Chapter 5
Exterior Lighting

4.501 Purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to preserve, protect, and enhance the lawful nighttime use and enjoyment of all properties in the City through the use of appropriate lighting practices and systems. Exterior lighting shall be designed, installed and maintained to control glare and light trespass, minimize obtrusive light, conserve energy and resources, maintain safety, security and productivity, and prevent the degradation of the nighttime visual environment. It is the further intent of this chapter to encourage the use of innovative lighting designs and decorative light fixtures that enhance the character of the community while preserving the nighttime visual environment.

4.502 General Provisions.

The design and illumination standards of this chapter shall apply to all exterior lighting sources and other light sources visible from the public right-of-way, road easement, or adjacent parcels, except where specifically exempted herein.

A.    Shielding. Exterior lighting shall be fully shielded and directed downward at a 90 degree angle. Oblique lenses (such as many wall-pack fixtures) are prohibited. All fixtures shall incorporate full cutoff housings, louvers, glare shields, optics, reflectors or other measures to prevent off-site glare and minimize light pollution. Only flat lenses are permitted on shoebox-style light fixtures; sag or protruding lenses are prohibited. (See Figure 10)

B.    Intensity. The following light intensity requirements shall apply on all sites within the City.

1.    Maximum Intensity – Within the Site. The intensity of light within a site shall not exceed 10 footcandles. Exception: the maximum intensity permitted in areas of intensive vehicular or outdoor pedestrian task areas, such as the area underneath gas station pump canopies, in the immediate vicinity of ATM facilities, or outdoor sales areas shall be 20 foot candles.

2.    Maximum Intensity at Street Right-of-Way. The maximum light intensity permitted at a street right-of-way line shall be one (1) footcandle, or the average light intensity generated by public street lighting at the property line (up to a limit of 5 foot candles), whichever is greater.

3.    Maximum Intensity at Property Lines. The maximum light intensity permitted at any property line other than a street right-of-way shall be 0.5 foot candles.

C.    Glare and light trespass. Exterior lighting sources shall be designed, constructed, located and maintained in a manner that does not cause off-site glare on neighboring properties or street rights-of-way. The light emitting element of any light fixture shall not be directly visible from a neighboring property, as this is the primary cause of glare.

D.    Lamps.

1.    Wattage. Lamps with a maximum wattage of 250 watts per fixture are permitted for use in the City to maintain a unified lighting standard and to minimize light pollution. The Planning Commission may permit the use of lamps with wattages up to 400 watts if the applicant can demonstrate that the higher wattage fixture is necessary to provide adequate lighting on the site and that the light fixture is in compliance with all other requirements of this chapter. The exemption for higher wattage lamps shall not be granted if the same lighting effect can be reasonably accomplished on the site by incorporating additional 250 watt or lower fixtures into the site design.

2.    High traffic areas. Due to their superior color rendering characteristics, LED, tungsten-halogen, metal halide, or other lamps with full-spectrum color rendering properties should be used in parking lots and other areas of high pedestrian and vehicular traffic use.

3.    LED Lighting. LED fixtures may be used for any outdoor lighting application. Any LED fixture used for parking lot or street lighting purposes shall comply with applicable Illuminating Engineering Society of North America standards.

E.    Animated lighting. Permanent exterior site lighting intended to illuminate outdoor areas shall not be of a flashing, moving, animated, or intermittent type.

F.    Hours of operation. All exterior lighting in non-residential districts shall incorporate automatic timers and shall be turned off between the hours of midnight and sunrise, except for lighting necessary for security purposes or accessory to a use that continues after midnight.

G.    Measurement. Light intensity shall be measured in footcandles on the horizontal plane at grade level within the site, and on the vertical plane at the property or street-right-of-way boundaries of the site at a height of five feet (5’) above grade level.

4.503 Standards by Type of Fixture.

A.    Freestanding pole and building mounted lighting. The maximum height of fixtures used for site lighting is 25 feet. Where a pole or building mounted fixture is located within 50 feet of a residentially zoned or used property, the maximum pole height shall be 15 feet.

B.    Decorative light fixtures. The Planning Commission may approve decorative light fixtures as an alternative to shielded fixtures, provided that such fixtures will enhance the aesthetics of the site and will not cause undue off-site glare or light pollution. Such fixtures may utilize LED, incandescent, tungsten-halogen, metal halide or or other lamps with full-spectrum color rendering properties with a maximum equivalent wattage of one-hundred fifty watts (150w) per fixture.

4.504 Exempt Lighting.

The following exterior lighting types are exempt from the requirements of this chapter, except that the building official may take steps to minimize glare, light trespass or light pollution impacts where determined to be necessary to protect the health, safety and welfare of the public:

A.    Holiday Decorations.

B.    Pedestrian Walkway Lighting.

C.    Building Up-Lighting, provided that the light emitting element of the fixture is shielded from direct view from any vehicle or pedestrian travel or use area, and that the fixture is directed at a vertical building surface.

D.    Single-Family Residential Lighting with fixtures rated at 150 watts or less.

E.    Pre-Emption. Instances where federal or state laws, rules or regulations take precedence over the provisions of this chapter.

F.    Temporary Emergency Lighting.

G.    Special Event Lighting in conjunction with a permitted special event, provided that the lighting will not significantly impact residential areas. Special event lighting shall only be allowed for the duration of the special event.

4.505 Exceptions.

The City recognizes that there are certain uses or circumstances not otherwise addressed in this chapter, such as sports stadiums, street lighting, or lighting for monuments and flags, that may have special exterior lighting requirements. The reviewing authority may waive or modify specific provisions of this chapter for a particular use or circumstance upon determining that all of the following conditions have been satisfied. The reviewing authority shall consider the following criteria in making its decision:

A.    The waiver or modification is necessary because of safety or design factors unique to the use, circumstance or site.

B.    The minimum possible light intensity is used that would be adequate for the intended purpose. Consideration shall be given to maximizing safety and energy conservation, and to minimizing light pollution, off-site glare and light trespass on to neighboring properties or street rights-of-way.

C.    For lighting related to streets or other vehicle access areas, a determination is made that the purpose of the lighting cannot be achieved by installation of reflective markers, lines, informational signs or other passive means.

D.    Additional conditions or limitations may be imposed by the reviewing authority to protect the public health, safety or welfare, or to fulfill the purpose of this chapter.