Chapter 3.1
LOT, PARCEL AND BLOCK DESIGN, ACCESS AND CIRCULATION Revised 1/19

Sections:

3.1.100    Purpose.

3.1.200    Lot, Parcel and Block Design.

3.1.300    Multi-Modal Access and Circulation.

3.1.400    Vehicular Access Management. Revised 1/19

3.1.500    Clear Vision Areas.

3.1.100 Purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to guide the development of livable neighborhoods by ensuring safe and efficient access and connectivity for a multi-modal transportation system.

This chapter provides specific requirements for the construction of public streets and on-site and off-site multi-modal circulation that meets the requirements of this code, accessibility regulations, furthers the orderly layout of land, protects community character, and conserves natural resources by promoting well-designed road and access systems. [Ord. NS-2177, 2012; Ord. NS-2016, 2006]

3.1.200 Lot, Parcel and Block Design.

A.    Purpose. The purpose of this section is to create orderly development as the City grows and redevelops. The size, width, topography and orientation of lots or parcels shall be appropriate for the location of the land division and for the type of development and use contemplated.

B.    Applicability. New development shall be consistent with the provisions of this chapter and other applicable sections of this code.

C.    General Requirements for Lots and Parcels.

1.    Depth and width of new lots or parcels shall meet the minimum standards specified for the zoning district. Where no minimum standards are specified, the depth and width shall be adequate to provide for the off-street service and parking facilities required by the type of use and development contemplated.

2.    On steep slopes, increased lot or parcel sizes may be required to avoid excessive cuts, fills and steep driveways.

3.    On tracts containing watercourses or rock outcroppings, increased lot or parcel sizes may be required to allow adequate room for development and protection of the topographic or natural feature.

4.    Each lot or parcel shall abut upon a street other than an alley for the minimum width required for lots or parcels in the zone, except:

a.    For lots or parcels fronting on the bulb of a cul-de-sac, the minimum frontage shall be 30 feet;

b.    For approved flag lots or parcels, the minimum frontage shall be 20 feet;

c.    For lots or parcels in zero lot line developments, the minimum frontage shall be 20 feet; and

d.    In zones where a minimum frontage width is not specified, the minimum frontage requirement shall be 50 feet.

5.    All side lot or parcel lines shall be at right angles to the street lines or radial to curved streets for at least one-half the lot or parcel depth wherever practical.

6.    Corner lots or parcels shall be at least five feet more in width than the minimum lot width required in the zone.

7.    All permanent utility service to lots or parcels shall be provided from underground facilities. The developer shall be responsible for complying with requirements of this section, and shall:

a.    Make all necessary arrangements with the utility companies and other persons or corporations affected by the installation of such underground utilities and facilities in accordance with rules and regulations of the Public Utility Commission of the State of Oregon.

b.    All underground utilities and public facilities installed in streets shall be constructed prior to the surfacing of such streets.

D.    Street Connectivity and Formation of Blocks. To promote efficient multi-modal circulation along parallel and connecting streets throughout the City, developments shall produce complete blocks bounded by a connecting network of streets, in accordance with the following standards:

1.    New development shall construct and extend planned streets (arterials, collectors and locals) in their proper projection to create continuous through streets and provide the desirable pattern of orderly developed streets and blocks. Streets shall be developed within a framework that is established in the Bend Urban Area Transportation System Plan and any applicable Special Area Plan, Refinement Plan, Master Neighborhood Development Plan or other adopted or approved development plan. Where such plans do not provide specific block length and perimeter standards, the requirements listed below shall apply:

2.    Block lengths and perimeters shall not exceed the following standards as measured from centerline to centerline of through intersecting streets.

a.    Six hundred sixty feet block length and 2,000 feet block perimeter in all Residential Zones;

b.    Four hundred feet block length and 1,500 feet block perimeter in the Central Business District, Convenience Commercial, Mixed-Use Riverfront and Professional Office Districts;

c.    Six hundred sixty feet block length and 2,640 feet block perimeter for all other Commercial, Industrial and Mixed Employment Districts;

d.    An exception may be granted to the maximum block length and/or block perimeter by the Review Authority if the applicant can demonstrate that the block length and/or block perimeter cannot be satisfied due to topography, natural features, existing development or other barriers, or it is unreasonable to meet such standards based on the existing pattern of development, or other relevant factors. When an exception is granted, the Review Authority may require the land division or site plan to provide blocks divided by one or more access corridors in conformance with the provisions of BDC 3.1.300, Multi-Modal Access and Circulation. Access corridors shall be located to minimize out-of-direction travel by pedestrians and bicyclists and shall meet all applicable accessibility standards.

3.    New street connections to arterials and collectors shall be governed by BDC 3.1.400, Vehicular Access Management.

4.    Except as otherwise provided in an approved Master Planned Development, private streets, where allowed by this code, shall be constructed to public standards and shall contain a public access easement along the length and width of the private facility if required to satisfy the block length and perimeter standards.

E.    New Lot and Parcel Access. In order to protect the operations and safety of arterial and collector roadways, access management is required during lot and parcel development. New lots and parcels created through land division that have frontage onto an arterial or collector street shall provide alternative options for access as indicated below:

1.    Residential lots or parcels not intended for multifamily housing shall provide alley access to the individual lots fronting onto the arterial or collector.

a.    Exception to Residential Alleys. The Review Authority may determine that an alley is impractical due to physical or topographical constraints. In this situation, double frontage lots may be permitted.

2.    Nonresidential and multifamily housing lots or parcels shall provide other access alternatives to the individual lots that abut the arterial or collector street.

a.    Double frontage lots or parcels of adequate depth to accommodate the future use may be permitted. The creation of double frontage lots does not relieve the property owner from their responsibilities to construct and maintain the sidewalk and park strip on the nonaccess side.

b.    When a lot or parcel has frontage onto two or more streets, access shall be provided first from the street with the lowest classification.

3.    The land division shall also provide for local street grid connections to the arterial and collector street in accordance with the block length and perimeter standards of this section. [Ord. NS-2177, 2012; Ord. NS-2016, 2006]

3.1.300 Multi-Modal Access and Circulation.

A.    Purpose. The purpose of this section is to ensure safe, accessible, direct and convenient multi-modal circulation by developing an on-street and off-street system of access corridors and public sidewalks throughout the City.

B.    On-Site Pedestrian Facilities. For all developments except single-family and duplex dwellings on their own lot or parcel, pedestrian access and connectivity shall meet the following standards:

1.    Pedestrian ways shall:

a.    Connect all building entrances within the development to one another.

b.    Connect all parking areas, storage areas, recreational facilities, common areas (as applicable), and adjacent development to the building’s entrances and exits.

c.    Extend throughout the development site, and connect to all future phases of development, adjacent trails, public parks and open space areas whenever possible as described in subsection (C) of this section, Off-Site Multi-Modal Facilities.

d.    Connect or stub to adjacent streets and private property, in intervals no greater than the block perimeter standards.

e.    Provide pedestrian facilities within developments that are safe, accessible, reasonably direct and convenient connections between primary building entrances and all adjacent streets, based on the following:

i.    Convenient and Direct. A route that does not deviate unnecessarily from a straight line or a route that does not involve a significant amount of out-of-direction travel for users.

ii.    Safe. Bicycling and pedestrian routes that are free from hazards and safely designed by ensuring no hidden corners, sight-obscuring fences, dense vegetation or other unsafe conditions.

iii.    Accessible. All pedestrian access routes shall comply with all applicable accessibility requirements.

iv.    Primary Entrance Connection. A pedestrian access route shall be constructed to connect the primary entrance of each building to the adjacent streets. For commercial, industrial, mixed-use, public, and institutional building entrances, the primary entrance is the main public entrance to the building. In the case where no public entrance exists, connections shall be provided to each employee entrance. For multifamily and triplex dwellings, the “primary entrance” is the front door (i.e., oriented toward the street). For buildings in which each unit does not have its own exterior entrance, the “primary entrance” may be a lobby, courtyard or breezeway which serves as a common entrance for more than one dwelling and be accessible.

2.    On-Site Pedestrian Facility Development Standards. On-site pedestrian facilities shall meet the following standards:

a.    On-site pedestrian walkways shall have a minimum width of five feet.

b.    Pedestrian walkways shall be lighted in conformance with BDC 3.5.200, Outdoor Lighting Standards.

c.    Switchback paths shall be required where necessary to meet the City’s adopted accessibility requirements and City of Bend Standards and Specifications. Accessible alternate routes such as ramps and/or lifts shall be provided when required.

d.    The City may require landscaping adjacent to a pedestrian walkway for screening and the privacy of adjoining properties. The specific landscaping requirements shall balance the neighbors’ privacy with the public safety need for surveillance of users of the public walkway. Tall, sight-obscuring fences or dense landscaping thick enough to conceal hazards are prohibited.

e.    Vehicle/Walkway Separation. Where walkways are parallel and abut a driveway or street (public or private), they shall be raised six inches and curbed, or separated from the driveway/street by a five-foot minimum landscaped strip. Special designs may be permitted if this five-foot separation cannot be achieved.

f.    Housing/Walkway Separation. Pedestrian walkways shall be separated a minimum of five feet from all residential living areas on the ground floor, except at building entrances. Separation is measured from the walkway edge to the closest dwelling unit. The separation area shall be landscaped in conformance with the provisions of BDC Chapter 3.2, Landscaping, Street Trees, Fences and Walls. No walkway/building separation is required for commercial, industrial, public, or institutional uses.

g.    Walkway Surface. Walkway surfaces shall be concrete and conform to accessibility requirements. Asphalt, brick/masonry pavers, or other durable surface that makes a smooth surface texture, and conforms to accessibility requirements, may be allowed as determined by the City. Multi-use paths and trails (i.e., for bicycles and pedestrians) shall be the same materials. (See also BDC 3.4.200, Transportation Improvement Standards.)

h.    Additional standards for walkway design can be found in BDC Chapter 3.3, Vehicle Parking, Loading and Bicycle Parking.

3.    Exception. The City may determine that a pedestrian facility is impractical due to:

a.    Physical or topographic conditions (e.g., highways, railroads, extremely steep slopes, sensitive lands, and similar physical constraints);

b.    Buildings or other existing development on adjacent properties that physically prevent a connection now or in the future, considering the potential for redevelopment; and

c.    Sites where the provisions of recorded leases, easements, covenants, restrictions, or other agreements recorded as of the effective date of the ordinance codified in this code prohibit the connection.

4.    Developments subject to development review shall construct sidewalks within and abutting the subject property along public and private streets.

C.    Off-Site Multi-Modal Facilities.

1.    Developments subject to development and having an access corridor alignment shown on the City of Bend Urban Area Bicycle and Pedestrian System Plan shall dedicate either right-of way or an access easement to the public for a primary or connector multi-use as outlined below.

a.    Primary multi-use paths shall be in the alignment shown on the City of Bend Urban Area Bicycle and Pedestrian System Plan to the greatest degree practical unless, with consideration of recommendations from the Bend Park and Recreation District, an alternate alignment is approved by the City through the development review process.

b.    Connector multi-use paths may be required for pedestrians and bicycles at or near mid-block where the block length exceeds the maximum length required by BDC 3.1.200, Lot, Parcel and Block Design. Connector multi-use paths may also be required where cul-de-sacs or dead-end streets are permitted, to connect to other streets, and/or to other developments.

c.    Primary and Connector Multi-Use Path Dedication and Construction. Primary and Connector multi-use path alignments shall be dedicated and constructed in accordance with the City’s Design Standards and Construction Specifications. [Ord. NS-2177, 2012; Ord. NS-2016, 2006]

3.1.400 Vehicular Access Management. Revised 1/19

A.    Purpose. The purpose of this section is to present standards and procedures for evaluating and managing vehicular access and circulation during development review to maintain adequate safety and operational performance standards and to preserve the functional classification of roadways as required by the City’s Transportation System Plan (TSP) and this code by:

•    Providing reasonable access to individual properties via adequately spaced local streets and alleys;

•    Providing a multi-modal transportation system;

•    Protecting the rights of individuals to reasonable access to private property; and

•    Ensuring safe and efficient travel for all.

B.    Applicability. This section shall apply to vehicular access for all properties that abut public and private streets.

C.    Approval of Access Required. Proposals for new access shall comply with the following procedures:

1.    Permission to access City streets shall be subject to review and approval by the City based on the standards contained in this chapter and the provisions of BDC Chapter 3.4, Public Improvement Standards. Access will be evaluated and determined as a component of the development review process.

2.    Permits for access to State highways shall be subject to review and approval by the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) based upon ODOT’s adopted standards, except when ODOT has delegated this responsibility to the City or Deschutes County. In that case, the City or County shall determine whether access is granted based on the City or County’s adopted standards.

3.    Permits for access to County highways shall be subject to review and approval by Deschutes County based upon Deschutes County’s adopted standards, except where the County has delegated this responsibility to the City, in which case the City shall determine whether access is granted based on the City’s adopted standards.

D.    Traffic Study Requirements. A transportation impact analysis (TIA) may be required under BDC Chapter 4.7, Transportation Analysis, for certain types and intensities of development proposals and to determine access restrictions of driveways onto arterial and collector roadways.

E.    Conditions of Approval. To ensure the safe and efficient operation of the street and highway system, the City may require the closing, consolidation, or relocation of existing curb cuts or other vehicle access points, recording of reciprocal access easements (i.e., for shared driveways and cross access routes), development of frontage or backage streets, installation of traffic control devices, and/or other mitigation measures that comply with this code, the City’s Standards and Specifications, and are approved by the City.

F.    Access Management Requirements. Access to the street system shall meet the following standards:

1.    Except as authorized under subsection (F)(4) of this section, lots and parcels in all zones and all uses shall have one access point. Single-family dwellings on corner lots at the intersection of two local streets may have one access point per frontage.

2.    If a lot or parcel has frontage on two or more streets of different street classifications, the property shall access the street with the lowest classification.

3.    For lots or parcels abutting an alley, access may be required to be taken from the alley. Outside of the Downtown Wall Street/Bond Street couplet, the City may determine that an alley is not an adequate roadway for primary access if both of the following criteria are met:

a.    The alley does not provide adequate or sufficient access to the proposed development; and

b.    Access to the higher classification roadway will be safe.

4.    Additional Access Points. An additional access point may be allowed when it is demonstrated that the additional access improves on-site circulation, and does not adversely impact the operations of the transportation system. If the second access point is only available to an arterial or collector roadway, the City may require one or more of these conditions of approval:

a.    Locating the access the maximum distance achievable from an intersection or from the closest driveway(s) on the same side of the street;

b.    Installation of turn restrictions limiting access to right-in and right-out when the new access would be located within 200 feet of an existing or planned traffic signal or roundabout and no left turn lane exists to accommodate left turn storage on the arterial or collector;

c.    Establishing a shared access with an adjoining property when possible; and/or

d.    Establishing a cross access easement with an adjoining property when possible.

5.    Access Spacing Requirements. The maximum distance achievable between two driveways or a driveway and an intersection shall be provided. Access spacing shall accommodate City of Bend Standards and Specifications for curb reveal between driveway apron wings.

6.    Access Operations Requirements. Backing from an access onto a public street shall not be permitted except for single-family, duplex or triplex dwellings backing onto a local street or for any use when backing into an alley if adequate backing distance is provided. The design of driveways and on-site maneuvering and loading areas shall include the anticipated storage length for entering and exiting vehicles, in order to prevent vehicles from backing into the flow of traffic on the public street or causing unsafe conflicts with on-site circulation.

7.    Driveways shall be designed and located to provide a vehicle in the driveway with an unobstructed view of the roadway for a sufficient distance as required by City Standards and Specifications or the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) policy on intersection sight distance requirements as determined by the City.

8.    Driveway widths, designs, and materials shall comply with City of Bend Standards and Specifications.

G.    Shared Access. For traffic safety and access management purposes, the number of driveway and private street intersections with public streets shall be minimized by the use of shared driveways with adjoining lots where feasible. The City may require shared driveways as a condition of development approval in accordance with the following standards:

1.    Shared Driveways and Frontage Streets. Shared driveways and frontage streets are encouraged, and may be required to consolidate access onto a collector or arterial street. When shared driveways or frontage streets are required, they shall be stubbed to adjacent developable land to indicate future extension. For the purpose of this code, stub means that a driveway or street temporarily ends at the property line, and shall be extended in the future as the adjacent property develops, and developable means that a property is either vacant or it is likely to redevelop.

2.    Access Easements. Access easements for the benefit of affected properties shall be recorded for all shared driveways, including walkways, at the time of final plat approval or as a condition of development approval.

3.    Cross Access. Cross access is encouraged, and may be required between contiguous sites in the Public Facilities, Mixed-Use, Commercial and Industrial Zones and for multifamily housing developments in the Residential Zones in order to provide for direct circulation between sites and uses for pedestrians, bicyclists and drivers and to enable compliance with the collector and arterial access management requirements of this chapter.

H.    Driveway Widths. Driveway openings (or curb cuts) must be the minimum width necessary to provide the required number of vehicle travel lanes (10 feet minimum width for each travel lane). When obtaining access to off-street parking areas backing onto a public street is not permitted except for single-family, duplex or triplex dwellings backing onto a local street or when backing into an alley for all uses if adequate backing distance is provided. The following standards provide adequate site access, minimize surface water runoff, and avoid conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians:

1.    Single-family detached dwelling units must have a minimum driveway opening width of 10 feet, and a maximum width of 24 feet. Wider driveways may be necessary to accommodate approved paved recreational vehicle pads; however, the driveway opening or connection to the street cannot be wider than 24 feet. For townhomes, see BDC 3.6.200(D), Single-Family Attached Townhomes, and for duplexes and triplexes, see BDC 3.6.200(H), Duplex and Triplex Development.

2.    Multifamily developments must have a minimum driveway opening width of 20 feet, and a maximum width of 30 feet. The dimension may exceed 30 feet if the City Engineer determines that more than two lanes are required based on the number of trips generated or the need for turning lanes.

3.    Other Uses. Access widths for all other uses must be based on 10 feet of width for every travel lane, except that driveways providing direct access to parking spaces must conform to the parking area standards in BDC Chapter 3.3, Vehicle Parking, Loading and Bicycle Parking. Driveway aprons serving industrial uses and heavy commercial uses may be as wide as 35 feet.

4.    Driveway Aprons. Driveway aprons must be installed between the street and the private drive. Driveway apron design and location must conform to City of Bend Standards and Specifications and the City’s adopted accessibility standards for sidewalks and walkways.

I.    Fire Access and Parking Area Turn-around. A fire equipment access drive shall be provided for any portion of an exterior wall of the first story of a building that is located more than 150 feet from an existing public street or approved fire equipment access drive as measured around the building. Parking areas shall provide adequate aisles or turn-around areas for service and delivery vehicles so that all vehicles may enter the street in a forward manner (except for single-family dwellings and alleys that provide adequate backing width).

J.    Vertical Clearances. Driveways, private streets, aisles, turn-around areas and ramps shall have a minimum vertical clearance of 13 feet six inches for their entire length and width.

K.    Barricades. Except as otherwise provided in an approved Master Planned Development, gates, barricades or other devices intended to prevent vehicular and/or pedestrian access shall not be installed across any approved driveway or private street that provides access to multiple properties except when required by the City to restrict vehicle access to an arterial or collector street.

L.    Construction. The following development and maintenance standards shall apply to all driveways and private streets. The City of Bend Standards and Specifications document shall prevail in the case of conflicting rules related to the design and construction of public infrastructure.

1.    Surface Options. Driveways, required parking areas, aisles, and turn-arounds may be paved with asphalt, concrete or comparable surfacing or a durable nonpaving material (e.g., grass-crete, eco-stone) may be used to reduce surface water runoff and to protect water and air quality. Gravel is not allowed.

2.    Surface Water Management. When an impervious surface is used, all driveways, parking areas, aisles and turn-arounds shall have on-site collection or infiltration of surface waters to prevent the flow of stormwater onto public rights-of-way and abutting property. Surface water facilities shall be constructed in conformance with City specifications. Durable nonpaving materials (e.g., grass-crete, eco-stone) are encouraged to facilitate on-site infiltration of stormwater. [Ord. NS-2318, 2018; Ord. NS-2177, 2012; Ord. NS-2016, 2006]

3.1.500 Clear Vision Areas.

A.    Purpose. Clear vision areas are established to ensure that obstructions do not infringe on the sight lines needed by motorists, pedestrians, bicyclists and others approaching potential conflict points at intersections.

B.    Applicability. In all zones except the CB Zone, clear vision areas as described below and illustrated in Figure 3.1.500.A must be established at the intersection of two streets, an alley and a street, a driveway and a street or a street and a railroad right-of-way in order to provide adequate vision of conflicting traffic movements as well as street signs. These standards are applicable to public and private streets, alleys and mid-block lanes, and driveways.

C.    The following standards apply to clear vision areas:

1.    The clear vision area is in the shape of a triangle and extends across the corner of private property to the face of curb at the street or alley as shown in Figure 3.1.500.A. The two legs of the clear vision triangle are each measured from the point of intersection of the two corner lot lines, special setback lines, or access easement lines. Where lot lines have rounded corners, the lot lines are extended in a straight line to a point of intersection. Measurements along a driveway are taken at the edge of pavement.

Figure 3.1.500.A

2.    The following measurements define the clear vision areas:

Table 3.1.500.B

Intersection at a Street and the following:

Minimum Distance of Triangle Side

Street

15 feet

Alley

10 feet

Driveway

10 feet

Railroad

15 feet

3.    Unless exempted below, there must be no fence, wall, vehicular parking, sign, building, structure, or any other obstruction to vision within the clear vision area between the height of two feet and eight feet above the top of the curb. In cut sections, embankments must be graded to comply with these requirements. Shrubs or foliage must not exceed two feet in height. Existing trees must be limbed to a minimum of eight feet above the top of curb or 12 feet above adjacent bike lanes. New trees are not permitted within the clear vision area.

a.    Exemptions.

i.    Street sign, post or pole (e.g., power, signal, or luminaire pole).

ii.    Any private post or pole eight inches or less in diameter (width or length).

4.    Driveway approaches and driveways are not permitted within the clear vision area. On-street parking is not permitted within 20 feet of an accessible ramp or within 10 feet of a driveway approach.

5.    Additional clear vision areas may be required as directed by the City Engineer.

D.    The City Engineer may modify the clear vision area requirements upon written request by the applicant if, in the City Engineer’s determination, the construction within this triangle will not adversely impact traffic or pedestrian safety. Reasons for the modification(s) are limited to special circumstances such as the existence of available right-of-way in excess of City standards, curb extensions, or unique traffic flow (one way). [Ord. NS-2303, 2018; Ord. NS-2177, 2012; Ord. NS-2016, 2006]