number of spaces, not to exceed ten percent of the minimum requirement, if any of the following findings are made:

A. That the nature or intensity of the use is substantially different from those uses normally associated with the classifications listed in this chapter and can be reasonably expected to generate a need for additional spaces;

B. That the combination of two or more uses can be reasonably expected to generate a need for additional spaces; or

C. That the use or intensity of the use can be reasonably expected to change in such a way that additional spaces would be required. (Prior code § 10-3.2003)

18.40.040 Number of parking spaces required.

The various land uses specified in this section shall provide a minimum of off-street parking in conformity with the requirements of this section. When the application of this section requires a fractional part of a parking space, such fraction, if below the five-tenths breakpoint, shall be rounded downward to the nearest whole number, and, if such fraction is at or above the five-tenths breakpoint, it shall be rounded upward to the nearest whole number.

Use

Number of Parking Spaces Required

A. Residential:

Single-family:

Two-car enclosed garage.

Low-density and medium-density multiple-family residential:

Two spaces per dwelling unit in an enclosed garage or parking structure.

High-density multiple-family dwellings (anything over 20 units per acre):

Two spaces per dwelling unit, other than a studio unit, one of which must be in an enclosed garage or parking structure and the other which may be in a covered parking area.

Studio unit:

One space per dwelling unit.

Mobile home parks:

Two spaces per mobile home or trailer on the same space where the mobile home or trailer is located.

Accessory dwelling units:

See Chapter 18.13.

Additional standards and requirements:

See Section 18.40.070.

B. General Commercial:

Amenity hotels:

A parking ratio of 0.85 space per guest room to account for guests and employees, plus provision of spaces for additional uses within the hotel at the rates specified in this section for such uses.

Automobile dealerships:

One space per 2,000 square feet of lot area for patrons, plus one space per two employees. Such spaces shall not be utilized for the parking of vehicles for sale.

Banks and savings and loan offices:

One space per 200 square feet of gross floor area

Business and Professional offices:

One space per 300 square feet of gross floor area

Furniture and major appliance stores:

One space per 200 square feet of gross floor area

Hotels and Motels:

One space per guest room for guest parking, plus one space per six rooms for employee parking with a minimum of three spaces for employees, plus provision of spaces for additional uses within the hotel/motel complex

Plant nurseries:

One space per 2,000 square feet of lot area, plus one space per two employees

Retail and service commercial less than 75,000 square feet gross floor area:

One space per 200 square feet of gross floor area

Retail food and liquor markets:

One space per 150 square feet of gross floor area

Shopping center based on gross floor area:

 

75,000 – 500,000 s.f.

One space per 250 square feet of gross floor area

> 500,000 s.f.

One space per 200 square feet of gross floor area

C. Commercial recreation:

Bowling alleys:

Five spaces per lane, plus provision of spaces for additional uses within the complex

Physical fitness centers/health clubs and spas:

One space per 150 square feet of gross floor area

Pool and billiard halls:

Two spaces per table

Tennis and racquetball facilities:

Four spaces per court, plus provision of spaces for other uses

Arcades:

One space per 200 square feet of gross floor area

D. Educational facilities:

Day care facilities and kindergartens

One space per 200 square feet of gross floor area. One space per employee, plus one space per ten children/clients

Elementary and junior high schools:

Two spaces per classroom

High schools:

Six spaces per classroom

Trade schools:

One space per fifty square feet of gross classroom area, plus one space per employee

E. Service facilities:

Hospitals:

Two spaces per bed

Medical and dental clinics and offices:

One space per 200 square feet of gross floor area

Medical and dental laboratories:

One space per 300 square feet of gross floor area

Group care facilities:

One space per three beds

F. Places of assembly:

Clubs, lodges, and dance halls:

One space per thirty-five square feet of gross assembly floor area

Museum and libraries:

One space per 300 square feet of gross floor area

Food and beverage establishments:

Without dancing: One space per 100 square feet of gross floor area; With dancing: One space per 100 square feet of gross floor area, plus one space per ten square feet of dance floor area

Fast food, drive-in and drive-through:

One space per 100 square feet of gross floor area, minimum of ten spaces

Mortuaries:

One space per three fixed seats or one space per thirty-five square feet of gross floor area in the chapel, plus one space per 300 square feet gross floor area not in the chapel

Theaters, auditoriums, and stadiums:

One space per three fixed seats or one space per thirty-five square feet of gross floor area if there are no fixed seats

Churches:

One space per three fixed seats or one space per thirty-five square feet of gross sanctuary area if there are no fixed seats

G. Manufacturing and Kindred Uses:

Manufacturing uses:

One space per 750 square feet for manufacturing areas, one space per 300 square feet for office areas, and one space per vehicle used for the business

Warehouses and storage:

One space per 1,000 square feet for warehousing areas, one space per 300 square feet for office areas, and one space per vehicle for the business

Research and development:

One space per 300 square feet of gross floor area

H. Public and quasi-public Facilities:

Government offices:

One space per 300 square feet of gross floor area

Other uses:

Determined by the community development director

I. Uses Otherwise Not Provided for:

Determined by the community development director

(Ord. 1825 § 10, 2021; Ord. 1820 § 12, 2020; Ord. 1778 § 4, 2017; Ord. 1737 § 7, 2012; Ord. 1732 §§ 1, 2, 2012; Ord. 1683 § 47, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; Ord. 1640 § 8, 2003; prior code § 10-3.2004)

18.40.050 Size of parking spaces.

For all required parking spaces, the following shall be the minimum standards:

A. Parking spaces shall have a minimum dimension of nine feet by eighteen feet; parallel parking spaces shall have a minimum dimension of nine feet by twenty-two feet.

B. Parking spaces adjacent to a wall or any other obstruction shall have a minimum dimension of ten feet by twenty feet.

C. Compact Parking Spaces.

1. Compact parking shall have a minimum dimension of eight feet by seventeen feet. All compact spaces shall be so marked on the pavement and/or wheel stop.

2. Twenty-five percent of all nonresidential parking may be compact in size.

3. In the R-4 and MUO zones, where there is a minimum of four guest parking spaces, twenty-five percent of such spaces may be compact in size.

4. Except as may specifically be allowed, compact parking spaces shall not be considered as satisfying the parking requirements for residential uses, as set forth in Section 18.40.040(A).

D. Accessible parking spaces shall meet all state accessibility standards, as set forth in the California Building Code.

E. Deviations from the parking lot design requirements may be permitted by the community development director when reduced space size in parking areas designed for small or compact automobiles is proposed.

F. The tables and charts below indicate the parking lot layout to be used.

(Ord. 1820 §§ 13, 14, 2020; Ord. 1792 §§ 1, 2, 2018; Ord. 1683 § 48, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; prior code § 10-3.2005)

18.40.060 General development standards for parking areas.

A site plan drawn to scale, showing the proposed development of the property, including the layout and development of parking, access, and other improvements, shall be submitted at the time a building permit is requested for any new building or structure, or an addition to an existing building, or at the time a new use of land is established requiring parking spaces in addition to the existing ones or at such time as the parking layout is proposed to be modified.

A. No portion of a public street or alley right-of-way may be counted as part of the required parking spaces except as provided for in Section 18.40.080.

B. Unless tandem parking is specifically allowed by the zone, tandem parking shall not be considered as satisfying the parking requirements of this chapter except as provided for in Section 18.40.080.

C. Parking areas and access thereto shall be provided with adequate illumination for the protection and safety of pedestrians. Such lighting shall be properly shaded and reflected away from public rights-of-way and adjacent properties.

D. All parking areas shall be striped to the satisfaction of the city to facilitate the movement into and out of the parking stalls.

E. Wheel stops shall be securely anchored and placed a minimum of three feet from any wall or property line. In addition, they shall be placed in such a manner that no vehicle shall overhang or encroach over a property line. Wheel stops shall also be provided to prevent the encroachment of, or damage to, other facilities.

F. Driveways shall be free and clear of all obstacles, such as utility poles, meter boxes, stairways and other overhangs. A minimum clearance of eight feet two inches in height shall be maintained between building overhangs and the driveway. The width of the driveway entrance and exits from a public street shall be measured at the property line.

G. Corner cutback area shall be established on each side of any private driveway intersecting a street or alley. The cutback lines shall be in a horizontal plane making an angle of forty-five degrees with the side, front or rear property line, as the case may be. They shall pass through a point not less than ten feet from the edge of the driveway where it intersects the street or alley right-of-way. The corner cutback area shall be free of impediments or visual barriers that exceed 3 1/2 feet in height.

H. A suitable turnaround shall be provided for all parking facilities, except single-family dwellings, in order that all vehicles enter the street in a forward manner. For this purpose, the minimum turning radius shall be twenty-five feet; however, for every six-inch increase in stall width, the turning radius may be reduced by one foot.

I. Parking areas shall be graded to drain and shall be paved with not less than two inches finished thickness of asphaltic pavement laid on not less than four inches of base material, or not less than four inches of finished thickness of Portland cement concrete.

J. Patrons or employees of an occupant of a building shall not be charged for the use of parking spaces designated toward providing the minimum parking requirements. The provisions of this subsection shall be inapplicable to any project whose minimum parking requirements are in whole or in part met by public parking provided by the Gardena Parking Authority pursuant to Section 18.40.110.

K. Parking areas having more than one aisle or driveway shall have directional signs or markings provided in each aisle or driveway.

L. Driveways shall be located on the same lot or parcel of land as the parking which they serve or shall be connected by easement for ingress and egress over adjoining property with the approval of the community development director.

M. Off-street parking and loading facilities may be provided collectively in the same building for two or more buildings or two or more uses provided the total number of parking spaces shall be not less than the sum of the requirements for each of the individual uses and provided all other requirements of this chapter are met.

N. Unless otherwise specifically permitted, no owner, lessee, or other person in possession or control of property subject to this chapter shall allow the off-street parking of vehicles in any required front, side or rear yard. This subsection shall not prohibit the temporary standing of vehicles on permitted driveways.

O. A thirty to forty-two inch masonry/other decorative wall, landscape screen or landscaped berm shall be provided between the property line and parking spaces located along street frontages and between driveway aisle and parking spaces, which face main entrances to new, expanded or reconfigured parking facilities. Such walls or landscape berms shall be setback from the property line and the area between the property line and wall or berm shall be landscaped. The height of the wall or berm shall be measured from the finished grade of the parking space. (Ord. 1832 § 2, 2021; Ord. 1804 § 10, 2019; Ord. 1732 § 3, 2012; Ord. 1683 § 49, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; Ord. 1640 § 9, 2003; prior code § 10-3.2006)

18.40.070 Additional standards for residential parking areas.

A. Guest parking shall be provided for residential developments and mobile home parks of more than one unit at one-half parking space per dwelling unit. Where such percentage is below the halfway breakpoint, it will be rounded downward, and where such percentage is above the halfway breakpoint, it will be rounded upward. All guest parking spaces shall be clearly identified and easily accessible.

B. Driveways serving less than twenty parking spaces shall have a minimum width of ten feet; driveways serving twenty or more parking spaces shall have a minimum width of twenty feet; driveways extending beyond one hundred fifty feet into a property shall have a minimum width of twelve feet. Additional driveways for multiple-family dwellings providing more than one hundred parking spaces may be required to eliminate traffic congestion upon review by the community development director.

C. Ground level off-street parking areas shall not be located closer than 10 feet from a building wall or portion of a building having windows or doors opening onto the parking area.

D. Garage Spaces.

1. Unless subject to subsection (D)(2) of this section, tandem parking is allowed, a two-car garage shall be fully enclosed and have a minimum interior dimension of twenty feet in width by twenty feet in depth. A garage designed for tandem parking shall have a minimum interior dimension of twelve feet in width by forty-one feet in depth.

2. Garage Spaces in the R-4 and MU Overlay Zones. Unless tandem parking is allowed, a two-car garage shall be fully enclosed and have a minimum interior dimension of nineteen feet in width by nineteen feet in depth. A garage designed for tandem parking shall have a minimum interior dimension of ten and one-half feet in width by thirty-eight feet in depth.

3. In all garage parking spaces, the designated parking area shall be designed to remain free and clear of all obstructions, including, but not limited to, washer/dryer units, water heaters, trash enclosures, etc.

E. Parking facilities for multiple unit residential developments shall be designed to provide practical on site circulation to all required parking spaces which allow each vehicle to exit forward facing.

F. No more than one driveway shall be permitted on residential lots with less than one hundred feet of street frontage.

G. If parking spaces are not provided in an attached garage, then the spaces in the parking structure or parking area shall be assigned to a specific unit. (Ord. 1820 § 15, 2020; Ord. 1804 § 11, 2019; Ord. 1792 § 3, 2018; Ord. 1683 § 50, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; prior code § 10-3.2007)

18.40.080 Additional standards for commercial and industrial parking areas.

A. Driveways for commercial and industrial parking areas shall be adequate to accommodate trucks utilizing the facility as set forth in this chapter and development standards for the zone.

B. The parking facilities required by this chapter shall be located on the same lot or parcel of land as the use they are intended to serve; provided, however, modifications to the location or layout of the parking may be made as specified herein.

1. On private property if it meets the following requirements:

a. The property is conveniently located near the principal use for which the parking is being provided, measured in walking distance along the way open to public pedestrian passage; and

b. The property is zoned and used for commercial or industrial uses; and

c. The property is in the same possession as the property containing the use it is to serve. Such possession may be by deed or by long-term lease approved by the city attorney as to form and content; or

2. In a public parking facility if it meets the following requirements:

a. There is a public parking facility owned or operated by the city, or any other public agency of which the city is a part, within five hundred feet of the principal use for which the parking is being provided, measured in walking distance along the way open to public pedestrian passage; and

b. The vehicle parking spaces located at said facility are made available to the general public and their use is not restricted to private owners, lessees, licensees or other parties; and

c. The vehicle parking spaces for which an exception is being claimed are to be used solely for employee parking of the person or business seeking the exception; and

d. There exist sufficient public parking spaces at said facility to satisfy the off-street parking requirements imposed by this code upon the lot or parcel of land under consideration;

3. Street parking may be counted toward the required parking if it meets the following requirements:

a. There are circumstances related to the proposed use, operations, location, the surrounding uses, zone, infrastructure, or there are other factors identified that cannot be accommodated by the limitations of the parking requirements of this title; and

b. That the granting of the conditional use permit will not be in conflict with the policies of the general plan of the city; and

c. The proposed use and off-site parking, as conditioned, will not be materially detrimental to the public health, safety, and welfare or injurious to property and improvements in the vicinity of the subject property;

4. Tandem parking, including two-level car lifts, to count as two required parking spaces in zones where it is otherwise restricted or prohibited, provided all the following findings are made:

a. There are circumstances related to the proposed use, operations, location, unusual size or shape of the property, or there are other factors identified that cannot be accommodated by the limitations of the parking requirements of this title; and

b. Tandem parking is not being used for retail or restaurant required parking; and

c. The intended users of the tandem parking are the customers and employees of the tenant on the site. On multi-tenant properties, the applicant has demonstrated that the tandem parking is not being used (as tandem) by retail or restaurant establishments; and

d. That the allowance of the tandem parking is not in conflict with the policies of the general plan; and

e. Tandem parking, as conditioned, will not be materially detrimental to the public health, safety, and welfare or injurious to property and improvements in the vicinity of the subject property;

5. Any arrangement of required parking that is not explicitly permitted by this chapter, including, but not limited to, valet parking, mechanical vehicle storage, and shared parking.

C. Any combination of on-site, off-site private or public property, and tandem parking may be used to meet the parking requirement of this chapter.

D. The community development director may, at their discretion, require a parking analysis prepared by a qualified expert of the city’s choosing to justify a decision or recommendation related to off-site parking requests. The community development director may also refer any application for off-site parking to the planning and environmental quality commission for their determination.

E. Approval Authority.

1. The community development director shall be the approval authority for any modification to the location, excluding street parking, for up to fifteen percent of the required on-site parking through the administrative adjustment procedure set forth in Chapter 18.50, unless the request for modification is being processed concurrently with a development permit which requires planning commission approval.

2. The planning commission shall be the approval authority for any modification to the location for more than fifteen percent of the required on-site parking, where the request includes street parking, tandem parking, or is being processed concurrently with a development permit which requires planning commission approval, through a conditional use permit and subject to the provisions of Chapter 18.46.

F. The community development director shall have continuing authority to review the status of vehicle parking at public parking facilities as set forth above. If, at a future date, the community development director determines that a public parking facility no longer provides sufficient parking spaces to satisfy the off-street parking requirements for a particular lot or parcel of land, the community development director may require the owner or operator of said lot or parcel of land to provide an alternative means of satisfying off-street parking requirements, which means may include (1) providing off-street parking on the same lot or parcel of land, (2) providing off-street parking at a substitute location, as set forth in subsection (B)(1) of this section, or (3) providing off-street parking at another public parking facility, as set forth in subsection (B)(2) of this section.

G. Company Vehicles. One parking space shall be provided for each company vehicle operated by a commercial or industrial business. The parking shall be in addition to all other required parking. (Ord. 1832 § 3, 2021; Ord. 1792 § 4, 2018; Ord. 1683 § 51, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; prior code § 10-3.2008)

18.40.085 Maintenance.

A. All parking areas shall be maintained to the satisfaction of the city. At a minimum this includes maintenance of the paving and striping.

B. A permit shall be required which includes a parking site plan review prior to the reconfiguration or repaving of any parking areas. An application shall be filed with the community development department accompanied by a fee in an amount set forth by resolution of the city council. This requirement does not apply to routine maintenance such as slurry sealing, repairing of potholes, or restriping in the same configuration as the existing parking lot. (Ord. 1738 § 44, 2012; Ord. 1732 § 4, 2012)

18.40.090 Landscape regulations for parking areas.

A. Landscape plans for parking areas shall be submitted in accordance with Section 18.42.075A and landscape shall be maintained in accordance with Section 18.42.075D.

B. For commercial and industrial developments, the amount of landscaping required shall be not less than five percent of the total paved area utilized for driveways and open parking areas. Said landscaping shall be evenly distributed throughout the parking areas wherever feasible. Any unused space resulting from the design of the parking spaces shall be landscaped. This requirement does not apply to indoor parking areas.

C. The size and type of planting materials shall be as follows:

1. One twenty-four-inch box size tree for every ten parking spaces. If less than ten spaces, two fifteen-gallon size trees shall be acceptable;

2. One five-gallon size shrubbery for each twenty square feet of planter area;

3. Xeriscaping shall be utilized wherever feasible with plants used being predominantly drought tolerant types and a combination of trees, shrubs, and ground cover and evenly distributed throughout the parking area; and

4. Planting beds shall have a minimum width of three feet. The front three feet of parking spaces may be used for planting beds. A minimum four-inch high curb shall be provided on all sides of planting beds for the protection of the landscaped areas. (Ord. 1804 § 12, 2019: Ord. 1792 § 5, 2018; Ord. 1683 § 52, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; prior code § 10-3.2009)

18.40.100 Required off-street loading spaces.

A. Commercial and industrial uses shall be required to have off-street loading spaces as provided below:

1. 0 – to 7,499 square feet gross floor area – no spaces required.

2. 7,500 – 20,000 square feet gross floor area – one space.

a. Uses that receive and ship deliveries primarily or entirely through parcel delivery or postal service may request that the off-street loading space requirement be waived or modified. Modifications may include, but are not limited to, reduction in size, dual use as parking space if deliveries are scheduled during closed hours only, and shared loading spaces with other uses in multi-tenant centers.

b. The approval authority for such waiver or modification shall be the community development director unless the request for modification is being processed concurrently with a development permit which requires planning commission approval, in which case it shall be processed concurrently with the development permit requiring planning commission approval.

c. The property owner shall be required to record a declaration of restrictions limiting future uses to similarly restricted uses or provide the required loading space.

3. 20,001+ square feet of gross floor area – one space for every 20,000 square feet or portion thereof.

B. Each off-street loading space shall be not less than twelve feet in width and forty feet in length, with a minimum height clearance of fourteen feet, and shall be so arranged that it will not impede traffic circulation within the parking area and will not block parking stalls.

C. Off-street loading spaces shall be permanently and clearly marked with paint or other easily distinguishable material.

D. Loading spaces shall be designed so as to permit vehicular and truck traffic to move into and out of the loading spaces without the backing of any truck into or upon parking spaces, a secondary or major arterial street. An alley may be used as a turning radius into and out of a loading stall. (Ord. 1832 § 4, 2021; Ord. 1683 § 53, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; prior code § 10-3.2010)

18.40.110 Development of parking structures.

The parking requirements set forth in Section 18.40.040 may be met by constructing, in conjunction with the Gardena Parking Authority, a public parking structure on the project site which structure contains the required number of parking spaces. (Ord. 1683 § 54, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; prior code § 10-3.2011)

18.40.120 Parking for the Gardena Boulevard commercial uses.

New or expanded commercial uses located on Gardena Boulevard between Normandie Avenue and Vermont Avenue may satisfy the parking requirements set forth in Section 18.40.040 as follows:

A. On-site parking shall be provided for spaces required due to increased square footage above and beyond existing square footage, as well as for any parking spaces that were previously provided on site.

B. Where the business is short parking spaces based on the original square footage, the deficiency in parking may be met by providing an in-lieu fee for each space in an amount determined by resolution of the city council.

Funds collected pursuant to this subsection shall be nonrefundable and shall be placed in a special account to be utilized exclusively for providing off-street parking in the area described above in the introductory paragraph.

C. No additional parking spaces or in-lieu fees shall be required where there is only a change in business without an increased intensification of parking requirements for the new business and there is no additional square footage being added to the business. (Ord. 1746 § 4, 2013: Ord. 1693 § 1, 2007: Ord. 1683 § 55, 2006; Urg. Ord. 1682; prior code § 10-3.2012)