Chapter 29.16


29.16.010    Access and site design.

29.16.020    Access locations.

29.16.030    Spacing.

29.16.040    Offsets.

29.16.050    Corner clearance.

29.16.060    Access design – Types of access.

29.16.070    Design vehicles.

29.16.080    Curb radii.

29.16.090    Driveway width.

29.16.100    Throat lengths and vehicle storage.

29.16.110    Accesses serving off-street parking lots.

29.16.120    Commercial uses.

29.16.130    Grades.

29.16.140    Sight distance.

29.16.150    Channelization islands.

29.16.160    Pedestrians and bicycles.

29.16.170    Transit.

29.16.180    Emergency vehicles.

29.16.190    Utilities and lighting.

29.16.200    Site circulation.

29.16.210    Delivery and service.

29.16.220    Transit and pedestrians.

29.16.230    Inter-parcel circulation.

29.16.240    Landscaping.

29.16.010 Access and site design.

“Access” is defined as any driveway or other point of ingress/egress such as a street, road, highway or driveway that connects to the public street system. This chapter defines the types of access, their locations, and geometric requirements.

Acceptable site design is achieved when three major elements – access location and design, site circulation and parking, building footprint and location – are integrated. Site circulation can directly affect the safety, traffic operations and the assigned functional purpose of the street system. Good site circulation is necessary to protect the integrity of the public streets as well as public safety within the site.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.0), 4-21-04)

29.16.020 Access locations.

All entrances and exits to vehicular traffic areas shall be located and constructed to minimize traffic congestion on the public street system.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.1), 4-21-04)

29.16.030 Spacing.

On local residential streets, single-family residential driveways shall be spaced a minimum of five feet measured from the property line to allow for maneuvering to occur without trespass. In locations where the five-foot minimum spacing cannot be met due to limited lot frontage or other field constraint, the Development Engineer may permit a variance from the spacing standard.

On local commercial and industrial streets, driveways shall be spaced a minimum of 50 feet, measured from edge of access to edge of access. On collector streets, driveways shall be spaced a minimum of 150 feet apart. On arterial streets where no other access to lower order streets is available, commercial driveways may be allowed where spaced a minimum of 300 feet and may be restricted to right-in, right-out movements. No new residential driveways shall be allowed on arterial streets.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.1.1), 4-21-04)

29.16.040 Offsets.

Where properties are not large enough to allow accesses on opposite sides of the street to be aligned, the center of accesses and intersections not in alignment shall be offset a minimum of 50 feet on local commercial streets, offset 150 feet or greater on all collector streets and offset 300 feet or greater on all arterial streets. Greater distances may be required for left-turn storage lanes. Shared accesses shall be encouraged wherever possible to minimize the number of access points along a street. Shared access provides for safer and more efficient operation of the flow of traffic on the street and shall meet the above requirements.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.1.2), 4-21-04)

29.16.050 Corner clearance.

“Corner clearances” are defined as the distance between a driveway and the nearest intersecting street. The clearance is necessary so that accesses do not interfere with street intersection operations and should provide drivers with adequate perception-reaction time to avoid potential conflicts. On corner lots, the access location shall be on the street of lowest functional classification.

Minimum Corner Clearance (ft.)

Measured from Flowline to Near Edge of Access

Street Classification

Clearance from Unsignalized Intersections

Clearance from Signalized Intersections

Single-Family Residential Driveways









Minor Arterial

150′ *

300′ *

100′ *

Major Arterial

300′ *

300′ *

150′ *

*May be restricted to right-in, right-out only access. Single-family access to arterial streets is not acceptable practice and will be permitted only in extreme hardship cases.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.1.3), 4-21-04)

29.16.060 Access design – Types of access.

Generally, all new private property access shall be designed as curb cuts. Radii-type curb returns with handicap ramps will be required for accesses when the peak hour right turn entering volume exceeds 20 vehicles in the peak hour. Auxiliary lanes shall be constructed when turn volumes meet the minimum criteria in the right-turn warrant chart.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.1), 4-21-04)

29.16.070 Design vehicles.

All accesses shall be designed to accommodate the turning characteristics of the largest vehicle that will most commonly utilize the proposed access. Most residential and small commercial driveways only need to accommodate passenger cars; other commercial or industrial developments will usually require at least one access that can accommodate the efficient entry or exit of larger vehicles.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.2), 4-21-04)

29.16.080 Curb radii.

The radius at the flowline of gutter shall be 20 feet for multifamily residential access and 25 feet for commercial access. Radii for industrial uses or truck delivery accesses shall be individually designed for the type of truck that will frequently use the access, with a maximum required radius of 50 feet.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.3), 4-21-04)

29.16.090 Driveway width.

Single-family residential driveway widths shall be between 12 feet and 33 feet. All other access drive widths shall be between 28 feet and 40 feet. Multi-lane driveways shall be designed to accommodate a standard ingress lane of 16 feet and egress lanes of 12 feet.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.4), 4-21-04)

29.16.100 Throat lengths and vehicle storage.

Adequate vehicle storage capacity shall be provided for both inbound and outbound vehicles. Adequate storage facilitates the safe and efficient movement of vehicles between the street and the development.

The access throat shall be of sufficient length to prevent vehicles from spilling onto the public street system. Inbound vehicle storage areas shall be of sufficient size to ensure that vehicles will not obstruct the adjacent street, sidewalk, or circulation within the facility. The throat shall be of sufficient length to provide adequate storage of outbound vehicles without them interfering with on-site circulation. Outbound vehicle storage areas shall be provided to eliminate backup and delay of vehicles within the development. At signalized intersections, adequate storage for the outbound movement must be provided to enable vehicles to exit efficiently on green.

The requirements for vehicle storage in parking lots and at drive-up type facilities are generally based on a typical vehicle spacing of 20 feet, but may be increased where larger vehicles can be expected.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.5), 4-21-04)

29.16.110 Accesses serving off-street parking lots.

On-site storage is measured from the flowline of the street to the first parking stall or aisle of a parking lot. Vehicle storage equivalent to or greater than the minimum distances shall be provided at accesses serving the site. The recommended distance for accesses with two approach lanes may be adjusted, subject to the TIS findings, roadway geometry, traffic volumes, and site layout.

On-Site Driveway Vehicle Storage Lengths (Feet)

Parking Spaces per Exit Lane

Storage Length Required

Multifamily Residential




0 – 200





201 – 400





401 – 600




More Lanes

601 – 700



More Lanes

More Lanes

> 700


More Lanes

More Lanes

More Lanes

Vehicle Storage Requirements for Drive-Up Facilities

Type of Facility

Vehicle Storage

Automated Tellers

4 spaces per machine

Drive-In Bank

6 spaces per window

Drive-In Restaurant

10 spaces per window1

Automatic Car Wash

10 spaces per wash line

Self-Service Car Wash

2 spaces per wash line

Drive-In Theater

15% of the total parking capacity

Service Stations

1 space per nozzle + 1 space/island/direction

Drive-In Liquor Store

3 spaces per window1

Drive-In Dry Cleaners

2 spaces per window1

1Measured from the pick-up window.

Adapted from Table 9-4, NCHRP 348 Access Management Guidelines for Activity Centers.

(Res. 39-04 (§, 4-21-04)

29.16.120 Commercial uses.

The vehicle storage area that shall be provided for various drive-through commercial uses shall be:

(a)    Based on a 20-foot length vehicle and a 12-foot-wide lane.

(b)    Separated from normal parking circulation aisles.

(c)    Designed using the appropriate design vehicle turning template.

(Res. 39-04 (§, 4-21-04)

29.16.130 Grades.

Access grades shall meet the City Standard Contract Documents.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.6), 4-21-04)

29.16.140 Sight distance.

Adequate sight distance and sight zones shall be provided at all access intersections.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.7), 4-21-04)

29.16.150 Channelization islands.

Channelizing islands may be incorporated into the access design for purposes of limiting movements into or out of accesses. Use of medians to control turning movements is preferred and will be required where physical conditions allow.

When allowed, the islands shall not be smaller than 100 square feet and shall provide vertical curb and colored exposed aggregate or patterned concrete treatment. Patterns and color shall match those of any nearby islands or medians. Additional right-of-way or easement may be required to accommodate these designs. The ends of the islands shall typically be constructed with two-foot flowline radii.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.8), 4-21-04)

29.16.160 Pedestrians and bicycles.

Pedestrians and bicyclists are especially vulnerable to turning vehicles at access drives. The consolidation of access points benefits pedestrians and bicyclists by reducing the number of conflict points along the roadway. Access designs for pedestrian and bicycle facilities shall conform to Chapter 29.28 GJMC requirements and with the City Standard Details.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.9), 4-21-04)

29.16.170 Transit.

Where applicable, accesses shall be designed to accommodate buses or other transit vehicles in accordance with Chapter 29.48 GJMC. These accommodations shall occur at shopping centers, malls, or other mixed use developments where transit vehicles may be frequent users of the on-site circulation system.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.10), 4-21-04)

29.16.180 Emergency vehicles.

All accesses shall be designed to readily accommodate emergency vehicles that would ordinarily respond at the particular establishment (Refer to Chapter 29.24 GJMC, Fire Department Access, regulations based on the Uniform Fire Code).

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.11), 4-21-04)

29.16.190 Utilities and lighting.

Accesses shall be located to ensure that utility poles, electric boxes, and signs do not interfere with the visibility of the access or available sight distances. The design of site lighting shall maximize the visibility and location of the access.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.2.12), 4-21-04)

29.16.200 Site circulation.

On-site circulation shall be given the same attention as is given to the design of public street systems. Poor site design and circulation is detrimental to both the public investment in the street system and the private investment in the property. Access locations, building location, site circulation, and parking are highly interrelated as each one has a dramatic effect on the others. The design of the on-site circulation system shall be an integral part of the overall site and access design process.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.3), 4-21-04)

29.16.210 Delivery and service.

Proposed development that includes truck loading/unloading shall provide adequate space for all truck operations. Adequate space minimally means that all truck operations be performed entirely on-site and off the public street system. Sufficient apron space shall be provided at all loading/unloading areas. Sufficient apron space means the area required for truck backing maneuvers. Delivery areas shall be separated from general traffic areas. Separation of delivery vehicle traffic from customer traffic shall occur entirely on-site. On-site roadways used by delivery vehicles shall be designed to accommodate the heavier payloads and turning characteristics of the largest vehicle expected to use the site.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.3.3), 4-21-04)

29.16.220 Transit and pedestrians.

In larger mixed use developments, shopping centers and malls, on-site roadways shall be designed to accommodate transit. This includes the design of pick-up/drop-off areas as well as the circulating roadways. Transit stops shall be located within a reasonable walking distance of the main building entrance while minimizing potential conflicts with circulating vehicles. Adequate pedestrian facilities must be designed on-site to reduce conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.3.4), 4-21-04)

29.16.230 Inter-parcel circulation.

Where practical and where reasonable walking distances can be provided, inter-parcel circulation with shared access shall be implemented. This will reduce the number of curb cuts on public streets and will increase the safety and capacity of the street system.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.3.5), 4-21-04)

29.16.240 Landscaping.

Site landscaping requirements are detailed in the zoning and development code. Landscaping at access points must meet the requirements for sight distance and the sight zone. Landscaping islands shall also consider the same requirements.

(Res. 39-04 (§ 4.3.6), 4-21-04)