Chapter 31.05
STRAITS REGIONAL PLAN

Sections:

31.05.010    Overview and purpose of the Comprehensive Plan.

31.05.020    Focus 2014 – Vision for the Straits Region.

31.05.050    Economic development element.

31.05.060    Economic development issues.

31.05.070    Economic development goals and policies.

31.05.080    Housing element.

31.05.090    Housing issues.

31.05.100    Housing goals.

31.05.110    Eastern Straits transportation element.

31.05.120    Eastern Straits transportation issues and goals.

31.05.130    Western Straits transportation element.

31.05.140    Western Straits transportation issues and goals.

31.05.150    Public facilities and service element.

31.05.160    Public facilities and service issues and goals.

31.05.170    Land use element.

31.05.180    Urban growth areas – A vision for the Clallam Bay-Sekiu and Joyce urban growth areas.

31.05.190    Urban growth area issues.

31.05.200    Straits Region urban growth area goals and policies (general).

31.05.210    Clallam Bay/Sekiu urban growth area policies and goals.

31.05.220    Joyce urban growth area policies and goals.

31.05.230    Rural element for the Eastern Straits region.

31.05.240    Rural land use issues in the Eastern Straits.

31.05.250    Rural land use goals in the Eastern Straits.

31.05.260    Rural element for the Western Straits Region.

31.05.270    Rural land use issues in the Western Straits.

31.05.280    Rural land use goals in the Western Straits.

31.05.290    Resource lands element for the Straits planning area.

31.05.300    Forest land use issues.

31.05.310    Goals and policies to conserve commercial use of forest lands.

SOURCE:    ADOPTED:

Ord. 572    05/27/95

AMENDED SOURCE:    ADOPTED:

Ord. 725    08/06/02

Ord. 803    12/19/06

Ord. 852    07/21/09

31.05.010 Overview and purpose of the Comprehensive Plan.

A comprehensive plan is the community’s vision of its future. It guides the orderly development of the region. The purpose of the Comprehensive Plan is to generate initial discussion among citizens, public agencies, and other stakeholders on some of the major issues facing the future development of the Straits Planning Region (See map below). The Straits Regional Plan was generated by the citizen members of the Crescent Bay Community Council and the Clallam Bay-Sekiu Community Council. Although the Crescent and Clallam Bay Community Councils share many goals, there are enough differences in these areas to justify separate goal and policy sections covering rural, resource and urban growth areas. The goals and policies of the Crescent Community Council apply from its boundary with the Port Angeles Region through the eastern edge of Range 11. The Clallam Bay Community Council goals and policies apply to the Straits regional planning area lying west of Range 10.

The Straits Planning Region is one of four regional comprehensive plans being developed to comply with the Growth Management Act. These regional plans work in concert with a County-wide Comprehensive Plan which covers issues of County-wide importance. The Comprehensive Plan addresses issues of land use, public facilities/services, transportation, affordable housing and economic development.

31.05.020 Focus 2014 – Vision for the Straits Region.

We envision the Straits Region as a vibrant rural and resource based community,... In the year 2014, the urban growth areas of Joyce, Clallam Bay, and Sekiu have retained their small town character by concentrating commercial development into compact core areas. The commercial core of these urban growth areas express the historic compatibility and coastal village design proposals first articulated by their community councils. Tree-lined streets and pedestrian-friendly town centers welcome local residents and tourists alike to stop and spend some time browsing through the locally produced merchandise or dining at the local cafes. Many hotel and tourist-related businesses have upgraded their facilities to attract tourists seeking destination resort accommodations and activities. Recreational trail users will be welcomed and directed to connections to many hiker, bicyclist, and equestrian trails in the nearby area. Local trails will be identified and mapped showing routes to the south, joining trails in the Olympic National Park and nearby Department of Natural Resources land as well as connections to the Olympic Discovery Trail to the coast. To the north, trails will lead to the scenic area of Salt Creek Park, Crescent Beach and their adjoining trail systems. Pedestrian amenities such as boardwalks, bicycle trails and fishing piers are utilized in combination with organized events to provide activities for local residents and visitors. Community festivals organized by local business throughout the year have made these urban areas popular sites for recreation-related conventions. Most residences in the urban growth areas are within walking distance of the commercial core. The urban growth areas in this region are linked by an efficient local transit system and provisions are made for non-motorized transportation utilizing bicycle lanes along Highway 112.

Manufacturing and industrial concerns have been promoted through the creation of small business incubators in Joyce and Clallam Bay. Here, locally produced goods are manufactured and sold through the attached retail outlets. Limited resources are pooled through the use of common secretarial, computer and shipping services. Clallam Bay also saw new industrial development associated with and using labor from the Corrections Center at the Clallam Bay Industrial Park. Sekiu has upgraded the appearance of its waterfront and main street and is attracting resort guests through an active marketing program. The communities of Clallam Bay and Joyce have experienced job growth from the development of an aquaculture industry which produces shellfish and fish within the Straits and on upland sites. Several value-added wood products and specialty food products are being shipped from the area to the Pacific Rim Nations. All industrial uses except those associated with the forest industry are found within the urban areas. The Makah museums, long house, casino and port attractions at Neah Bay have provided major employment opportunities on the County’s west end. Its port has become a major oil spill response center and continues to be a major fishing center.

where the urban areas are the cultural, educational and growth centers of the region,... The urban areas of Joyce, Clallam Bay, Sekiu and Neah Bay provide a mixture of employment, residential, commercial, cultural and recreational opportunities. A new community center/swimming pool complex was constructed in Sekiu using a combination of Corrections Center impact funds and State community development funds. Neah Bay has become a cultural center with a national reputation for its preservation of the Makah culture. Peninsula College provides branch video centers in Sekiu and Neah Bay where students can use prerecorded video instruction and interactive video to fulfill college or advanced degree requirements of the major schools in Washington. Much of the new urban-type development which occurred after 1994 took place within the existing urban centers where infrastructure was in place or could be easily extended. Curbside pickup of solid waste and recycling has been established in Joyce. The Public Utility District, Crescent Water System and the County provide services within the unincorporated urban growth areas.

Figure
– Proposed Community Center/Pool Complex

where resource management and conservation are the backbone of the economy,... Forest resource lands, farms and important open space resource lands first identified in 1992 and 1993 remain in resource use. Many of the agricultural and open space resource lands visible from the highways have been permanently protected through purchase of development rights, rural low density/mixed use open space agreements and conservation easements. Truck farming operations on the periphery of the urban growth areas provide food products for urban residents and sales items for local farmers markets. The rural portions of the region identified in the 1994 plan have retained their rural character through the use of low density development options and utilization of rural low density/mixed use development approaches. A clear boundary exists between rural and urban areas. The application of forestry practices including selective harvesting, shelterwood cuts, viewshed management and watershed management have led to greater acceptance of harvesting practices and have vastly improved the appearance and ecological health of the working forest.

with a population that respects the beauty and function of the natural environment,... Twenty years of work in education and environmental restoration have resulted in the development of a strong sense of stewardship among Straits residents towards the watersheds in their region. Critical areas are protected and environmental enhancement projects have restored many acres of wetlands and miles of steams to salmon runs. Few weekends go by when local groups are not found in the field working on habitat improvements or maintenance. Water is clean and abundant due to conservation efforts. The abundance of intact native plant communities and natural systems in the region are the focus of many professional research efforts which share their results with visitors and students through several interpretive centers built in the region. Careful stewardship has ensured the conservation of our land, air, water and energy resources for future generations.

a good place to live,... The Straits region is known for its livable urban villages which express their own unique character. They are all noted for their quality of life, pedestrian orientation and superior design. The Highway 112 corridor is now tree lined as it passes through the urban areas, and businesses all along this corridor have upgraded their landscaping and physical appearance. Some high density, low cost housing has been built near the commercial core areas where easy access to transit and job opportunities is available. Well-designed and landscaped modular homes and multifamily developments provide an attractive low cost living environment. Unsightly land uses such as storage yards, junk yards and industrial have been screened and landscaped. Visitors to our area note the distinct rural boundaries on either side of the urban growth areas. Public access has been enhanced at Crescent Beach and to other marine shorelines. Recreational trails have been identified and enhanced in and around the region. Access for trail users to points of interest and other trails – such as the Olympic Discovery Trail – have been marked and maintained by local use groups. Increased use by local residents and tourists provides a point of pride and assures that the area is not only “a good place to live, but to visit.”

where we work together... The Straits region enjoys a healthy and stable economy, emphasizing diversity in the range of goods produced and services provided. Tourism has become an economic focus for the west end retail community. In the Joyce area, mountain bike events on the Olympic Discovery Trail’s “Adventure Route Trail” segment that traverses lands managed by the Department of Natural Resources have generated substantial revenue for the community. Many people work year-round in the forest industry and corrections fields. Businesses continue to locate in our County because of the high quality of life, provision of business infrastructure, the emphasis on superior schools, and the ability of a family oriented community to provide a safe living environment for all. The business community also recognizes that the predictability brought about by the management of growth and the creation of effective public/tribal/private partnerships has fostered a relationship of trust between residents, business interests and governments. This trust has benefited the overall economic development of the County. Problems identified by residents and the business community are clearly articulated in the Plan and solutions have been proposed with clear sources of funding identified. Residents and business interests trust their local governments to follow through on solutions because the plans and promises made to manage growth in 1994 have been followed and changes to the original plan occur as a result of demonstrated community need. Relationships with tribal governments have improved as the community embraces its cultural diversity. Change is accepted and proceeds in an orderly fashion based on the growth management plan.

Over all, we envision a great place for all to live, work, and play!

31.05.050 Economic development element.

(1) Growth Management Goal. Encourage economic development throughout the State that is consistent with adopted comprehensive plans, promote economic opportunity for all citizens of this State, especially for unemployed and for disadvantaged persons, and encourage growth in areas experiencing insufficient economic growth, all within the capacities of the State’s natural resources, public services, and public facilities.

(2) The Vision for Economic Development. The Comprehensive Plan has enhanced economic diversity while protecting the quality of the environment and private property rights. The comprehensive plan serves as a foundation for land use regulation that is simple, minimally intrusive and inexpensive to apply. The comprehensive plan has facilitated economic development by focusing local strategies on solutions to local problems. Efforts have also been directed towards improving the economy in economically distressed areas of the County.

The Comprehensive Plan for the Straits Region focused on redevelopment of the communities of Clallam Bay and Sekiu into high-quality resort towns. Combining grant funding with local monies has led to extensive improvements in motel facilities, recreational facilities, street side landscaping, pedestrian amenities and building facade improvements. Many community activities and organized events occur throughout the year attracting groups seeking to recreate in an area of unsurpassed natural beauty. The existence of established trail systems on local timberlands provides a location for hikers, bicyclists, and equestrians to hold one- to two-day events, providing substantial income to local businesses.

Environmental restoration efforts have been extensive over the last 15 years and the local fishery industry has experienced a rebound in recent years. Aquaculture research and implementation projects have created new jobs from the expansion of this industry in the west end of the County. Commercial forestry operations continue to employ many residents of the West End. The Clallam Bay Corrections Center has been expanded providing additional jobs and prison industries also contribute to the local economy.

The Joyce area has continued to experience growth as residents working in Port Angeles are attracted to the high quality rural environment. The Joyce urban growth area has seen additional development of low cost housing and recreational type developments. Joyce has retained its rural historic town appearance. High quality landscaping and building design have improved the aesthetics of the urban area. A park in the center of town induces many tourists to stop and enjoy the shopping in this rural community. A master planned resort has been developed north of Joyce in the Crescent Beach area and resort facilities at Whiskey Creek and the Lyre River have been expanded. The County Park at Salt Creek now includes portions of Crescent Beach. The trail system of the park has been expanded and signed to include trails to Striped Peak and connections south to Joyce and its trail system for hikers, bicyclists, and equestrians. The trail systems in the Joyce area include the Olympic Discovery Trail “Adventure Route” segment that connects to the Lyre River and Spruce Mountain Railroad grade segments that have also been incorporated into the Olympic Discovery Trail route.

31.05.060 Economic development issues.

(1) The economy of the Straits regional planning area changed dramatically from the 1980s to the 1990s. Traditionally, the area relied heavily on fishing and the forestry industry. Changing federal and State regulations have shifted the local economy from a heavy reliance on resource industries to refocus efforts on development of tourism and expansion of local industries. The effect on the economy in the Joyce area has been lessened by its location near the City of Port Angeles. If the west end of the Straits area is to prosper, more effort must be focused on actively marketing the area for tourism, recreation, and retirement-related development. Additional local employment opportunities could be fostered by encouraging careful development of the aquaculture industry, and utilizing local workers in stream restoration projects to enhance fisheries. The Clallam Bay Corrections Center will continue to provide a stable base of local employment. Future expansion of this facility or development of related industries will be encouraged.

(2) While development of an aquaculture industry is a strong focus of economic development efforts in the western portion of the Straits Planning Region, the eastern portion of the region is much more reserved in its support for aquaculture. Concern focuses on the issues of unintended environmental hazards such as water pollution from fish waste and chemically treated fish food as well as degradation of native fish stocks. Early experience with fish pens at Whiskey Creek indicate that workable technologies and economic feasibility must be carefully studied prior to the establishment of successful aquaculture operations. Residents of the eastern portion of the Straits Planning Region do support land-based aquaculture, continued research efforts and off-shore fish farms fronting State forestlands.

(3) Political and environmental concerns have brought about significant changes in the commercial forest land base and the way timber resources are managed. Some of the elements which have contributed to this change include severe reductions in timber harvests on National Forest lands and large areas being set aside on State and private lands in compliance with forest practices regulations. The changes in forest land management in recent years have brought changes in the work force required. While some traditional job opportunities in timber harvesting, road construction and silviculture will continue to be available, new opportunities will be available for highly trained people involved in resource management activities such as watershed restoration, watershed analysis, habitat enhancement and wildlife population surveys. The County should encourage forest managers to make decisions based on best management practices and forest practice regulations. The County should support education efforts which help the public understand forest practices in order to avoid imposition of regulations which do not support good forest management practices.

(4) Although growth management is often viewed as limiting growth, it is really about directing growth into areas where adequate public facilities and services exist or can be provided in an efficient manner. In the past, growth has often been allowed with little consideration to the impact on such services and facilities as schools, parks, transportation, water and sewer, stormwater, fire protection and law enforcement. In times of shrinking public revenue, it is prudent management to focus scarce resources into concentrated urban growth areas so that growth will not decrease current service levels below locally established minimum standards. The Clallam Bay-Sekiu urban growth area has abundant capacity in its sewer and water facilities to accommodate growth.

31.05.070 Economic development goals and policies.

(1) Clallam County should ensure that land use plans and regulations provide an environment conducive to business development, consistent with economic goals and objectives and protection of the public health, safety and welfare. Land use plans and regulations should provide sufficient opportunities for siting businesses without long delays in the permit process.

(2) Clallam Bay and Sekiu should focus their economic development efforts on upgrading visitor facilities, local attractions, pedestrian amenities and streetscape with the goal of gradually developing into a destination resort community. Streetside landscaping and commercial building design must be improved in Joyce, Clallam Bay and Sekiu and hotel/motel resources in Clallam Bay and Sekiu must be upgraded to attract moderate and high income tourists.

(a) High quality landscaping and building design guidelines should be implemented in the communities of Joyce, Clallam Bay and Sekiu in order to transform these communities into regional tourism attractors. Joyce could work towards retaining compatibility with historic structures, while Clallam Bay and Sekiu would work towards the appearance of attractive coastal villages.

(b) Grant funding should be sought for streetscape improvements necessary to improve the aesthetics of rural communities in the Straits Region.

(c) County Park facilities in Clallam Bay should provide for a village green fronting on the downtown commercial core in order to provide a public space for downtown activities and to attract more visitors to utilize this outstanding beach.

Figure
– Proposed Pedestrian Improvements to Main Intersection in Clallam Bay

(3) Expansion or diversification of the Clallam Bay Corrections Center is encouraged as this facility is a major employer which lends employment stability to this region.

(4) Improve local resident and tourism access to and along the Clallam Bay and Sekiu marine shorelines.

(a) Clallam County should work together with the Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council to obtain funding through a variety of sources including grants and prison impact fees to finance development of a boardwalk in the Sekiu Marina. The boardwalk should be subject to local review and recommendations of the Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council and should be coordinated with the commercial core improvement district plan.

(b) Clallam County should work together with the Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council and State of Washington to promote and improve access to public lands along the Clallam Bay waterfront including development of State-owned parkland in Clallam Bay. The Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council should also consider working with private landowners for possible trail links to public lands and the downtown areas such as along the wetland area south of Lighthouse Road.

(c) Transportation improvement funding should be sought for development of a waterfront bikeway/pedestrian trail paralleling Highway 112 which would connect the communities of Clallam Bay and Sekiu. This two (2) mile trail would provide a nonmotorized connection between the two (2) communities, enhance recreational uses in the vicinity of the shoreline, provide local residents with a safe walking and bicycle path and be utilized by visitors to the local motels and RV parks. Any proposed trail development should maximize use of public right-of-way. The bikeway/pedestrian trail should be subject to local review and recommendations of the Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council and should be coordinated with the commercial core improvement district plan.

Figure
– Proposed Bikeway/Pedestrian Pathway Linking Sekiu and Clallam Bay

(5) The Port of Port Angeles must be encouraged to maintain the Sekiu Airport in full operation as it would be vital to attract fly-in tourism to this remote location.

(6) The communities of Joyce, Clallam Bay, Sekiu and Neah Bay should work to enhance the number of summertime and off-season tourist activities in order to stimulate the local economy and to create added regional exposure. Events such as airport fly-ins, diving, sailboarding, biking, hunting, fishing, horseback riding, motorcycle events, beach walks, arts and craft fairs should be encouraged.

(7) Development of regional attractions such as a Sekiu boardwalk, community biking trail, community pool and the Clallam Bay fishing pier should be regional economic development priorities. Grants, timber and fishing impact funding and community development monies could be examined as possible funding sources for regional tourism attractions.

(8) Clallam County should coordinate and work with Olympic National Park to ensure that decisions made by the Park do not negatively impact tourism and recreational uses in the West End. Park policies which limit beach access, limit use of park facilities or result in trail closures should be reviewed with the local communities to ensure these communities are not further impacted by government restrictions.

(9) Further funding for Jobs for the Environment projects should be sought for long-term stream restoration, development of habitat ponds and stream related fish rearing areas in the Straits Planning Region.

(10) Local, State and the federal government should encourage economic development, emphasized within urban growth areas, by encouraging the development and expansion of water, sewer, and transportation infrastructure and then encouraging new businesses to locate in those areas.

(a) Clallam County should pursue opportunities to reduce service costs within the Clallam Bay-Sekiu urban growth area.

(b) Clallam County should examine the feasibility of encouraging private or public utility district development of a community sewage disposal system in the Joyce urban growth area to encourage urban density growth.

(11) Commercial and industrial zones within urban growth areas should allow mixed uses in order to encourage more opportunities to site a business. For example, light manufacturing should be allowed in commercial areas while retail should be allowed in industrial areas.

(12) Industrial land use designations should be established adjacent to the Clallam Bay Corrections Facility. This site could be utilized by either prison related industries or private industrial concerns.

(13) The quality of the environment and its aesthetic beauty should be protected in order to attract tourists and new business which desire to locate in a quality environment enjoyed on the Olympic Peninsula. The commercial forestlands, rural areas and urban areas in the Straits Planning Region are working environments for local employment but within this context the scenic beauty of the area and the quality of the environment can be maintained through careful stewardship by the property owners.

(14) Recreational development that provides attractions to tourists and citizens in the area should be encouraged. Expanded and enhanced multi-use trail systems should be constructed with links to area attractions. Examples of appropriate developments include master-planned resorts located at Crescent Beach or at Clallam Bay. Reasonable public access to shorelines should be required with master-planned resort development. Developers seeking such opportunities in the County should be directed to these sites.

Figure
– Proposed Boardwalk Built to Enhance Destination Resort Facilities

(15) Resource-based industries should continue to be supported, including reasonable conservation of forest and agricultural lands, and processing of raw materials.

(16) Bed and breakfast inns, home occupations, artisans, retreat centers, conference centers and home-based industries should be encouraged in the Straits Planning Region.

(17) The Port and EDC should be encouraged to examine the feasibility of creating business incubator facilities in Clallam Bay and Joyce.

(18) State colleges should be encouraged to provide televised, interactive classroom instruction to West End high schools so that college courses could be taken by interested parties living in this area.

(19) Large private forest landowners and public forest managers should be encouraged to utilize more local labor to offset resource-related job loss in the West End.

(20) Aquaculture (freshwater and saltwater) research projects should only be encouraged in designated areas in the Straits Planning Region. Clallam County should support industries seeking grant funding for research projects. Research should focus on the development of an aquaculture industry that does not pollute, endanger native stocks, that enhances rather than displaces recreational and native commercial fishing, and that evaluates the effect of private use of a public resource. Clallam County should encourage the development of a locally based toxic shellfish monitoring program.

(21) Development of a shellfish and algae farming industry is strongly encouraged in the Straits Planning Region.

(22) Continuing research and development of upland aquaculture projects and on-shore hatcheries, including freshwater projects, are encouraged in the Straits Planning Region. Aquaculture research projects, development of a fish farming industry, and development of on-shore hatcheries are encouraged in the west end of the Straits Planning Region.

(23) Clallam County should identify areas in the Straits of Juan de Fuca that would be appropriate locations for aquaculture research and aquaculture development projects. Shorelines which abut commercial forestlands between the area west of Murdock Creek and east of the East Twin River are appropriate locations for aquaculture projects in the Eastern Straits Region as land use conflicts and visual conflicts are reduced.

(24) Clallam County should support the aquaculture industry in development of a programmatic environmental impact statement on use of identified areas in the Straits for aquaculture. Permitting processes for aquaculture projects should be streamlined.

(25) Clallam County working in association with the EDC should investigate opportunities for light industrial development in the Joyce and Clallam Bay/Sekiu urban growth areas and seek grant funding to support such development.

(26) Clallam County should work to encourage the commercial and sport/recreational fishing industry. Projects which would tend to enhance commercial and sports/recreational fisheries should be supported.

(27) Clallam County shall place a high priority on purchasing the rights to marine shorelines from willing sellers when such properties become available in order to foster public access points and allow the public to cross shoreline areas. Such a program would foster the growth of tourism and could be financed through voter approved bonds, through real estate excise tax provisions, through the Conservation Futures Program or by other financing methods.

(28) Fresh and saltwater resources contribute to the local economy through commercial and sports fishing, shellfish harvesting, breakwaters and boat launch facilities, public and private beach access, recreation, and water-based transportation, etc. These and other traditional uses of our water resources should be protected.

(a) Clallam County should coordinate with any federal or State agency on any proposal that would impact the traditional uses of our water resources. This would include joint planning and analysis of impacts to the environment, economy, customs, and culture of the Straits Planning Region.

(b) The proposed Straits Marine Sanctuary has the potential to have a significant adverse impact on water dependent industry including local marinas, the Port of Port Angeles and water-based transportation. Clallam County Commissioners should take immediate action to become involved in the preliminary planning phase of any proposal for a Straits Marine Sanctuary project.

(c) Watershed management plans should be developed and implemented by local residents.

(d) Clallam County should work with private landowners and other governmental agencies to maintain (e.g., repair existing erosion problems) along the Sekiu coastline.

(29) Permitting processes for economic development projects shall be streamlined.

(30) Efforts to restore fish populations such as hatcheries, fish rearing, etc., should benefit both commercial and sport fishing industries. Clallam County should support restoration efforts of salmonid species that historically were the primary inhabitants of the Peninsula’s rivers such as chinook and coho – not chum.

31.05.080 Housing element.

(1) Growth Management Goal (Affordable Housing). Encourage the availability of affordable housing to all economic segments of the population of this State, promote a variety of residential densities and housing types, and encourage the preservation of existing housing stock.

31.05.090 Housing issues.

(1) The housing goals and policies in the Straits Regional Plan supplement an extensive housing section in the County-wide Plan. The eastern portion of the Straits Region is a very rural area. Rising land prices are beginning to limit the availability of affordable housing in this region. Most newly developed affordable housing opportunities will be found within the urban area of Joyce where multifamily housing and manufactured home parks would be located.

(2) The Crescent Community Council is also recommending adoption of a new pattern of rural development called rural low density/mixed use. Under this development pattern, rural land owners would be able to sell smaller lots in rural areas than is possible at present. This new land development option will allow for the development of affordable lots in rural areas. The plan also encourages the development of accessory housing associated with existing residences. These housing units could either be within an existing house or could be in a separate unit such as a converted garage or other outbuilding.

31.05.100 Housing goals.

(1) Affordable housing opportunities will be available throughout the Straits Planning Region in urban and rural areas. Strategies for supplying affordable housing opportunities will vary in rural and urban areas in order to maintain the character of these areas.

(2) Clallam County should encourage the development of affordable housing opportunities in urban areas. Affordable housing in urban areas will be provided through the following techniques:

(a) Multifamily developments will be encouraged to locate in the urban growth areas where transit access, availability of facilities/utilities and other factors important to multifamily development can be provided.

(b) Manufactured home parks and developments will be encouraged within the urban growth area. Existing manufactured home parks will be encouraged to remain in operation. Home prices within these parks are generally less than stick-built homes on individual sites, due to smaller lot sizes or lot rental practices.

(c) The smaller lot sizes and higher densities allowed within the urban growth area should allow building lots and housing units to be available at prices affordable to many County residents.

(d) Accessory housing will be allowed in all urban and rural zones. Newer mobile homes shall be allowed as accessory housing.

(e) Accessory housing will be allowed above commercial buildings and multifamily dwellings will be permitted to locate behind commercial highway frontages or along back streets in commercially zoned areas.

(f) Existing mobile home parks shall be grandfathered for the original number of lots and setbacks approved when the mobile home park was originally approved by Clallam County.

(3) Affordable housing opportunities should be encouraged in rural areas but will follow rural density and open space guidelines to maintain rural character and limit the development of large urban pockets within the rural area. Affordable housing opportunities in rural areas will be met through the following techniques:

(a) Accessory housing or “granny flats” will be an allowed use. Newer mobile homes shall be allowed as accessory housing.

(b) Under rural low density/mixed use development, homesites smaller than one acre will be approved in rural areas as long as the overall density of the site is not increased over present levels and open space areas (ten (10) acres or larger) are provided as an integral part of the development. These lots of up to one acre in size should sell at prices affordable to many moderate income residents in the County.

(4) The County should place a high priority on the provision of infrastructure to serve high density housing in the unincorporated portion of urban growth areas by working out agreements with urban service providers for sewer and water service to such developments.

(5) Planned unit developments will be encouraged within the urban growth area with incentives provided to supply a percentage of affordable housing in each development.

(6) The County-wide Housing Task Force should set goals for the provision of low cost and special needs housing in the Straits Region. These goals should recognize the needs identified in the Clallam County Needs Assessment Report published in June of 1991 as well as more current data or plans.

(7) Repealed by Ord. 725, 2002.

(8) Infill development in urban growth areas should be encouraged to take place at the maximum densities allowed in order to provide a supply of developable lots at affordable prices.

(9) Clallam County should encourage the housing authority to obtain more Section 8 rental assistance vouchers for the Joyce area.

(10) Clallam County should develop a housing rehabilitation program under the Community Development Block Grant program to aid low-income residents of the Straits Region with home maintenance and repair projects.

(11) Clallam County shall investigate the possibility of reducing housing costs and permit fees through the use of preapproved affordable housing plans.

(12) Clallam County shall continue to foster a people-friendly approach, and shall continue to supply high quality service and advice to all builders and especially in aid of first time owners/builders.

(13) Clallam County should review the fee structure in light of housing affordability.

(14) Clallam County shall continue to allow alternative sanitary disposal systems such as composting systems and alternate energy systems such as solar or wind power. The feasibility of new or alternate building materials and methods and sanitary disposal systems shall be explored by County staff.

(15) Clallam County should examine the feasibility of encouraging the construction of very low and low income housing by a variety of incentives.

31.05.110 Eastern Straits transportation element.

(1) Growth Management Goal (Transportation). Encourage efficient multimodal transportation systems that are based on regional priorities and coordinated with County and city comprehensive plans.

31.05.120 Eastern Straits transportation issues and goals.

The transportation policies in the Crescent area of the Straits Regional Planning area are primarily policies that will set the stage for preserving the rural community and the local circulation patterns as County growth occurs. Highway 112 is the life line for the Joyce-Freshwater Bay community, and needs to be maintained and preserved in such a manner that regional and local traffic can coexist. The Joyce community seeks to be actively involved in any decisions which would reroute traffic from Highway 101 to Highway 112. Salt Creek Recreational Area, Lake Crescent North and East Beach, Freshwater Bay and northwest destinations in the Straits will continue to attract seasonal visitors. Whenever possible, visitors and local residents should have the option to use modes of transportation other than a car to reach these recreational destinations and to reach the Port Angeles urban area. Clallam Transit System and facilities for bicycle travel should provide these options. Many specific policies concerning how to encourage bus ridership and bicycling are found in the County-wide Comprehensive Plan. The Crescent area policies focus on major issues such as rural aesthetics, design standards, access management and active pursuit of federal grant funding for tourist-related transportation facilities.

(1) Preserve and manage access to the regional transportation system.

(a) Maintain access management by limiting or sharing driveway access on SR 112. Shared driveway access should be required inside urban growth areas whenever feasible.

(b) Plan for a Joyce community local road to parallel south of SR 112 that should serve the urban growth area.

(c) Maintain East Beach-Joyce Piedmont Road and Crescent Beach corridors as important secondary and emergency routes for the community. Improve the road condition for bicycle travel.

(2) If a rerouting of Highway 101 traffic from Lake Crescent through Joyce is ever contemplated, the community of Joyce (in the body of the Community Council, its successor or a comparable group created for the purpose) should be made a full party to the deliberations from the outset.

(3) Develop rural design standards which enhance strong rural character and neighborhood identity.

(a) New development adjacent to the road right-of-way should not detract from the aesthetics of the area.

(b) Design a uniform streetscape plan along SR 112 within the UGA. The plan should be implemented with new development or other State and federal funding sources.

(4) Plan for transportation improvements that emphasize the tourism potential of the community and region.

(a) Coordinate the inclusion of the “Crescent Grange” roadside park in the WSDOT Rest Area Plan. Seek federal funds for public restroom facilities.

(b) Explore development possibilities of a transit site with ISTEA enhancement funds. Design consideration for the site should include, but are not limited to, bicycle storage lockers, bus waiting area, historical interpretive exhibit, or other eligible transportation enhancement activities.

(c) Extend the Olympic Discovery Trail from the base of Ediz Hook through the SR 112 corridor.

(d) Encourage Clallam Transit System to extend Route #10 to supply summer service to the Salt Creek Recreation Area.

(e) Maintain year-round road accessibility to the Freshwater Bay boat launch.

(5) Encourage alternate modes of transportation other than the single occupant vehicle (SOV).

(a) Construct pedestrian facilities along SR 112 within the Joyce UGA.

(b) Encourage the development of SR 112 park-n-ride lots on Department of Transportation property or shared with another public facility, such as the Joyce Bible Church and Foursquare Church. Provide bus shelters and bicycle storage units at these locations.

(c) Develop parking lot standards that reduce the amount of required car spaces and encourage walking, bicycling and transit ridership. Encourage permeable surfaces for parking lots to reduce drainage runoff.

(d) Clallam County should encourage Clallam Transit to implement weekday midmorning and mid-evening transit runs to serve the Joyce area.

(e) Clallam County should encourage the development of safe bicycle shoulders along Highway 112.

31.05.130 Western Straits transportation element.

(1) Growth Management Goal (Transportation). Encourage efficient multimodal transportation systems that are based on regional priorities and coordinated with County and city comprehensive plans.

31.05.140 Western Straits transportation issues and goals.

Clallam Bay-Sekiu has many unique transportation issues for a rural community stemming from land use, environmental conditions, geographic location, and historical economic development as a fish and lumber community. The following set of goals and policies outlines the priorities of the community to preserve and maintain State Highways SR 112 and SR 113, the life lines of the region, and to build a more attractive destination community. The Coastal Corridor Master Plan, a federal transportation plan emphasizing tourism and economic development, may not include communities on SR 112 with the same detailed planning objectives as SR 101. Therefore, the policies in the Straits sub-regional plan prepare the foundation to which federal funding may occur based on local objectives. Other general transportation issues should be referred to the County-wide goals and policies. The major issues in this Plan are regional highway preservation, access management, encouraging bicycle, pedestrian and bus travel, and developing streetscape design standards.

(1) Preserve and manage access to the regional transportation system.

(a) Encourage use of shared driveway access for commercial uses within the Clallam Bay-Sekiu urban growth area in order to maintain efficient traffic flow on SR112 and other urban roads.

(b) Improvements to Highway 112 between Clallam Bay and Sekiu shall include development of a pedestrian/bike pathway near the right-of-way to serve bicyclists and pedestrians.

Figure
– Proposed Pedestrian/Bikeway Path Linking Clallam Bay and Sekiu

(c) Maintain the transportation corridor of SR 112 as an important primary route to the Straits communities and as a Coastal Corridor Route of cultural, scenic, and economic significance.

(d) Improve SR 112 highway maintenance to be consistent with WSDOT System Plan service standards. Preservation and maintenance of existing facilities should come before highway expansion.

(2) Develop rural design standards which enhance strong rural character and neighborhood identity.

(a) Design a uniform streetscape plan which defines the highway and plants trees along SR 112 within the Clallam Bay – Sekiu urban growth area. The plan should be implemented with new development or other State and federal funding sources.

(3) Plan for transportation improvements that emphasize the tourism potential of the community and region.

(a) Coordinate the inclusion of the Clallam Bay County roadside park in the WSDOT Rest Area Plan. Enhance the park’s visibility and services for travelers.

(b) Maintain road accessibility to the Marine Sanctuary and the Makah Indian Cultural Center in the peak tourist season.

(c) Plan for Clallam Bay-Sekiu street improvements that would include a public festival seating area and appropriate parking areas.

(d) Plan for a permanent marina at Sekiu. Relieve the impacts to the roads by allowing accessibility year-round.

(e) Examine the feasibility of developing a one-way loop through the community of Sekiu to allow for better traffic circulation, relieve traffic congestion and allow space for pedestrian amenities. Careful consideration of boat off-loading should be a major component of the study.

Figure
– Amenity Possibilities and Improved Access in Sekiu
if a One-Way Loop were Developed

(f) Seek ISTEA transportation enhancement funds for landscaping, pedestrian/bicycle improvements and cultural and historic preservation.

(g) Examine the feasibility of developing a loop road connecting Neah Bay to LaPush which would increase access to marine shorelines.

(4) Encourage alternate modes of transportation other than the single occupant vehicle (SOV).

(a) Construct pedestrian facilities along SR 112 within the Clallam Bay-Sekiu UGA.

(b) Encourage the development of SR 112 transit facilities and programs such as bus shelters and bicycle storage units at bus stops.

(c) Develop parking lot standards that reduce the amount of required car spaces and encourage walking, bicycling and transit ridership. Encourage permeable surfaces for parking lots to reduce drainage runoff.

31.05.150 Public facilities and service element.

(1) Growth Management Goal (Public Facilities and Services). Ensure that those public facilities and services necessary to support development shall be adequate to serve the development at the time the development is available for occupancy and use without decreasing current service levels below locally established minimum standards.

31.05.160 Public facilities and service issues and goals.

(1) Domestic Water Systems.

(a) [Goal No. 1] Crescent water should supply the water needs of the Joyce urban growth area. Public utility district water or other suitable community water system(s) should supply the water needs of the Clallam Bay-Sekiu urban growth area.

(b) [Goal No. 2] Crescent Water system serves most of the rural area in the Crescent School District. Where densities of less than one dwelling per five acres are prevalent, individual wells should be utilized but public water should not be denied if community water systems are willing to provide service. The presence of public water shall not be justification for higher densities than those anticipated in the regional plan.

(2) Sanitary Waste Disposal.

(a) [Goal No. 3] The public utility district or other private providers should be encouraged to construct community septic systems within the Joyce urban growth area.

(b) [Goal No. 4] Small-scale, single development, community septic options should also be encouraged in areas with rural character conservation, rural low density/mixed use and commercial forest/residential mixed use designations to allow cost effective waste disposal options to be utilized.

(c) [Goal No. 5] Clallam County shall continue to allow alternate septic disposal systems, and research alternate economically feasible systems.

(3) Schools. [Goal No. 6] Public school facilities should be located within the Joyce urban growth area where adequate transportation and public services can be provided.

(4) Parks and Recreation. [Goal No. 7] Identify and provide for increased waterfront access opportunities.

(a) Encourage further development of saltwater access points for recreation, trails, boating and passive uses. Seek easement rights through purchase or other means to allow the public to utilize beachfront for trail and recreational uses.

(b) Clallam County should make it a priority to purchase the rights to access and cross shorelines from willing sellers.

(5) Fire and Emergency Protection Services. [Goal No. 8] Clallam County Fire Protection Districts Number 2, 4, and 5 shall provide fire protection and emergency services within the designated boundaries of the Straits Planning Region.

31.05.170 Land use element.

(1) Growth Management Goals.

(a) Urban Growth. Encourage development in urban areas where adequate public facilities and services exist or can be provided in an efficient manner.

(b) Reduce Sprawl. Reduce the inappropriate conversion of undeveloped land into sprawling, low density development.

(c) Natural Resource Industries. Maintain and enhance natural resource-based industries, including productive timber, agricultural, and fisheries industries. Encourage the conservation of productive forest lands and productive agricultural lands.

(d) Open Space and Recreation. Encourage the retention of open space and development of recreational opportunities, conserve fish and wildlife habitat, increase access to natural resource lands and water, and develop parks. Expand and enhance multi-use trail opportunities. Using forest service roads and easements for trails through private timber companies will maximize the use of land for recreation and timber harvest.

(e) Environment. Protect the environment and enhance the State’s high quality of life, including air and water quality, and the availability of water.

(f) Property Rights. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation having been made.

(2) Existing Conditions and Purpose. The 1990 Census recorded 5,473 people living in the Straits regional planning area. Of this total, 2,507 live in the eastern half of the Straits Region and 2,966 people live in the western half of the Straits Region. Of the 2,966 people in the west end, approximately 650 live in Clallam Bay/Sekiu and 916 live in the Neah Bay area.

Steady growth is predicted for the Clallam Bay/Sekiu/Neah Bay and Crescent/Joyce areas. These areas experienced an annual growth rate of 0.93 percent and 2.2 percent, respectively, between 1980 and 1990. Population projections for the western portion of the Straits regional planning area show an increase of 650 people by the year 2010. Of this total increase, approximately 266 people are expected to locate within the Clallam Bay/Sekiu urban growth area. The urban growth projection has factored in the recent expansion in staffing for the Clallam Bay Correction Center and planned for an additional expansion in the locally based staffing for this facility within the 1994-2010 planning time frame. An additional 1,350 people are expected to locate in the Crescent/Joyce area in the next 20 years.

The Straits Planning Region is characterized by a preponderance of commercial forest lands interspersed by small urban communities and rural lands. The communities of Clallam Bay, Sekiu, Joyce and Neah Bay provide the major urban services for the region. Small-scale commercial and tourist resort areas are located along and near SR 112. The majority of rural development is located within the eastern portion of the planning area. Rural areas on the west end of the area are located near Clallam Bay/Sekiu and isolated locations west of Clallam Bay on State Route 112 and the Hoko-Ozette Road. Tables 1 and 2 summarize the proposed land use acreages in each designation and the densities which would occur at full development of these areas.

Table 1
 
Acres in Each Western Straits Comprehensive Plan Designation and Density at Build-out

Land Use Designation

Acres

Density at Build-out

Urban Center

372 acres – 60 acres of critical areas = 312 acres

1,248 homes/2,995 people

Urban Residential

659 acres – 178 acres of critical areas = 481 acres

1,924 homes/4,618 people

Rural Suburban Community

219

438 homes/1,051 people

Rural Neighborhood Conservation

602

120 homes/289 people

Rural Low

2,036

407 homes/977 people

Rural Very Low

1,413

71 homes/170 people

Rural Neighborhood Commercial

68

Industrial

275

Commercial Forest

192,637

Public (County and State Parks)

582

Table 2
 
Acres in Each Eastern Straits Comprehensive Plan Designation and Density at Build-out

Land Use Designation

Acres

Density at Build-out

Urban Center

247

800 homes/1,920 people

Urban Residential

90

360 homes/864 people

Rural Neighborhood Conservation

508

101 homes/243 people

Rural Low

2,773

555 homes/1,332 people

Rural Very Low

233

12 homes/28 people

Rural Low/Mixed

6,923

2,885 homes/6,924 people

Rural Character Conservation (5)

424

85 homes/203 people

Commercial Forest/Mixed Use (5)

1,463

293 homes/703 people

Commercial Forest Mixed Use (20)

610

30 homes/72 people

Commercial Forest

52,371

Rural Neighborhood Commercial

302

604 homes/1,450 people

Public (County and State Parks)

213

Much of the growth within these areas occurred outside of the communities of Clallam Bay/Sekiu and Joyce. This trend has the long-term potential of diminishing the “rural character” of the region. Reversing this trend requires providing incentives to encourage and attract development in urban areas where growth can be serviced more efficiently.

The land use element of the Straits Regional Plan builds upon the existing County-wide Comprehensive Plan. The County-Wide Comprehensive Plan identifies three general land use patterns for the planning area: urban, rural and commercial forest lands. The following sections identify a vision for each of these three general types of land use which details the progress and appearance that the Community Councils would like to see in the community by the year 2010. Goals and policies aimed at achieving the vision statement form the body of the Straits Regional Comprehensive Plan and will guide land use decisions made in this area over the next 20 years.

31.05.180 Urban growth areas – A vision for the Clallam Bay-Sekiu and Joyce urban growth areas.

We envision that the communities of Clallam Bay, Sekiu and Joyce have retained their small-town character by concentrating commercial development into compact commercial centers located at Clallam Bay, Sekiu, at Midpoint and in the central portion of the Joyce urban growth area. These commercial centers are separated or surrounded by areas of compact urban density development which provide convenient access for local residents to commercial conveniences and avoids the strip commercial blight which impacts many urban areas. The commercial core areas of Clallam Bay and Sekiu express the coastal village design guidelines first articulated by their Community Council. The commercial core of Joyce retains a small-town atmosphere and compatibility with historic buildings as articulated by its Community Council. Tree-lined streets and pedestrian-friendly village centers welcome local residents and tourists alike to stop and spend some time browsing through the locally produced merchandise or dining at the local cafes. A new roadside park in the center of Joyce, the redesigned County Park in downtown Clallam Bay and the Sekiu waterfront are favored locations for many community organized events held throughout the warmer months which attract many visitors to these urban areas. The village center in Clallam Bay also has seen many improvements with an upgrading of visual appearance, the provision of a community stage for events, improvements to pedestrian amenities and integration of the County park into the village center. A boardwalk constructed along the shoreline in Sekiu and extending around the marina is a major regional attraction. Hotels and urban businesses have upgraded their facilities focusing efforts on conversion of the facilities from accommodations for fishermen into the eventual development of a high-quality destination resort community. The fishing industry has rebounded in the last 10 years and Clallam Bay and Sekiu have diversified their tourism base by promoting recreational events such as diving, windsurfing, mountain biking and low-cost urban getaway packages.

The town of Joyce has capitalized on its central location to host several trail events. Mountain biking enthusiasts enjoy the trail system on close-by Department of Natural Resources land; equestrian events make use of access to the Olympic Discovery Trail and connecting links to the Mt. Mueller trail system; and day hiking and backpacking in the nearby Olympic National Park and Sadie Creek Trail system remain popular destinations. Newly developed off-road motorized and non-motorized trails from Sekiu to Cowan Ranch State Park are well-used. Providing support for these users benefits the Joyce economic base.

Well-designed and landscaped manufactured home parks and multifamily developments provide an attractive low cost living environment in the urban area. Public access to Clallam Bay has been enhanced by redesigning the County Park to face downtown Clallam Bay. Clallam Bay and Sekiu are linked to the larger urban areas by an efficient local transit system and provisions are made for non-motorized transportation between the towns through development of a bikeway corridor along Highway 112. Watershed and stream restoration grants have been used to employ local residents and restore valuable fish and wildlife habitat.

The urban areas of Clallam Bay, Sekiu, and Joyce provide a mixture of employment, residential, commercial, cultural and recreational opportunities. Employment and prison-related facilities and industries continue to expand at the Clallam Bay Corrections Center. Much of the new urban type development that occurred after 1994 took place within the existing urban centers where infrastructure was in place or could be easily extended. The PUD and the County provide services within the Clallam Bay-Sekiu urban growth area while Crescent Water provides service within the Joyce urban area.

31.05.190 Urban growth area issues.

(1) The Growth Management Act requires the designation of urban growth areas, within which growth will be encouraged and outside of which growth can occur only if it is not urban in nature. The Act defines urban growth as growth that makes intensive use of land for the location of buildings, structures, and impermeable surfaces to such a degree as to be incompatible with the primary use of such land for the production of food, other agricultural products, or fiber, or the extraction of mineral resources. When allowed to spread over wide areas, urban growth typically requires urban governmental services.

(2) Urban lands are the location of primary economic activities such as retail, wholesale, professional offices and industry. Commercial and industrial uses often encourage other urban development around it, and increase the need for extension or improvement of public services and facilities. Therefore, those types of commercial and industrial uses should generally be allowed only in urban growth areas.

(3) The communities of Joyce, Clallam Bay, Sekiu and Neah Bay are the major providers of urban services in the Straits Planning Region. Interim urban growth areas were established for Joyce and the Clallam Bay-Sekiu area in October of 1993. Neah Bay was not designated a UGA, because it is not under the jurisdiction of Clallam County. Other areas of commercial and high density residential growth characteristic of urban areas were not designated urban growth areas due to their small size, limited potential for expansion, and availability of land within designated urban growth areas to support the 20-year growth of the Straits Planning Region.

(4) The current Clallam County Comprehensive Plan and County-wide Planning Policies both work towards conserving rural and resource lands and providing efficient use of public resources through encouraging development within urban growth areas. County-wide Planning Policies coordinate planning efforts between the incorporated and unincorporated portions of the County. These policies provide the following guidance for designating and implementing urban growth areas:

(a) Urban growth areas should be established to avoid critical areas and designated resource lands. Where critical areas occur within the designated UGA, policies and regulations will be developed to ensure protection of such areas. (Landslide hazard areas exist between Clallam Bay and Sekiu. These areas should be designated as critical areas and building sites will be reviewed by a qualified engineer at the time of permit application.)

(b) Urban growth area designations shall consider the linkage with open space corridors within and between urban growth areas as required by the Growth Management Act.

(c) Urban services to be provided within UGAs should include, at a minimum, provision for sanitary waste, solid waste disposal systems, water systems, urban roads and pedestrian facilities, transit systems, stormwater systems, police and fire and emergency services systems, electrical and communication systems, school and health care facilities, and neighborhood and/or community parks.

(d) Urban services/facilities required to meet the needs of new development shall be provided, or shall be planned to be available within six years, to meet the levels of services established for such services within each UGA.

(e) Establish appropriate techniques for managing future growth consistent with the designation of urban growth areas, such as a minimum density within the UGA and a maximum density outside the UGA. A range of densities should be provided for lands within the UGA, including some lands for relatively low density single-family development and some lands at a range of densities both allowing and encouraging multifamily development.

(f) Urban growth area designations shall consider the need for future expansion of urban growth areas beyond the projected 20-year period required by the Growth Management Act. Special density considerations shall be given at the edge of urban growth areas, if determined necessary based on a land use analysis, so that future extension of urban growth areas and urban services allows conversion to more efficient urban patterns. Special density considerations could include reduced densities or cluster development options.

31.05.200 Straits Region urban growth area goals and policies (general).

(1) Urban areas should provide for a balance between commercial growth, employment centers and residential development that ensures livability, preservation of environmental quality, open spaces, variety of housing, provision for high quality basic services at least cost, and orderly transitions between land uses within urban areas.

(2) Commercial, industrial and high density residential development make intensive use of land and should be located in urban areas where sewer and water facilities are already located or can be easily extended.

Except where commercial, tourist commercial, industrial and high density residential land uses are already well-established in rural areas or where resource-based industries locate within resource lands, all commercial, industrial and high density residential land use should be located inside urban growth areas where sewer and water are present or can be extended.

(3) In order to provide stability and predictability to where urban growth and services will occur, urban growth area boundaries should not be amended within the next 10-year period except in the cases of a new prison site, major prison expansion, or new major industry being approved in the immediate vicinity of the Clallam Bay and Sekiu urban growth area. The urban growth boundary would then be re-evaluated to determine if enough land for the facility were already located within the urban growth area as well as commercial and residential lands available to support the new facility and its employees.

31.05.210 Clallam Bay/Sekiu urban growth area policies and goals.

(1) Physical Boundary Considerations. [Goal No. 1] The Clallam Bay-Sekiu Urban Growth Area (UGA) should be the major provider of urban services for the western portion of the Straits Planning Region. The Interim Urban Growth Boundary adopted by the Clallam County Board of County Commissioners in October, 1993 should remain in place except for the following changes: (i) include the mobile home subdivision south of Snob Hill on Highway 112, and (ii) exclude landslide hazard areas on the bluffs north of Sekiu.

(2) Urban Growth Area Land Uses. [Goal No. 2] Residential, commercial and industrial land uses should be designated within the Clallam Bay-Sekiu urban growth area as a desirable means of preventing incompatible adjacent land uses. All new residential development within the urban growth area should be at urban densities or have the capability of being converted to urban densities.

(a) Designate areas currently characterized by a mix of commercial, residential, and other uses as urban center lands. These areas should include the Clallam Bay, Sekiu, and Middle Point business districts.

(b) Urban center lands should allow a mix of residential, commercial, and light industrial land uses that are compatible with the small town character of Clallam Bay-Sekiu.

(c) Lands adjacent to the Clallam Bay, Sekiu, and Middle Point business districts should be designated as urban residential lands.

(d) High density, multifamily development and mobile home parks should be located within the Clallam Bay/Sekiu urban growth area. Multifamily and mobile home park developments should provide landscaping/buffering.

(e) The residential parcel size for newly created lots within the urban growth area shall be either less than 22,000 square feet or larger than 10 acres in order to encourage urban densities and the possibility of urban density redevelopment within the urban growth area.

(f) Urban growth area lands adjacent to the Clallam Bay Corrections Center should be designated for industrial land use.

(g) That portion of the Clallam River flowing through the urban growth area should have an urban shoreline designation to allow reasonable setbacks to be established in the urban area bordering the river.

(h) Minimum lot sizes in the Clallam Bay/Sekiu urban growth area shall be: 7,000 square feet for single-family dwellings; 9,000 square feet for two-family structures; 14,000 square feet for three-family structures; 18,000 square feet for four-family structures; 19,500 square feet for five or more dwelling units, plus 1,000 square feet for each dwelling unit which exceeds five units; and 5,000 square feet for RV park lot units.

(3) Joint Planning with the Clallam Bay-Sekiu Community Council.

(a) [Goal No. 3] The compact commercial centers of Clallam Bay and Sekiu provide many desirable features which should be retained and improved upon through this planning period (1994 – 2014). These features include commercial cores with a walkable radius for visitors and residents, a business core with complementary uses in close association, and the flexibility of a mix of residential, commercial and light industrial in the core area.

(i) Clallam County should provide support to the Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council in developing a plan for a commercial core improvement district. The plan should encourage development of aesthetically pleasing downtown commercial core areas in each community to attract local residents, tourists and new business development. Components of the plan should include streetscape improvements, landscaping for existing businesses, business facade improvements, waterfront view corridors, water accessibility through boardwalk and trails, pedestrian access, re-development of the County park, building design guidelines and landscaping standards for new businesses. A series of conceptual drawings (Chris Nolan, 1993) illustrate many of the landscaping and design features which will be considered in the formulation of guidelines for the commercial core improvement district.

(ii) Clallam County should work together with the Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council to obtain funding through a variety of sources including grants and prison impact fees to finance formal implementation of the commercial core improvement district plan and to finance needed community facilities (e.g., recreation facilities, visitor information center).

(iii) The Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council should provide local review and recommendations for conformance of new business development with the commercial core improvement district plan to the Board of Clallam County Commissioners prior to the issuance of commercial or industrial building permits.

(b) Goal 4. Redesign the existing County Park in Clallam Bay to serve as a village green where community events can take place with dramatic views of Clallam Bay from the business district. Improvements should provide green spaces that front on the highway and encourage travelers to stop and enjoy the community. Bicycle trails should be provided and signed for access to local businesses and services. Shared parking agreements with adjacent businesses may be needed to allow portions of the existing lot to be converted to green spaces fronting on the highway.

(i) Clallam County should work together with the Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council to obtain funding through a variety of sources including grants and prison impact fees to finance redevelopment of the park. Proposed improvements should be subject to local review and recommendations of the Clallam Bay and Sekiu Community Council and should be coordinated with the commercial core improvement district plan.

(ii) Directional signing and visibility of the County Park should be improved to attract visitors. Informational kiosks should be constructed to explain the economic, forest management and natural history of the Clallam Bay and Sekiu areas and provide visitor information on local attractions, lodging, services, and events.

(4) Public Facility Considerations.

(a) [Goal No. 5] All new development in the Clallam Bay and Sekiu urban growth area shall be required to hook up to PUD or other public water systems and to the Clallam Bay and Sekiu sewage systems.

(b) [Goal No. 6] Urban services to be provided within the Clallam Bay and Sekiu urban growth area should include sewer systems, solid waste disposal systems, water systems, urban roads and pedestrian facilities, transit systems, stormwater systems, police and fire and emergency services systems, electrical and communication systems, school and health care facilities, and neighborhood/community parks.

(c) [Goal No. 7] Should expansion of the Clallam Bay Correctional Facility take place, it shall be encouraged within or adjacent to the urban growth area.

(5) Resource Lands Considerations. [Goal No. 8] State forestlands designated for long-term commercial forestry were included in the urban growth area in order to allow for growth and to provide a logical connection between the community and the Correction Center. Commercial forestry management of these lands should be allowed to continue as a preferred land use until nonforestry uses consistent with the land use policies of this section are proposed.

(6) Open Space and Environment Considerations.

(a) [Goal No. 9] The Clallam Bay-Sekiu urban growth area includes marine shorelines, the Clallam River and other smaller drainages, classified unstable bluffs near Midpoint and elsewhere, wetlands, and associated marine and terrestrial fish and wildlife. Many of the forested areas along shoreline bluffs are designated as priority habitat for bald eagles which are State and federally listed as threatened species. The area also provides important habitat as part of migration routes for salmon, waterfowl, raptors, and other species – several of which are listed as State and federal species of concern. Development of the urban growth area should mitigate impacts to these areas to ensure that the functions that such areas provide are retained and that human safety, property, and public resources are protected.

Clallam County and the Community Council should work with property owners to obtain grant funding or other monies in order to purchase the development rights from willing sellers to the landslide hazard areas located between Clallam Bay and Sekiu in order to more fully protect these critical areas from slides which could block roads or damage property.

(b) [Goal No. 10] Public park lands along the Clallam Bay waterfront should be designated as open space/public lands.

(c) [Goal No. 11] Clallam County should work with the Washington Department of Wildlife to develop an advanced Bald Eagle Management Plan for designated priority bald eagle habitat in the vicinity of Clallam Bay/Sekiu Urban Growth Area.

31.05.220 Joyce urban growth area policies and goals.

(1) The compact commercial center of Joyce provides many desirable features which should be retained and improved upon through this planning period (1994 – 2014). These features include a commercial core with a walkable radius for visitors and residents, a business core with complementary uses in close association, and the flexibility of a mix of residential, commercial and light industrial in the core area.

(a) The urban center zoning (formerly rural center) which allows a free mix of commercial, residential and light industrial land uses should be retained in the core area of Joyce. Only that portion of the Joyce urban growth area identified in urban residential and public land uses on the comprehensive plan maps is outside the core area. The core area extends along Highway 112 one-half mile to the west of the Joyce Museum and ends at Miller Road just over seven-tenths of a mile east of the Joyce Museum. The extent of urban center zoning should be maintained through the planning period (1994 – 2014) or until 80 percent of the land is fully utilized in commercial, industrial and high density residential (one-half acre lots or smaller) land use.

(b) The Joyce Community Council should develop an advisory plan for Highway 112 streetscape, landscape and building design guidelines to encourage the development of a healthy and aesthetically pleasing downtown commercial core area.

(2) Grant funding and land donations should be sought for development of a roadside park within the core commercial area of Joyce. Development of a roadside park would provide a focus area for community activities and events. It would also serve to encourage the traveling public to stop and shop in the business district. Information kiosks could direct visitors to local attractions and advertise local events.

(3) Urban Center land use designations (formerly rural center) should allow a mix of land uses which provide limited goods and services needed by residents of the surrounding area and land uses which are compatible with the rural character of Joyce.

The urban center land use designation and zoning should allow for a variety of residential, commercial, and light industrial uses consistent with the current zoning for rural centers except as follows: (a) the types of permitted retail and wholesale uses should be small-scale operations which are compatible with the generally rural character of Joyce such as: general mercantile stores, grocery stores, gas stations, mini-marts, art and crafts stores, antique stores, lumber yards and hardware stores, feed stores, tack shops, nurseries and greenhouses, beauty/barber shops, day-care centers, liquor stores, laundromats, car washes, small professional offices (such as for lawyers or chiropractors), food service establishments, and taverns; (b) bed and breakfast inns should be permitted uses in the urban growth area; (c) special uses should include recreational vehicle parks, vehicular repair, and storage facilities, which uses should have special standards requiring off-Highway 112 location or heavy screening from the highway; (d) light industrial locations should not front directly on Highway 112; and (e) kennels, mineral extraction and mineral processing, car wrecking yards and metal recycling should not be allowed within the urban growth area.

(4) That portion of the Joyce urban growth area outside of the commercial core area should allow for high density residential development with a minimum of nonresidential land use in order to encourage high quality residential development.

That portion of the Joyce urban growth area which is outside of the commercial core area and not public land should be redesignated as urban residential land use and rezoned to urban residential zoning.

(5) Multifamily housing and manufactured home development should be located within or near commercial core area of Joyce in order to provide efficient access to the transit system and to serve as a transitional area between highway commercial development and lower density residential development.

(6) The maximum parcel size for newly created residential lots within the urban growth area shall be 22,000 square feet in order to encourage urban densities within the urban growth area.

(7) Clallam County will work with the Joyce Community Council, PUD, and/or private entity to identify community septic disposal options for the Joyce urban growth area in order to foster urban density growth. Should a community drainfield be developed it should be managed by a public entity such as the PUD.

(8) Public or private urban services provided within the Joyce urban growth area should include provisions for sanitary waste, solid waste community disposal systems, water systems, urban roads, pedestrian/bicycle pathways and facilities; transit, storm water systems; police, fire, and emergency services; electricity and communications, school and health care facilities, and neighborhood and/or community parks.

(9) Clallam County and the Joyce Community Council will work with local property owners to obtain grant funding to purchase high quality wetlands on the inside periphery of the urban growth area in order to provide open space and greenbelts within the urban growth area.

(10) The urban growth area for Joyce is larger than can be justified by the population within its boundaries. Joyce does provide regional services for a much larger regional population. Due to the large size of the urban growth area, no additions to this area should be considered within the planning period unless more than eighty (80) percent of the area becomes occupied by commercial, industrial and high density residential development. Should it become necessary to expand the core area, the area to the south of the commercial core should be examined for future growth.

(11) Commercial forest resource lands found in close proximity to Joyce are very important to the rural character of the urban growth area and should be retained in commercial forest use.

31.05.230 Rural element for the Eastern Straits region.

(1) A Vision for Rural Lands in the Eastern Straits Regional Planning Area. We envision the rural lands in the Straits planning area as a scenic patchwork of large open fields and woodlots interspersed with rural homesteads and serviced by neighborhood/tourist commercial clusters. Neighborhood/tourist commercial clusters are located at their present positions along the highway and have blended into the rural environment through the application of landscaping standards and rural design guidelines which emphasize the preservation of rural views. Recreational uses which promote open space values are encouraged to locate in rural areas along major highways to improve scenic vistas and buffer residential uses. Overly rigid development patterns which saw large areas of land divided up into uniform lot sizes with no provisions for intervening larger lot sizes or open space have largely been replaced by a more natural rural low density/mixed use development pattern in rural lands. This Comprehensive Plan designation encourages land owners to create a variety of lot sizes ranging from one-half acre residential lots to forty (40) acre woodlots and pastures. Allowing for a variety of lot sizes without increasing existing densities allows farmsteads, woodlots and affordable housing options to coexist in the same general area providing much more choice, affordability and variety than that which existed under uniform development patterns. The County’s strategy for preserving rural character has focused on preserving productive rural open spaces, maintaining a diversity of lot sizes, allowing rural growth to occur on smaller lots without increasing current densities and concentrating rural commercial enterprises at existing locations along highways.

A clear boundary exists between rural and urban areas. Average density in the rural areas is less than one home per five (5) acres. Rural low density/mixed use and rural character conservation land use designations have been established in the rural areas which has allowed rural character to be preserved far into the future rather than allowing it to gradually degrade with development, as was occurring prior to adoption of the new Comprehensive Plan in 1994. Several preexisting urban density developments are found within the rural area. Infill development within these suburban pockets is encouraged. Many of the agricultural and open space resource lands have been permanently protected through purchase of development rights, rural low density/mixed use open space agreements and conservation easements. Forest resource lands, farms and important open space resource lands first identified in 1992 and 1993 remain in resource use.

Critical areas in the rural portion of the County are protected and environmental enhancement projects have restored many acres of wetlands and miles of steams to salmon runs. Both the Comprehensive Plan and its implementing ordinances recognize the need to allow natural systems to be the key determinant of planning and land use activity. Incentive-based programs and ordinances seek to link, protect and enhance natural systems through appropriate zoning, conservation easements, covenants or other innovative means. Structures, roads and utility systems are placed in such a way as to minimize the alteration of the landscape and to preserve the operation of the natural systems and wildlife corridors. Water is clean and abundant due to conservation efforts. Careful stewardship has ensured the conservation of our land, air, water and energy resources for future generations and has enhanced present day property values and public safety.

(2) Rural Land Use Issues. The Growth Management Act defines rural lands by identifying them as the areas which are not urban growth areas and are not identified for long term commercial production of agriculture, forest, and mineral resources. The intent of the Growth Management Act is that “rural lands” and what constitutes “rural character” are to be defined at the local level. Sprawling, estate-type lots, which are too small for woodlots or small-scale agricultural uses are to be discouraged in rural areas.

It has been maintained by land use researchers in Washington that, “A new rural sprawl is consuming large amounts of land, splitting wide open spaces into fragments that are useless for agriculture, wildlife habitat, or other rural open space purposes.” Since the Growth Management Act requires the control of sprawl, this term must be defined. Sprawl development has the following characteristics:

(a) Sprawl development lacks the density needed to provide efficient urban services but is too dense to be considered rural;

(b) Sprawl is the ever outward extension of commercial development along main highways or arterials also known as “strip commercial development;”

(c) Sprawl blurs the distinction between urban and rural environments;

(d) Sprawl is a density of rural development which creates conflicts between agriculture, forest resource or mining operations and residential uses;

(e) Sprawl will occur from the application of uniform lot sizes at densities greater than one home per five (5) acres over large areas as is the case under conventional zoning.

The Clallam County County-wide Planning Policies provide guidance to the densities which are not rural in character. These policies identify a density of one unit per acre as urban/suburban indicating that one acre per home densities without offsetting provision of open space would not be considered as “rural” in character. Several locally conducted visual preference surveys, questionnaires and comments at various public meetings indicate that many local residents think of rural lands as areas exhibiting low residential densities (one home per five (5) acres or less) that provide a mixture of rural land uses. Local residents indicate that rural land uses include farms, woodlots, and natural open spaces which are clearly distinguished from urban/suburban areas that are characterized by uniform lot sizes, lack of open areas and higher densities. The County-wide Planning Policies also indicate that maximum densities should be set for areas outside of urban growth areas, provide that the County’s Comprehensive Plan shall permit only those land uses that are compatible with the rural character of such lands and that the rural element provide for a variety of rural densities and development patterns, including the use of cluster housing concepts to encourage conservation of open space and resource lands. Lastly, the County-wide Planning Policies suggest that rural areas abutting urban growth areas should provide for reduced densities or cluster development options in order to allow for future expansion of urban areas.

The Straits Region current “rural character” is characterized large open spaces, small communities and pockets of concentrated residential development along the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Residential communities are separated by large contiguous areas of forest resource lands and a highly mixed rural development pattern of diverse lot sizes and land uses. “Rural character” consists not only of the visual appeal of farms, woodlots and homes but also encompasses people, their culture, traditional uses of natural resources and private property. Most people in the Eastern Straits Region live on parcels of five (5) or more acres in size and many directly or indirectly derive their income from timber, fishing, tourism and other industries that utilize natural resources. Many of those that commute to other areas for employment use their property for woodlots or small farming activities. The common threads that bind the community are a close attachment to the land and water, a commitment to good stewardship of resources, and a belief in self sufficiency and self determination.

The vision statement for rural lands in the Straits Region establishes the twenty (20) year vision for retaining rural character. Drawing from the vision statement “rural character” is defined as a scenic patchwork of large open fields and woodlots interspersed with rural homesteads and serviced by neighborhood/tourist commercial clusters at existing locations. Density is less than one home per five (5) acres and uniform lot sizes developed over large areas are not encouraged. Rural character conservation and rural low density/mixed use designations would be established to ensure that rural lot sizes of five (5) acres or larger are interspersed throughout the rural area and that rural character could be maintained far into the future.

(3) Current Trends. Achieving the goals of the State Legislature contained in the Growth Management Act will require many changes to current County policies and regulations. Current policies, regulations and market structure encourage people to locate in rural areas while at the same time allowing development to occur in patterns which diminish the very character of the area that caused people to move there in the first place. Many studies document the trend of recent development practices to divide the landscape into uniform residential lots at densities in between traditional urban and rural densities leading to what the legislature defined as sprawl. This is certainly the case in Clallam County where the landscape is rapidly being divided into one acre, 2.4 acre, and five (5) acre lot sizes. These individual lots contain some private open area but with no significant open areas between development. Land use studies show that there are already many vacant parcels in these size ranges which could meet much of the land demand need for this type of lot size over the next twenty (20) years.

During the past ten (10) years, the unincorporated or rural areas of the Straits Region have experienced most of the decade’s growth. It appears that many people moving to this County are looking for a rural lifestyle and do not see much advantage to choosing to live in urban areas. These rural growth trends and the pattern in which they are occurring do not satisfy growth management objectives of reducing rural sprawl or encouraging development in urban areas where adequate public facilities/services can be provided in an efficient manner. Without change, rural areas will continue to experience intense development pressures and a rapid decrease in rural quality of life.

(4) Why Keep Rural Areas Rural? There are many reasons for maintaining rural character in rural areas. Preservation of rural character has been a strong concern for residents of the Straits Region as evidenced by survey results. Some additional rationale is provided below:

(a) The designation of urban and rural areas allows efficient provision of public services and facilities when most growth is directed to compact urban centers. Studies have shown that the average annual cost to maintain services for developed land was thousands of dollars per acre more than maintaining services to productive forest lands and agricultural open spaces.

(b) Rural areas have traditionally offered a retreat from the bustle of urban life and offer additional choices of living environments for residents.

(c) The presence of rural lands is attractive to residents and visitors. If rural character is diminished, new residents and visitors could choose to locate or spend their time and money in areas that have retained their scenic areas.

(d) Rural areas bordering cities provide for the logical, planned future expansion of urban areas.

(e) Rural areas adjacent to urban centers are susceptible to sprawl which can quickly overwhelm community character, County budgets and way of life.

(f) Urban and resource areas are dependent upon each other, but tend to be uneasy neighbors. Rural areas can buffer urban and resource or natural areas from each other, so that each area can function without interference from the other.

(g) Rural areas, although not designated for long-term commercially significant timber and agricultural resource use, are also appropriate areas for resource operations.

(h) Small-scale farms can thrive in rural areas near urban centers. Intensive farming can be workable on acreage as small as ten (10) to twenty (20) acres.

(5) Controlling Sprawl. If sprawl is to be controlled, then urban growth should be encouraged in urban areas and should not be encouraged in rural areas. Further application of current development patterns over large rural areas will not result in retention of rural character. Fully developed areas of one acre, 2.4 acre, and even five (5) acre zoning without larger lot sizes or open space to break up the pattern would look very suburban in nature. The majority of land will be devoted to large yards and a high percentage of the area utilized merely to provide road access to each lot. This plan contains several techniques to increase the diversity of lot sizes found in rural areas which works to maintain rural character, increase affordability of rural living, and protect critical areas.

(6) What Happens to Rural Character under Conventional Development. Further application of current development patterns allowed in rural areas will not result in retention of “rural character” or a high quality of rural living. The typical one acre to five (5) acre lot in a conventional zoning district will seem “rural” only so long as it borders pasture lands or woodlots of neighboring properties. However this is “borrowed” open space, temporary in nature. When those abutting properties are also developed for home sites, the surroundings will be suburban in character and the feeling of “living in the country” will be lost. After viewing fully developed areas of one acre, 2.4 acre, and even five (5) acre zoning, Clallam County residents participating in visual preference surveys indicated that these areas did not look rural. The majority of land in these suburban density subdivisions will be devoted to large yards and a high percentage of the area utilized merely to provide road access to each lot. Crescent area residents voiced the opinion at community meetings that rural character was difficult to maintain at 2.4 acre densities under conventional development due to a large percentage of the land which must be cleared on each lot just to provide space for a home and outbuildings. While they felt that conventional 2.4 acre zoning should be retained in a few areas near the Strait of Juan de Fuca (i.e., where development had already occurred at these densities), they recommended the use of large lot-small lot development patterns in most rural areas with this density.

(7) Conserving Rural Character by Utilizing a Rural Pattern of Development. With these facts in mind, the Plan for the Eastern Straits Region calls for widespread utilization of rural character conserving development patterns when densities greater than one home per five (5) acres are allowed. The purpose of the rural low density/mixed use and the rural character conservation approach is to permit a reasonable amount of residential development while retaining the large lots, open spaces, sensitive natural areas, and rural community character that would be lost under conventional development at these same densities. Under the rural low density/mixed use and the rural character conservation approaches, densities available would usually remain the same as they were under earlier plans but residential lot sizes could be reduced to the one acre size range. By reducing the area required for the home site to that which is actually needed for residential use, the remaining acreage normally contained in individual lots would be utilized to create large lot rural vistas between residences, to reduce the perceived density of development, to provide privacy and neighborhood identity and to retain natural features, woodlots and pasture land. This large rural lot can be owned in several ways. It could be owned or sold as one large residential lot by the property owner or it could be owned and managed by a homeowners’ association. Since all the development rights will have been utilized, it will not be further subdivided but will remain in a large lot size functioning to retain the rural character for those who bought the lots from the property owner. Should the property owner decide that the rural low density/mixed use or rural character conservation approach will not work for him, he may still divide the property down to a rural lot size of five (5) acres or larger in a rural low density/mixed use area or to a ten (10) acre lot size in a rural character conservation area.

Design guidelines in a rural low density/mixed use development would ensure that most properties fronted on the large residual lot for enjoyment of rural vistas and that individual housing clusters were limited in size to avoid the appearance of an urban housing development. Housing would be encouraged to locate in or near the timbered portion of the property to reduce its visual impact on adjacent properties and the exterior roads. The rural low density/mixed use and rural character conservation approach ensures that large lot sizes vital to the retention of rural character will be retained in rural areas. It allows most rural property owners to use their current development rights. Smaller lots still under one ownership or joint ownership could be recombined to ensure that this option is available to many property owners.

The rural low density/mixed use and rural character conservation approach has many positive features. Since the amount of land utilized in residential home sites is reduced to the actual amount needed for residential use, a significant percentage of each development could remain in open space tax classification and uses. This feature limits the tax penalties incurred by the developing property owner while allowing him the possibility of producing the same income from his property if he does a well-designed development. Case studies of existing open space developments in the Port Angeles area support the claim that buyers will pay as much or more for a lot in a well-designed open space development as they will for a five (5) acre lot. This development approach would minimize public expenses involved in maintaining roads since less roads would be needed to service compact, open space developments. Woodlots and farms retained under this approach would not only provide for productive use of the land and enjoyment for the residents of the developments but could be utilized in combination to protect critical areas, connect wildlife corridors, provide space for livestock keeping, and otherwise minimize the impacts of development on the natural systems in the watershed. Problems with cluster ordinances would be avoided by providing only minor increases in density for utilizing this approach and through careful application of design guidelines to ensure the maintenance of rural character within such development areas.

(8) Flexible Zoning. A second approach will also be utilized in rural areas outside of areas designated for rural low density/mixed use and rural character conservation to allow for an increased diversity of rural lot sizes. Flexible zoning would allow the transfer of density within the ownership boundaries subject to a proposed land division, with no new lot being created less than one acre, and total number of lots determined based on the underlying zoning density. For example, a twenty (20) acre parcel is designated as rural low (one home per 4.8 acres). This allows the owner four (4) dwelling units. The owner decides to divide the property into two (2) 2.5 acre lots, one five (5) acre lot, and one ten (10) acre lot. This flexible zoning technique may achieve some affordable housing goals and preserve the rural character by having a variety of housing lot sizes scattered throughout rural areas. While this approach encourages creativity, it does not ensure that the property owner retain any larger, rural sized lots which would retain rural character. The property owner is still free to develop a grid-like pattern of development which will not retain rural character at densities greater than one home per five (5) acres. For this reason this particular technique will not be utilized in rural low density/mixed use designations where current large land ownership patterns allow for rural character to be fully retained.

(9) Controlling Sprawl by Limiting Public Services Provided in Rural Areas. Public facilities and services to be provided in rural areas must be defined. Where densities are lower than one home per five (5) acres, individual wells should be utilized but public water should not be denied if community water systems are willing to provide service. Rural densities should not require extension of sewer. While police, fire and transportation systems will be provided in rural areas, expected levels of service will be much less than that found in UGAs.

(10) Implementing the Twenty (20) Year Rural Vision. Realizing the twenty (20) year vision for the rural lands of the Straits Region will require development of rural goals, policies, and implementing actions that both encourage and ensure preservation of rural character. Below is list of issues that need to be addressed to meet the twenty (20) year vision. Goals and policies to address these issues are included for review and discussion.

Goals and policies in the land use element should promote the protection of not only the physical environment, but also protect private property rights, protect traditional uses of property and natural resources, and maintain economic opportunities through self determination. In developing the rural land use element of this Plan, the following principles were utilized.

(a) Lot sizes of five (5) or more acres are considered rural. A five (5) acre lot size allows sufficient room for small-scale hobby farming activities or woodlots. Persons seeking rural lots are more likely to share the traditional values and interests of the local community and thus reduce the conflict between “rural” vs. “urban” lifestyles.

(b) The visual appeal of rural areas is enhanced through a variety of lot sizes. Zoning should be flexible enough to allow property owners to divide their property into a variety of lot sizes and shapes.

(c) In consideration of the property rights of people who had higher densities prior to the implementation of the Growth Management Act, mechanisms for recapturing the higher densities through cluster development have been adopted. These mechanisms include flexible provisions for development contained within the land use designations of rural character conservation, rural low density/mixed use and commercial forest/residential mixed use. These options also allow property owners to provide building lots for their children or others without subdividing the entire property into uniform sized lots.

(d) In consideration of private property rights and the encouragement of economic opportunities, the Plan does not require conservation easements for the preservation of land when the rural low density/mixed use or rural character conservation development options are utilized. Clallam County is composed of eighty-five (85) percent State, federal and private commercial timberlands. The preservation of additional lands in conservation easements is not warranted unless the property owner would realize tax benefits from such a mechanism.

(e) Small land owners should not be required to provide buffer zones for State, federal and private timber lands. Utilizing low residential densities or cluster development at previous densities on lands adjacent to commercial forestlands should provide sufficient buffering of commercial forest lands as required under the Growth Management Act.

31.05.240 Rural land use issues in the Eastern Straits.

(1) Retaining Rural Character in Rural Areas over the Long Term. Problems of rural sprawl commonly associated with portions of eastern Clallam County and other localities in the State are only now becoming evident in certain locations in the eastern end of the Straits Region and are not commonplace in the western portion of the Straits Region. The absence of sprawl is not attributed to different policies or regulatory controls designed to protect “rural character,” but rather to: (a) remoteness of the area; (b) development of rural lands closer to employment centers in eastern Clallam County; and (c) large acreages being owned and managed by the government for timber, recreation, and wilderness protection and large ownerships managed by private timber companies.

The potential for rural type sprawl exists in the Straits Region because current rural designations allow rural residential densities of one acre, 2.4 acres, and five (5) acres over large contiguous areas. These allowable densities are the same as rural lands in the vicinity of Port Angeles and Sequim and similar to other Washington localities where rural type sprawl is occurring. The typical land use pattern resulting in areas developing under these allowable densities more closely resembles a large lot subdivision characterized by uniform lot sizes, large lawns, and limited rural uses; rather than the former mixture of large and small lot sizes and rural land uses.

One acre densities spread over large areas that are not rural in character promote a density of development which leads to demand for urban levels of service in terms of schools, roads, and emergency services and do not support efficient provision of urban services. While 2.4 and five (5) acre lot sizes can appear rural in nature when mixed with larger lots, the repetition of this pattern over large areas does not promote retention of rural character. Further development of this type over large areas will only diminish rural character over time, increase the costs for rural service provision and inhibit the function of natural systems as development occurs in this artificial pattern across streams, wetlands, landslide hazard areas and erosion hazard areas.

The area most at risk for rural type uniform sprawl is the area generally described as east of Low Point, west of the Elwha River and between the Olympic foothills and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This area contains over 10,666 acres of rural lands with allowed densities of five (5) acres or below, seventy (70) percent of which is at 2.4 acre densities and below.

(2) Urban Residential Density Development in Rural Areas. Commercial uses, industrial uses, and residential densities (exceeding one unit per acre when allowed to spread over large areas) are identified in the Clallam County County-wide Policies as urban in nature. These types of intensive developments are better suited for development in the designated urban growth area of Joyce.

The Growth Management Act does provide for two (2) types of urban density growth outside urban growth areas. These include new fully contained communities and master planned resorts. New fully contained communities are large-scale developments (640 acres) including a mix of residential, commercial and industrial land uses. Their establishment would require the formation of a new urban growth area and a corresponding decrease in established urban growth areas. Master planned resorts (240 acres) are self contained and fully integrated planned unit developments, in a setting of significant natural amenities, with a primary focus on destination resort facilities with developed on-site indoor and outdoor recreation facilities. The County can develop policies to guide the development of these type of facilities.

(3) Rural Commercial Activities. Tourist and neighborhood commercial development areas such as at the intersection of Camp Hayden Road and Highway 112 need to be carefully controlled in order to preserve rural character. While this type of development provides needed services to tourists and rural residents alike, it should be maintained within a set size limit or length along the highway and should occur only at existing locations to promote compact rural service centers. The visual impact of nonresidential land uses in rural areas should be reduced through the use of high quality landscaping and design guidelines. Likewise resort facilities at Whiskey Creek Resort, at Crescent Beach, and at the Lyre River Campground should be designated for tourist commercial or rural limited commercial. Commercial uses allowed in rural residential zones should be limited by size and type in order to encourage commercial growth in urban growth areas and in appropriately designated tourist commercial areas.

(4) Retaining Scenic Corridors along State Highways. State Highway 112 is the major travel route in the Straits Region. Retention of the scenic values and rural feeling of this travel corridor is important to both residents and tourists alike as they travel to communities for goods and services and to popular recreation destinations.

31.05.250 Rural land use goals in the Eastern Straits.

(1) Goals and Policies to Retain Rural Character.

(a) Goal 1. Rural areas should provide for a balance between human uses and the natural environment while permanently retaining the features of “rural character” such as clean water, clean air, open spaces, agriculture, forestry, low residential densities, wildlife habitats, quiet, rural lifestyles, outdoor recreation, and low traffic volumes which attract people to rural environments.

“Rural character” also should reflect the values of the local people, their culture and traditional uses of natural resources and private property.

Clallam County should coordinate with any federal or State agency on any proposal that would impact the rural character of the Straits Region. This would include joint planning and analysis of impacts to the environment, economy, customs and culture of the Straits Region.

(b) Goal 2. Rural character is best preserved through utilization of low density residential development with lots sizes of 10 acres or greater. Areas with properties in these size ranges should be retained to provide rural diversity and to encourage the continuation of rural land uses that generally require acreages larger than 10 acres.

(i) Areas zoned Forestry 1 in the 1982 plan may be appropriately redesignated for rural very low density (one unit per 20 acres) and retained at 20-acre densities to provide diversity of lot sizes in rural areas which promotes their use for woodlots as well as the retention of rural character.

(ii) Rural areas remote from County roads or with natural limitations (i.e., erosion hazard, landslide hazard, wetlands, streams) should be retained at one home per 20-acre rural densities to protect critical areas and foster diversity of parcel sizes in the rural areas. Rural densities in these areas would not be served by sewers or community septic systems but by individual septic systems. While police, fire and roads will be provided in low density rural areas, expected levels of service will be much less than that found in higher density rural areas or UGAs.

(c) Goal 3. Rural properties between 20 and 80 acres which are utilized primarily for pasture or small woodlots rather than commercial forestry, abut commercial forestlands, and which were zoned for conventional development at one home per 2.4 or five acres, should be designated Rural Character Conservation. The rural character conservation designation should allow the majority of the land to be in lot sizes larger than 10 acres, provide for additional diversity of lot sizes, and allow for homesites to be grouped in locations separated from the commercial forest area so that they will be less impacted by spraying, controlled burning or harvesting on nearby lands.

(i) Rural character conservation designations and implementing zoning should conserve rural character and rural quality of life by allowing development flexibility in creating either large rural lot sizes (10-acre minimum), or smaller residential lot sizes combined with larger residential lots which will not be further subdivided.

(ii) Design guidelines for development in rural character conservation designations will be developed to ensure that the development has a rural appearance and to reduce the visual impact on adjacent properties. These guidelines should include, but are not limited to, encouraging location of smaller lots in such a manner as to ensure that they enjoy views of the larger retained parcel, minimize excessive grouping of houses to avoid an urban housing development appearance, minimize the amount of access roads, and land management plans for common facilities and open space lands.

(iii) The rural character conservation designation and its implementing zoning districts should recognize one unit per five-acre densities if the majority of the development site is retained in a large lot. This type of development essentially describes a type of planned unit development (PUD) that retains rural character through retention of large rural lot sizes. Lot size flexibility should be built into the rural character conservation development concept through the use of a sliding scale which determines the percentage of the development which can be developed in smaller residential lot sizes and the percentage of the site which must remain in an undivided rural lot size or open space as follows:

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Lots between 11 acres and 19 acres will utilize all but one of the density credits available to the site in smaller residential lot sizes (maximum size of one acre) with the one remainder housing credit utilized by the larger remainder lot.

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Lots between 19.1 and 60 acres would allow development of up to 30 percent of the site in small lots, with 70 percent of the site in the large remainder lot.

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Lots between 60.1 acres and 100 acres would allow development of 40 percent of the site in smaller lots, with 60 percent in the large remainder lot.

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Lots larger than 100 acres would allow development of up to 45 percent of the site, with 55 percent of the site in the large remainder lot or open space.

The large remainder lot will not be further subdivided as all the density of the site will have been utilized, and such restriction shall be permanently recorded on the plat maps at time of subdivision. The large remainder lot could be utilized for the mutual benefit of the adjacent property owners as part of their amenity package; could be utilized as a residential lot and/or for forestry, pasture, agriculture, or other rural land uses by the original owner; or could be sold to others who would utilize it for similar purposes. Road standards will be a gravel standard unless higher standards are proposed by the developer. A density bonus of one additional housing unit per 40 acres will be allowed to encourage the use of rural character conservation PUDs on larger development sites.

(iv) The rural character conservation designation and implementing zoning district should allow creation of residential lots 10 acres or larger if the option above is not utilized or desired. Lots 10 acres or larger should only be able to further subdivide if all the newly created lots will be 10 acres or larger or meet the lot size provisions outlined above.

(v) Lots between 9.6 acres and 11 acres (contiguous ownership at the time of adoption of this Plan will be utilized to determine the 11-acre threshold) located within rural low density/mixed use designation should be allowed to subdivide to the underlying density of the zoning district in a large lot/small lot pattern (maximum size of small lot residential parcel is 1.5 acres).

(d) Goal 4. The residents of the Eastern Straits Region believe that five-acre lots in a heavily wooded environment will retain many qualities of “rural character.” Area residents also believe that conventional development at densities greater than one home on five acres without larger lots to break up the pattern will diminish “rural character” in most areas, limit size of traditional rural land uses (e.g., large residential lots, forestry, animal keeping, crops, etc.), and result in more impacts to the environment. In many rural areas where residential densities greater than one home per five acres have been allowed in previous plans, a rural low density/mixed use designation should be developed that provides for a pattern of development which retains a majority of these lands in larger lot sizes while recognizing current development rights.

(i) The rural low density/mixed use designation and implementing zoning should conserve rural character by allowing flexibility in creating either large rural lot sizes five-acre minimum or smaller residential lot sizes combined with larger residential lots which will not be further subdivided. Lands designated as rural low density/mixed use should meet the following criteria:

(A) Located outside of lands designated as commercial forestry or rural very low, and usually not include lands designated for densities lower than one unit per five acres.

(B) Lot size is generally larger than 10 acres, or vacant lots under one ownership that could be recombined to total 10 or more acres. Some lots smaller than 10 acres may be found within rural low density/mixed use designations.

(ii) Design guidelines for development in rural low density/mixed use designations will be developed to ensure that the development has a rural appearance and to reduce the visual impact on adjacent properties. These guidelines should include, but are not limited to, encouraging location of smaller lots in such a manner as to ensure that they enjoy views of the larger retained parcel, minimize excessive grouping of houses to avoid an urban housing development appearance, minimize the amount of access roads, and land management plans for common facilities and open space lands.

(iii) The rural low density/mixed use designation and its implementing zoning districts should recognize one unit per 2.4 acre densities if the majority of the development site is retained in a large lot. This type of development essentially describes a type of planned unit developments (PUD) that retains rural character through retention of large rural lot sizes. Lot size flexibility should be built into the rural character conservation development concept through the use of a sliding scale which determines the percentage of the development which can be developed in smaller residential lot sizes and the percentage of the site which must remain in an undivided rural lot size or open space as follows:

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Lots between 11 acres and 19 acres will utilize all but one of the density credits available to the site in smaller residential lot sizes (maximum size of one acre) with the one remainder housing credit utilized by the larger remainder lot.

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Lots between 19.1 and 60 acres would allow development of up to 30 percent of the site in small lots, with 70 percent of the site in the large remainder lot.

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Lots between 60.1 acres and 100 acres would allow development of 40 percent of the site in smaller lots, with 60 percent in the large remainder lot.

•    

Lots larger than 100 acres would allow development of up to 45 percent of the site, with 55 percent of the site in the large remainder lot or open space.

The large remainder lot will not be further subdivided as all the density of the site will have been utilized, and such restriction shall be permanently recorded on the plat maps at time of subdivision. The large remaining residential lot could be utilized for the mutual benefit of the adjacent property owners as part of their amenity package; could be utilized as a residential lot and/or for forestry, pasture, agriculture, or other rural land uses by the original owner; or could be sold to others who would utilize it for similar purposes. Road standards will be a gravel standard unless higher standards are proposed by the developer. A density bonus of one unit per 40 acres would encourage the use of retaining the majority of the development site in large lot sizes as an option on larger lots.

(iv) The rural low density/mixed use designation and implementing zoning district should allow creation of residential lots five acres or larger if the option above is not utilized or desired. Lots five acres or larger should only be able to further subdivide if all the newly created lots will be five acres or larger or meet the lot size provisions outlined above.

(v) Lots between 4.8 and 11 acres (contiguous ownership at the time of adoption of this Plan will be utilized to determine the 11-acre threshold) located within rural low density/mixed use designation should be allowed to subdivide to the underlying density of the zoning district in a large lot/small lot pattern (maximum size of small lot residential parcel is 1.5 acres).

(e) Goal 5. Maximum residential densities should be set for each Comprehensive Plan designation with the exception of rural low density/mixed use and rural character conservation designations. These maximum residential densities will be utilized in place of minimum lot size to control densities in order to create greater diversity of lot sizes in rural areas which contributes to retention of rural character.

(i) When land is subdivided, property deeds and plat maps should be recorded showing the number of development rights which have been utilized and the number which remain for each parcel created.

(ii) The presence of small lots in a rural area created utilizing a maximum density system should not be used as a justification for increased densities.

(f) Goal 6. Current densities allowed in the Straits Planning Region would meet the growth needs of the Region far beyond those identified for the next 20-year planning period. Rural densities should not be increased above current rural density levels during this planning time frame (1994 – 2014) in order to preserve rural character and to limit demand for public services and facilities in rural areas. The conversion of rural areas into higher density rural designations or zoning districts will be discouraged.

(i) Continued development at densities of one home per acre or less without offsetting provision of open space is not a preferred rural development pattern and will be discouraged. Areas currently zoned for one-acre lots which have not developed at these densities over large areas should utilize a rural low density/mixed use development approach to allow rural character to be preserved through open space retention. One-acre lot sizes will be allowed in the rural area in areas formerly designated Quillayute residential, in subdivisions developed at this density and in areas where these lot sizes are already existent over large areas (50 acres). Existing, legal, nonconforming lots will be buildable.

(ii) Continued development at densities of 2.4 acres per home without offsetting provision of open space is not a preferred rural development pattern and will be discouraged in the eastern half of the Straits planning area. Areas currently zoned for 2.4-acre lots which have not extensively developed at this density should utilize a rural low density/mixed use development approach to allow rural character to be preserved through retention of permanently protected farmland and woodlots. Areas currently zoned for 2.4-acre lots that are characterized by a variety of development patterns should utilize a rural neighborhood conservation development approach which has a low base density subject to optional innovative zoning techniques triggered by either the size of the parcel (cluster technique) or the character of the surrounding neighborhood (overlay technique).

(iii) Development densities of 2.4 and five acres per home will be allowed in the western half of the Straits planning area where only small areas are available for rural type development and where livestock keeping is common. Development densities of 2.4 and five acres per home will also be allowed in rural areas where occupied lots in these lot sizes are already existent over large areas (50 acres). Existing, legal, nonconforming lots will be buildable under any change in zoning.

(g) Goal 7. Conversion of forest lands of long-term commercial significance located outside of urban growth areas into rural land uses other than master-planned resorts or for a State correction center expansion will be prohibited in order to retain the base of industrial forest lands that the County’s primary industry is dependent on. These lands provide important functions relating to the preservation of water quantity and quality, for protection of habitat, and to provide scenic vistas from rural lands and highways vital to the conservation of rural character. Forested landowners should be encouraged to support trail systems for hikers, bicyclists, and equestrians thus maximizing the value of these forest lands to the community for recreation and a healthy lifestyle.

(2) Goals and Policies for Controlling Urban Densities and Commercial or Industrial Uses in Rural Areas.

(a) Goal 8. Limit urban residential lot development outside of urban growth areas and critical areas. Lots of one acre or less may only be created through an approved master plan resort, or lands within rural character conservation, rural low mixed, and rural suburban community designations, provided that such development is consistent with the applicable goals and policies of the Straits Regional Plan.

(b) Goal 9. The preferred location for master planned resorts should be within urban growth areas. Master planned resorts may also be appropriate in rural areas with waterfront or other significant natural amenities. Several waterfront sites with commercial forest/residential mixed use designations are available with the Eastern Straits regional planning area and may be appropriate locations for master planned resorts. These sites should be fully evaluated for use prior to any proposal on sites designated commercial forest.

(c) Goal 10. Extension or existence of public water service in designated rural areas or resource lands shall not result in or be justification for higher densities than that anticipated by the regional land use plan. Water purveyor plans must demonstrate that new facilities are consistent with the Comprehensive Plan and won’t require increased densities to finance planned facilities.

(3) Goals and Policies to Control Rural Commercial Activities.

(a) Goal 11. Development of existing tourist commercial lands at the exit to Salt Creek on SR 112, at Whiskey Creek Resort, at Crescent Beach, and at the Lyre River Campground should be allowed subject to the following standards:

(i) Allowable land uses should be limited to the following types of activities:

•    

Tourist facilities like snack bars, gift shops, antique stores and gas stations, RV parks/campgrounds and boat repair/sales.

•    

Services for the local neighborhood such as churches, barbers, etc.

•    

Small-scale retail serving the local neighborhood such as convenience grocery, etc.

•    

Small-scale motel and hotels (less than 60 rooms).

(ii) Standards should be set for the development of these properties, including:

•    

Limiting the percentage of impervious surface to maintain an “open” atmosphere.

•    

Requiring setbacks, buffers and screening to separate commercial from adjacent residential zones.

•    

Require high standards of street and building landscaping to protect rural character.

•    

Limiting the size of any one building (less than 5,000 square feet) to avoid large-scale facilities in rural areas.

(b) Goal 12. Commercial uses allowed in rural residential designations should be limited to those which would not impact rural character. Those commercial-type uses allowed in rural residential areas should meet the standards above. The following revisions should be made to the allowed uses in rural zones:

(i) Commercial outdoor oriented recreational use in rural residential designations shall be limited to boat launching facilities, golf courses and similar uses carried on outside of buildings in order to direct intensive commercial uses such as motels, hotels, restaurants, RV parks and variety stores to locate in appropriate areas including urban growth areas, tourist commercial designations or in master planned resorts.

(ii) Professional offices, exceeding the scope of home enterprises, shall locate in urban growth areas, tourist commercial designations, neighborhood commercial designations and limited commercial designations.

(iii) Research facilities that require rural locations due to the type of research conducted may be appropriately located in rural areas but those facilities whose research does not dictate a rural location shall locate in appropriate areas including urban growth areas or in rural commercial limited designations.

(iv) Communication broadcast stations, mini-storage and boat storage shall locate in urban growth areas (all three uses), tourist commercial (boat storage) and rural limited commercial (all three uses) designations.

(b) Goal 13. Home-based industries and businesses are an essential part of the economic vitality of rural areas and should be allowed to the extent compatible with surrounding land uses.

(4) Goals to Retain Scenic Corridors along State Highways.

(a) Goal 14. In order to preserve scenic rural corridors, the preferred land uses along State highways should include low density residential interspersed with neighborhood/tourist commercial at existing locations along the roadway. Further development of commercial uses outside of these existing locations would not be permitted in order to direct a majority of commercial and industrial development to urban growth areas.

Residential densities within a quarter mile of the State highways outside the urban growth area and rural suburban communities should be no greater than one home per five acres or develop using a rural low density/mixed use approach. Residential setbacks from the highway should be large (300 feet unless natural topography screens views of residences) in order to preserve rural character, minimize the effects of road noise on residences, to prevent commercial conversion pressures and to improve or maintain the visual appearance of these important scenic corridors. Where residential setbacks of 300 feet are not possible or would conflict with critical area protection, other screening options should be encouraged such as retention of trees and landscaping.

(b) Goal 15. In order to preserve scenic rural corridors, Clallam County should work with the Department of Natural Resources and other large forest land owners to make corridors along State highways a showcase for forestry practices such as commercial thinning, roadside forested buffers, shelterwood cuts and other modern silvicultural practices. A linear, non-motorized, multi-use trail should be included in the SR 112 scenic corridor to allow bicycle traffic a safe route for pleasure and commuter travel. Where appropriate, use of the trail should include horses.

31.05.260 Rural element for the Western Straits Region.

(1) A Vision for Rural Lands in the Western Straits Regional Planning Area. We envision the rural lands in the western half of the Straits planning area as a scenic patchwork of large open fields and woodlots interspersed with rural homesteads and serviced by neighborhood/tourist commercial clusters. Neighborhood/tourist commercial clusters are located at their present positions along the highway and have blended into the rural environment through the application of landscaping standards and rural design guidelines which emphasize the preservation of rural views. Recreational uses which promote open space values are encouraged to locate in rural areas along major highways to improve scenic vistas and buffer residential uses.

(2) The western portion of the Straits area has only small areas which can be developed for rural land uses and these are interspersed with large areas in commercial forest production. These circumstances allow retention of rural character even under conventional development scenarios. The Community Council’s strategy for preserving rural character has focused on preserving productive rural land uses, maintaining a diversity of lot sizes and concentrating rural commercial enterprises at existing locations along highways.

31.05.270 Rural land use issues in the Western Straits.

(1) Retaining Rural Character in Rural Areas over the Long Term. Problems of rural sprawl commonly associated with portions of eastern Clallam County and other localities in the State are only now becoming evident in certain locations in the eastern end of the Straits Region and are not commonplace in the western portion of the Straits Region. The absence of sprawl is not attributed to different policies or regulatory controls designed to protect “rural character,” but rather to: (a) remoteness of the area; (b) development of rural lands closer to employment centers in eastern Clallam County; and (c) the presence of large timberland acreages being owned and managed by the government and large private timber companies.

The western portion of the Straits Region has small, mostly isolated areas of designated rural lands which are interspersed with large acreages in commercial forestry use. These circumstances allow retention of rural character even with conventional development scenarios of 2.4- and five-acre lots.

(2) Urban Residential Density Development in Rural Areas. Areas designated under the current Comprehensive Plan as Quillayute residential and mixed use allow urban sized residential lots where soils are well drained. The mixed use zones also allow urban uses such as commercial and industrial. The Quillayute residential areas are located west of Clallam Bay, along Highway 112, between Shipwreck Point and the mouth of the Sekiu River and in the vicinity of Bullman Creek. The mixed use areas are located along the Hoko-Ozette Road.

Many types of commercial land uses, industrial land uses and urban density residential lots are identified in the Clallam County County-wide Policies as urban in nature. These types of intensive use are better suited for development in the designated urban growth area of Clallam Bay/Sekiu. Residential uses in the Quillayute residential areas are fairly well established, immediately adjacent to the coast. Most of the bluffs behind the housing in these areas currently designated Quillayute residential are classified as landslide hazard areas and are owned by large private timber companies. Landslide hazard areas are not appropriate for urban type development. The mixed use area contains some residential development but is generally undeveloped and still in large lot sizes.

The Growth Management Act does provide for two types of urban density growth outside urban growth areas. These include new fully contained communities and master planned resorts. New fully contained communities are large-scale developments (640 acres) including a mix of residential, commercial and industrial land uses. Their establishment would require the formation of a new urban growth area and a corresponding decrease in established urban growth areas. Master planned resorts (240 acres) are self contained and fully integrated planned unit developments, in a setting of significant natural amenities, with a primary focus on destination resort facilities with developed on-site indoor and outdoor recreation facilities. The County can develop policies to guide the development of these type of facilities.

(3) Rural Commercial Activities. Tourist and neighborhood commercial development areas such as those at Cain’s Marine south of Clallam Bay, at Chito Beach and at Bullman Beaches are not currently designated or zoned for commercial land use. This plan designates these areas for commercial development but recognizes that development standards are needed for new commercial development in order to preserve rural character. While this type of development provides needed services to tourists and rural residents alike, it should be maintained within a set size limit or length along the highway and should occur only at existing locations to promote compact rural service centers. The visual impact of highway related tourist commercial land uses in rural areas should be reduced through the use of high quality landscaping and building design guidelines. Likewise resort facilities at Silver King Resort and at Snow Creek should be designated for tourist commercial land use. Commercial uses allowed in rural residential zones should be limited by size and type in order to encourage commercial growth in urban growth areas and in appropriately designated tourist commercial areas.

(4) Retaining Scenic Corridors along State Highways. State Highway 112 is the major travel route in the Straits Region. Retention of the scenic values and rural feeling of this travel corridor is important to both residents and tourists alike as they travel to communities for goods and services and to popular recreation destinations.

31.05.280 Rural land use goals in the Western Straits.

(1) Goals and Policies to Retain Rural Character.

(a) Goal 1. Rural areas should provide for a balance between human uses and the natural environment while permanently retaining the features of “rural character” such as clean water, clean air, open spaces, agriculture, forestry, low residential densities, wildlife habitats, quiet, rural lifestyles, outdoor recreation, and low traffic volumes which attract people to rural environments.

(b) Goal 2. Rural character is best preserved through utilization of low density residential development with lots sizes greater than five acres. Properties in these size ranges should be retained to provide rural diversity and to encourage the continuation of rural land uses that generally require larger acreages.

(i) Areas currently designated for forest land use at one unit per 20-acre densities should be redesignated as rural very low density (one unit per 20 acres) which recognizes that the major uses of this land is for woodlots and pasture. Large lot sizes retain rural character and provide for buffers between commercial forest lands and higher density rural development patterns.

(ii) Rural areas remote from County roads or with natural limitations (i.e., erosion hazard, landslide hazard, wetlands, streams) or those rural lands that could be used to buffer commercial forest lands should be retained at one home per 20-acre rural densities to protect critical areas and foster diversity of parcel sizes in the rural areas.

(c) Goal 3. Current densities allowed in the Straits Planning Region should meet the growth needs of the region far beyond those identified for the next 20-year planning period. Rural densities should not be increased above current rural density levels during this planning time frame (1994 – 2014) in order to preserve rural character and to limit demand for public services and facilities in rural areas. The conversion of rural areas into higher density rural designations or zoning districts will be discouraged.

(i) Continued development at densities of one home per acre or less without offsetting provision of open space is not a preferred rural development pattern and should be discouraged. One-acre lot sizes will be allowed in the rural area where existing subdivisions developed at this density by July 1, 1990, pursuant to the provisions of CCC 31.02.263. Areas characterized by a variety of development patterns should utilize a rural neighborhood conservation development approach which has a low base density subject to optional innovative zoning techniques triggered by either the size of the parcel (cluster technique) or the character of the surrounding neighborhood (overlay technique). Existing, legal, nonconforming lots will be buildable (Chapter 33.52 CCC).

(ii) Development densities of 2.4 and five acres per home will be retained in the western half of the Straits planning area where only small areas are available for rural type development and where livestock keeping is common. Development densities of 2.4 and five acres per home will also be allowed in rural areas where occupied lots in these lot sizes are already existent over large areas (greater than 50 acres). Existing, legal, nonconforming lots will be buildable under any change in zoning (Chapter 33.52 CCC).

(d) Goal 4. Maximum residential densities should be set for each Comprehensive Plan designation and should be utilized in place of minimum lot size to control densities in order to create greater diversity of lot sizes in rural areas which contributes to retention of rural character.

(i) When land is subdivided, property deeds and plat maps should be recorded showing the number of development rights which have been utilized and the number which remain for each parcel created.

(ii) The presence of small lots in a rural area created utilizing a maximum density system should not be used as a justification for increased densities.

(e) Goal 5. Clallam County should seek grant funding which will allow the County to refine the floodplain maps for the Clallam Bay area as the current maps contain many errors.

(f) Goal 6. Small land owners should not be required to provide buffer zones for State, federal and private timber lands. Utilizing low residential densities or cluster development at previous densities on lands adjacent to commercial forestlands should provide sufficient buffering of commercial forest lands as required under the Growth Management Act.

(2) Goals and Policies for Controlling Urban Densities and Commercial or Industrial Uses in Rural Areas.

(a) Goal 7. Urban residential lot development should be directed into urban growth areas and away from critical areas and rural areas.

(i) Lands currently designated and zoned as Quillayute residential will be redesignated as rural suburban community. Infill development of existing lots will be encouraged and creation of new lots will be allowed within the area limits set by the Clallam Bay/Sekiu Community Council. Rural residential communities and other areas that retain their one-acre densities will not be expanded beyond these initial limits in order to ensure that urban density development occurs within and not outside of urban growth areas.

(ii) Lots of one acre or less may only be created through an approved master plan resort provided that such development is consistent with the applicable goals and policies of the Straits Regional Plan.

(iii) Redesignate landslide hazard areas in lands currently designated as Quillayute residential for very low rural residential or commercial forestry uses.

(iv) Rural lands bordering the Hoko-Ozette Road currently designated as mixed use lands should be redesignated as rural low density (one home per five acres) or rural very low density (one home per 20 acres) reflecting their current parcelization and rural character.

(b) Goal 8. The preferred location for master planned resorts should be within urban growth areas. Master planned resorts may also be appropriate in rural areas with waterfront or other significant natural amenities.

(c) Goal 9. Extension or existence of public water service in designated rural areas or resource lands shall not result in or be justification for higher densities than that anticipated by the regional land use plan. Water purveyor plans must demonstrate that new facilities are consistent with the Comprehensive Plan and won’t require increased densities to finance planned facilities.

(3) Goals and Policies for Rural Commercial Activities.

(a) Goal 10. Development of existing tourist commercial lands at Cain’s South of Clallam Bay, at Silver King Resort, near Chito and Bullman Beaches and at Snow Creek should be allowed within the area limits set by the Land Use subcommittee in its tourist commercial designation, and subject to the following standards:

(i) Allowable land uses should be limited to the following types of activities:

•    

Tourist facilities like snack bars, gift shops, antique stores and gas stations, RV parks/campgrounds and boat repair/sales.

•    

Services for the local neighborhood such as churches, barbers, etc.

•    

Small-scale retail serving the local neighborhood such as convenience grocery, etc.

•    

Small-scale motel and hotels (less than 60 rooms).

(ii) Standards should be set for the development of these properties, including:

•    

Limiting the percentage of impervious surface to maintain an “open” atmosphere.

•    

Landscaping should be utilized to blend the development into rural areas.

(b) Goal 11. Some of the commercial uses currently allowed in rural residential designations should be redirected to urban growth areas and rural commercial designations. This will encourage the growth of urban areas, limit incompatible uses in rural areas and provide for additional commercial opportunities in rural commercial designations. Those commercial type uses allowed in rural residential areas should be landscaped to blend into the rural environment. The following revisions should be made to the allowed uses in rural zones:

(i) Commercial outdoor oriented recreational use in rural residential designations shall be limited to boat launching facilities, golf courses and similar uses carried on outside of buildings in order to direct intensive commercial uses such as motels, hotels, restaurants, RV parks and variety stores to locate in appropriate areas including urban growth areas, tourist commercial designations or in master planned resorts.

(ii) Professional offices, exceeding the scope of home enterprises, shall locate in urban growth areas, tourist commercial designations, neighborhood commercial designations and limited commercial designations.

(iii) Research facilities that require rural locations due to the type of research conducted may be appropriately located in rural areas but those facilities whose research does not dictate a rural location shall locate in appropriate areas including urban growth areas or in rural commercial limited designations.

(iv) Communication broadcast stations, mini-storage and boat storage shall locate in urban growth areas (all three uses), tourist commercial (boat storage) and rural limited commercial (all three uses) designations.

(c) Goal 12. Home-based industries and businesses are an essential part of the economic vitality of rural areas and should be allowed to the extent compatible with surrounding land uses.

(4) Goals to Retain Scenic Corridors along State Highways – Goal 13. In order to preserve scenic rural corridors, the preferred land uses along State highways should include low density residential interspersed with neighborhood/tourist commercial at existing locations along the roadway. New commercial development would be directed to urban growth areas and to existing commercially zoned sites located in rural areas.

31.05.290 Resource lands element for the Straits planning area.

(1) Growth Management Goals.

(a) Maintain and enhance natural resource-based industries, including productive timber, agricultural, and fisheries industries. Encourage the conservation of productive forest lands and productive agricultural lands, and discourage incompatible uses.

(b) Encourage the retention of open space and development of recreational opportunities, conserve fish and wildlife habitat, increase access to natural resource lands and water, and develop parks. Maximize use of forested lands with user-maintained trail systems for hikers, bicyclists, and equestrians; i.e., supporting the presence and completion of the Olympic Discovery Trail as it proceeds to the coast.

(c) Protect the environment and enhance the State’s high quality of life, including air and water quality, and the availability of water.

(2) A Vision for Forest Resource Lands. We envision the retention of forest resource lands and the maintenance of the forest industry as a major industry in the County. The forested foothills of the region remain in resource land use providing for jobs, clean and abundant water and forested vistas. Trail systems provide recreational opportunities for residents and tourists with minimal impact on forest production. New research in commercial forest practices has helped reduce conflicts between timber management and environmental protection. The steep ravines of the streams in the watershed retain their forested cover providing a filter for runoff and cover and movement corridors for wildlife and fish.

31.05.300 Forest land use issues.

(1) Community input through surveys, neighborhood meetings, and letters has indicated a strong interest in conserving our forest lands, open space and the quality of our environment. In 1992, Clallam County designated approximately 243,426 acres as forest lands of long-term commercial significance in the Straits Region, including approximately 3,277 acres of transitional forest lands. Retaining commercial forest resource lands in resource use is the major goal of the resource lands element. Retention of resource lands benefits the taxpayers of the County in that this land use requires few County services while providing substantial income primarily in the form of harvest taxation.

(2) Commercial forestry in the west end of the County is and will continue to be our primary industry. There are sufficient public (federal and State) and private lands to provide the resource base for timber harvesting. Retention of this resource base should limit the loss of forestry related jobs.

(3) Additional benefits of forestland retention derive from the fact that these lands play a major role in protecting both water quality and quantity. Permanent clearing of forestlands associated with housing developments leads to rapid surface runoff as tree and other vegetation are no longer available to allow for slow infiltration of water into soils and aquifers. Construction of roads and housing greatly increases erosion as soils and cut slopes are exposed to rainfall. Roads, roofs and driveways increase impervious surfaces which directly contributes to surface runoff and to a decrease in water added to aquifers.

(4) One of the larger conflicts with commercial forest operations occurs when residences encroach into areas managed for commercial forestry. This type of encroachment is usually only seen in the eastern part of the Straits Planning Region. Commercial forestry zoning is utilized to limit the number of persons locating in areas of commercial forest operations so that conflict is minimized. Commercial forestry/residential mixed use zoning is utilized in areas currently managed for commercial forestry by smaller land owners in order to retain commercial forestry operations but to allow for some development to occur. Commercial forestry/residential mixed use zoning allows some development but creates a safety buffer which separates commercial forest operations from residences through the use of forest reserves and clustered development. Commercial forestry/residential mixed use zoning is also utilized in areas surrounded by commercial forestry zoning where a residential area of limited size is intermixed with commercial forestlands and where designation as rural land use would tend to create conflicts with commercial forestry. Rural very low density designations are utilized in areas not currently managed for commercial forestry to buffer commercial forest areas from more intensive rural density development. Conflicts with traditional forest management techniques will continue to increase but can be minimized by maintaining commercial forest areas in commercial forest uses.

(5) One of the methods that Clallam County adopted to conserve the resource base and ensure compatibility at the forest/rural interface in the eastern portion of the Straits Planning Region was the use of a commercial-residential mixed use zones (CFM). Most of these zones were in the foothills on the east end of the County. Development within the CFM zones was allowed if developed in a cluster pattern (30 percent development/70 percent forest). In exchange for clustering, large density bonuses were possible. This plan responds to critics of these excessive bonuses by scaling back the bonus provisions to a reasonable level. Another legitimate criticism leveled at the CFM zones was the fact that forest reserves were only set aside for 20 years which is not enough time to provide for even one rotation of trees to reach maturity. This plan proposes that the forest reserve be set aside permanently for forest use since the development potential of the entire property will have been utilized in the development area.

31.05.310 Goals and policies to conserve commercial use of forest lands.

(1) Lands meeting the definition or criteria for commercial forest lands in the County General Plan should be designated as commercial forest lands of long-term commercial significance. In general, these lands should have a minimum parcel size of 80 acres or contiguous parcels under the same ownership can be grouped into 80-acre sizes, are currently forested, and have a forest land grade which is capable of growing trees at a commercial growth rate.

(2) Commercial forestry (CF) designation and zoning at 80-acre minimum lot sizes is the preferred form of protection for forest resource lands. Conversion of commercial forest (CF) zoning to zones which provide less protection of the forest resource such as commercial forestry/residential mixed use should not be permitted during this planning period.

(3) Lands designated in the Comprehensive Plan as commercial forestry and zoned as commercial forest/residential mixed use function to retain commercial forest land use in an area whose predominate use is commercial forestry but which may be experiencing some development pressure due to residences in the area. This designation also serves as a buffer between more intensively managed commercial forestlands and rural development patterns. Commercial forestry/residential mixed use zoning is also utilized in areas surrounded by commercial forestry zoning where a residential area of limited size is intermixed with commercial forestlands and where designation as rural land use would tend to create conflicts with commercial forestry. These areas are currently managed for commercial forestry but they have been impacted by adjacent residential development. They provide for a mix of protected forest reserves and low density residential lots built in a clustered development pattern. The current commercial forest/residential mixed use zones should be modified in the following manner so that they may accomplish their intended purpose of protecting commercial forest uses in areas experiencing some growth pressures:

(a) Nonclustered development in all CFM zones is at one home per 80-acre densities, cluster development is at one home per 20-acre densities in CFM20 zones and one home per five-acre densities in CFM5 zones;

(b) Density bonuses will be deleted;

(c) Forest reserves will be permanently preserved for commercial forestry;

(d) The density provisions and forest reserve area provided for in commercial forest/residential mixed use lands specify the type of cluster development option which is appropriate for these lands. Other than a master planned resort, no other type of PUDs will be allowed in this designation.

(4) Areas not presently managed for commercial forestry which are found in close association with large blocks of commercial forest land should be utilized as a buffer between commercial forest lands and rural sized developments. These areas should be designated for very low density residential use at 20-acre densities.

(a) These transitional forest-residential lands should ensure compatibility with adjacent commercial forest land use through increased structural setbacks and recognition of the right-to-practice forestry ordinance on adjacent lands.

(b) Landowners within the transitional forest-residential lands should be notified of property tax options for conserving forest lands.

(5) Retention of all designated commercial forestlands in the Straits Planning Region is vital to maintenance of the forest industry as the regions leading industry. Given that development potentials of rural and urban lands in the region could accommodate much more than 20 years of population growth, designated commercial forest resource lands should be retained in the original commercial forestland designations and zoning proposed by the 1994 plan throughout the planning period.

(6) Retention of designated commercial forestlands is a key component to protection of water quality and water quantity when properly managed to protect water quality.

(7) Clallam County should assist private landowners with problems such as trespass, dumping, poaching, and vandalism in order to encourage large private commercial forest landowners to maintain and increase opportunities for public access, especially access across private lands to public lands.

(8) Master planned resorts should be visually compatible with rural areas and should not be located on forest resource lands when more than 50 percent of the proposed site would be covered by critical areas.

(9) Clallam County should work with private landowners to provide emergency access and improve safety along public roads.

(10) Traditional uses of public land and private resource lands (where allowed) should be recognized. These uses include thinning and harvesting of timber, brush picking, mushroom gathering, hunting, and recreation. These uses are necessary to the livelihood and well being of the citizens of the Straits Region. Clallam County should coordinate with any federal or State agency on any proposal that would impact these traditional uses of public or private lands. This would include joint planning and analysis of impacts to the environment as well as socioeconomic impacts.

(11) Public use of logging roads that connect Highway 101 and Highway 112, such as the Joyce Access Road, Sadie Creek Road, East Twin Road, etc., should be retained. Existing logging roads are utilized by the Olympic Discovery Trail west of the Mary Clark Road to access the community of Forks and extend a spur of the trail to the vicinity of LaPush. These roads should be available for recreational users such as hikers, bicyclists, and equestrians and only closed when harvesting practices necessitate. With the frequent closure of Highway 112, these roads provide important secondary and emergency routes for the Straits Region.

(12) RV parks and campgrounds should be allowed in commercial forest land use designations within the western portion of the Straits Planning Region.