Chapter 105 – PARKING AREAS, VEHICLE AND PEDESTRIAN ACCESS, AND RELATED IMPROVEMENTS

Sections:

105.05    User Guide

105.10    Vehicular Access Easement or Tract Standards

105.12    Maximum Allowable Grade

105.15    Exception in Design Districts

105.17    Site Plan Review

105.18    Pedestrian Access

105.19    Public Pedestrian Walkways

105.20    Number of Parking Spaces

105.25    Number of Parking Spaces – Not Specified in Use Zones

105.32    Bicycle Parking

105.34    Covered Bicycle Storage

105.35    Driveway Entrances

105.40    Location of Parking Areas – General

105.45    Location of Parking Areas – Shared Facilities

105.47    Location of Parking Areas – Garages in Low Density Zones

105.50    Location of Parking Areas – Adjoining Low Density Zones

105.55    Location of Parking Areas – Required Setback Yards

105.58    Location of Parking Areas Specific to Design Districts

105.60    Parking Area Design – General

105.62    Parking Area Design – Turnaround Space

105.65    Parking Area Design – Compact Car Spaces

105.67    Parking Area Design – Preferential Parking Allowance

105.70    Parking Area Design – Parking Designed for the Handicapped

105.75    Parking Area Design – Landscaping

105.77    Parking Area Design – Curbing

105.80    Parking Area Design – Buffering

105.85    Parking Area Design – Dedication

105.90    Parking Area Design – Plant Choice

105.95    Parking Area Design – Traffic Control Devices

105.96    Parking Area Design – Drive-Through Facilities and Circulation

105.97    Parking Area Design – Backing Onto Street Prohibited

105.100    Parking Area Design – Surface Materials

105.102    Parking Area Design – Streets Used in Circulation Pattern

105.103    Modifications

105.104    Planning Director Authority To Adopt Standards

105.105    Appeals

105.106    Bonds

105.05 User Guide

This chapter contains information on vehicle and pedestrian circulation areas, parking areas, and related improvements. For the most part, this chapter will not tell you how many parking spaces are required for a particular use. This information is listed for most uses in the use zone charts or development standards tables. However, this chapter does provide a mechanism for determining the specific parking requirement for some uses. It also contains a mechanism for requesting permission to increase or decrease the parking requirements of this code. Finally, this chapter contains requirements regarding the location and minimum dimensions of parking areas and other vehicular and pedestrian circulation areas.

For properties within jurisdiction of the Shoreline Management Act, see Chapter 83 KZC.

(Ord. 4476 § 3, 2015; Ord. 4252 § 1, 2010)

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105.10 Vehicular Access Easement or Tract Standards

1.    Roadway Widths – For vehicular access easements or tracts, minimum standards for widths are established as follows:

a.    When no Fire Department access road is required, and the access easement or tract will service one (1) to four (4) detached dwelling units or one (1) to two (2) duplex structures, the minimum standard is 16 feet of unobstructed pavement in a 21-foot-wide easement or tract. The Public Works Department may reduce the standard to 10 feet of unobstructed pavement in a 15-foot-wide easement or tract if the easement or tract and abutting driveways are located to allow for safe ingress and egress.

When an access road is required by the Fire Department, the following standards shall apply:

1)    The access road shall extend full width from the public right-of-way to the point at which the distance to the most distant point of the property line of the furthest lot is within 150 feet. Required pavement width shall be unobstructed;

2)    If accessing no more than two (2) detached dwelling units or one (1) duplex from the access road;

a)    If the total length of the access road is less than 150 feet, the minimum pavement width shall be 16 feet, placed in a 21-foot-wide easement or tract, and no Fire Department vehicle turn-around is required;

b)    If the total length of the access road is less than 200 feet but greater than 150 feet, the minimum standard is either:

i.    16 feet of pavement, placed within a 21-foot-wide easement or tract, with an appropriate Fire Department vehicle turn-around placed within an easement or tract at least 25 feet in width; or

ii.    20 feet of pavement, placed within a 25-foot-wide easement or tract, with no Fire Department vehicle turn-around;

c)    If the total length of the access road is greater than 200 feet, the minimum pavement width shall be 20 feet, with an appropriate Fire Department vehicle turn-around placed within an easement or tract at least 25 feet in width;

3)    If accessing three (3) or four (4) detached dwelling units or two (2) duplex structures from the access road, the minimum standard is 20 feet of unobstructed pavement in a 25-foot wide easement or tract.

b.    For five (5) or more detached dwelling units, a dedicated and improved public right-of-way is required. See Chapter 110 KZC for the required improvements.

c.    For all other uses, the minimum standard is 20 feet of unobstructed paved surface with vertical cast in place curbs and gutters within a 20-foot-wide easement or tract.

d.    A greater pavement width and/or easement or tract width may be required by the Department of Public Works, Fire Department, or Planning and Building Department as determined on a case-by-case basis.

2.    General

a.    For subsection (1)(a) of this section, a dwelling unit that meets the following criteria shall not be counted as a “served dwelling unit” on a vehicular access easement or tract (see Plate 21):

1)    The dwelling unit is on a lot that abuts and has vehicular access rights to the improved public right-of-way that joins the vehicular access easement or tract; and

2)    The Fire Department determines that fire apparatus can service the lot containing the dwelling unit from the abutting improved public right-of-way.

b.    For subsection (1)(a) of this section, the length of the easement or tract shall be measured from the serving improved public right-of-way to the front property line of the furthest lot at the end of the easement or tract.

c.    Vehicular access rights for each lot served by the easement or tract shall be established either by segregating the roadway into a separate tract in which each lot served has an undivided ownership interest and recording the tract document, or by recording a vehicular access easement document. The recorded documents must establish equal maintenance responsibilities for the owners of all lots served by the roadway and require the owners to erect and maintain a sign where the easement or tract joins the serving improved public right-of-way to identify the roadway as “private.”

d.    The paved surface in an easement or tract shall have a minimum of two (2) inches of asphalt concrete over a suitably prepared base which has a minimum thickness of four (4) inches of crushed rock or three (3) inches of asphalt-treated base. The Department of Public Works is authorized to modify the standards for a paved surface on a case-by-case basis. Pervious surfaces (such as pervious concrete or asphalt, and modular or grassed modular grid pavement) can be used in compliance with the stormwater design manual adopted in KMC 15.52.060.

e.    A minimum unobstructed vertical clearance of 13 feet, six (6) inches shall be provided in the easement or tract. The easement or tract shall remain unobstructed at all times. No parking, structures or vegetation, with the exception of grass, shall be permitted in the easement or tract.

f.    The paved surface in the easement or tract shall be set back at least five (5) feet from any adjacent property which does not receive access from that easement or tract.

g.    An easement or tract that has a paved area greater than 10 feet in width must be screened from any adjacent property that does not receive access from that easement or tract. The screening shall be:

1)    A minimum 5-foot-high sight-obscuring fence; or

2)    Vegetation that will provide comparable screening to a 5-foot fence within two (2) years of planting; and

3)    Along the entire easement or tract outside the required front yard.

h.    See KZC 105.20 for providing adequate guest parking spaces.

i.    Nonconforming access easements and tracts which were legally created shall not be required to comply with the dimensional standards of subsection (1) of this section.

(Ord. 4703 § 1, 2019; Ord. 4491 §§ 3, 4, 2015; Ord. 4350 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4072 § 1, 2007; Ord. 3954 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3852 § 1, 2002; Ord. 3814 § 1, 2001)

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105.12 Maximum Allowable Grade

The slope of vehicular access easements and tracts, and the slope of entrance and exit driveways, except driveways for detached single-family residences, shall not exceed six (6) percent for the first 20 feet from the face of the abutting right-of-way curb. Thereafter, the slope shall not exceed 15 percent. The Departments of Public Works and Fire are authorized to modify the standards for maximum allowable grade on a case-by-case basis.

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105.15 Exception in Design Districts

If the subject property is within a Design District, the requirements contained within the applicable use zone charts, Chapter 92 or 110 KZC supersede any conflicting provisions of this chapter. The provisions of this chapter that do not conflict with the Design District chapters and Chapter 92 KZC apply to properties in their respective zones.

(Ord. 4320 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4037 § 1, 2006; Ord. 4030 § 1, 2006; Ord. 3944 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3833 § 1, 2002)

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105.17 Site Plan Review

Before commencing any development activity on a new parking area or any alteration or improvement to an existing parking area (except routine maintenance), the applicant must submit a site plan for approval by the Planning and Building Department. Parking areas must comply with the Zoning Code. The site plan must be drawn to scale and show the following items:

1.    All buildings on the subject property.

2.    All parking and driving areas and pedestrian and bicycle facilities on the subject property.

3.    All landscaping and buffering on the subject property.

4.    The nature of the use of all adjoining properties.

5.    All adjoining rights-of-way.

6.    All transit stops and/or facilities on abutting rights-of-way.

(Ord. 4491 § 3, 2015)

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105.18 Pedestrian Access

1.    General – Promoting an interconnected network of pedestrian routes within neighborhoods is an important goal within the City. Providing pedestrian access from buildings to abutting rights-of-way, walkways and other uses on the subject property, and connections between properties help meet the objectives of nonmotorized transportation policies. Installing pedestrian connections and other pedestrian improvements with new development reduces the reliance on vehicles, reduces traffic congestion and promotes nonmotorized travel options and provides health benefits. This section establishes regulations for pedestrian access that primarily serves users of the subject property and for which dedication of public access rights is not required. KZC 105.19 establishes regulations for public pedestrian access for which dedication of public access is required.

2.    Pedestrian Access – Location – All new development, except detached single-family and duplex uses, shall comply with the following pedestrian access requirements pursuant to the standards in subsection (3) of this section:

a.    From Buildings to Sidewalks and Transit Facilities – Provide pedestrian walkways designed to minimize walking distance from the primary entrances to all buildings to the abutting right-of-way, pedestrian walkway and transit facilities pursuant to the applicable standard in subsection (3) of this section.

b.    Between Uses on Subject Property – Provide pedestrian walkways between the primary entrances to all businesses, uses, and/or buildings on the subject property pursuant to the applicable standard in subsection (3) of this section.

c.    Along Building Facades Not Adjacent to a Sidewalk in the Rose Hill Business District (RHBD) and Totem Lake Business District (TLBD) Design Districts – In RHBD and TLBD Design Districts, for buildings that do not front on a public sidewalk, a pedestrian walkway shall be provided along the entire facade of all building facades containing the primary entrance (see Figure 105.18.A). The walkway shall meet the through-block pedestrian pathway standards in KZC 105.19(2)(b) (see also Figure 105.19.A) except public dedication will typically not be required. Exceptions may be approved as part of Design Review in the following circumstances: where new development is less than 2,000 square feet of gross floor area, features a landscaped front yard area and parking is located to the side or rear, only direct pedestrian access shall be provided from the abutting sidewalk to the primary entrance to the buildings.

d.    Between Properties – Provide pedestrian walkways connecting to adjacent properties pursuant to the applicable standards in subsection (3) of this section. Exceptions: Pedestrian connections to industrial uses are not required. The location for the access points at property edges and to adjacent lots shall be coordinated with existing and planned development to provide convenient pedestrian links between developments. Where there are topographic changes in elevation between properties, stairs or ramps shall be provided to make the pedestrian connection.

e.    Through Parking Areas – All parking lots which contain more than 25 stalls must include pedestrian walkways through the parking lot to the main building entrance or a central location. The walkways must meet the development standards pursuant to subsection (3) of this section (see Figures 105.18.B and C).

f.    Through Parking Garages – Provide marked pedestrian routes through parking garages from the parking area to the abutting public right-of-way and to the pedestrian entrance of the building. Install walkways pursuant to standards in subsection (3) of this section.

3.    Pedestrian Access – Required Improvements

a.    Pedestrian Walkway Standards – General – The applicant shall install pedestrian walkways pursuant to the following standards:

1)    Must be at least five (5) feet wide;

2)    Must be distinguishable from traffic lanes by painted markings, pavement material, texture, or raised in elevation;

3)    Must have adequate lighting for security and safety. Lights must be nonglare and mounted no more than 20 feet above the ground;

4)    Must be centrally located on the subject property;

5)    Must be accessible;

6)    Barriers which limit future pedestrian access between the subject property and adjacent properties are not permitted;

7)    Easements to provide rights of access between adjacent properties shall be recorded prior to project occupancy.

b.    Overhead Weather Protection – Location – The applicant shall provide pedestrian overhead weather protection in the following locations:

1)    Along any portion of the building which is adjacent to a pedestrian walkway or sidewalk;

2)    Over the primary exterior entrance to all buildings including residential units.

3)    Exceptions in Design Districts:

In CBD Zones: Along at least 80 percent of the frontage of the subject property on each pedestrian-oriented street.

In RHBD, BN, BNA, MSC 2, FHNC, HENC 1, HENC 3 and TLBD Zones: Along at least 75 percent of a pedestrian-oriented building facade.

In JBD Zones: Along 100 percent of a building facade abutting a street or through-block pathway.

For more information regarding designated pedestrian-oriented streets see Plate 34 in Chapter 180 KZC, and pedestrian-oriented facades in Chapter 92 KZC.

c.    Overhead Weather Protection – Configuration – The overhead weather protection may be composed of awnings, marquees, canopies, building overhangs, covered porches, recessed entries or other similar features. The overhead weather protection must cover at least five (5) feet of the width of the adjacent walkway and must be at least eight (8) feet above the ground immediately below it.

If development is subject to Design Review, the City will specifically review and approve the color, material and configuration of all overhead weather protection and the material and configuration of all pedestrian walkways as part of the Design Review decision.

Pedestrian Walkway Along Building Facade

FIGURE 105.18.A

d.    Pedestrian Walkways Through Parking Areas and Parking Garage Standards – The applicant shall install pedestrian walkways through parking areas and parking garages pursuant to the following standards (see Figure 105.18.B):

1)    Must be installed pursuant to the standards described in subsection (3)(a) of this section;

2)    Walkway shall not use vehicle entrance or exit driveways from the parking area to a public right-of-way;

3)    Must connect from the parking spaces to the pedestrian entrance of the building served by the parking.

Pedestrian Access From Street or Pedestrian Walkway to Building Entrance

FIGURE 105.18.B

4)    All parking lots that contain more than 25,000 square feet of paved area, including access lanes and driveways, must include clearly identified pedestrian routes from the parking stalls to the main building entrance or central location (see Figure 105.18.C). At a minimum, walkways must be provided for every three (3) driving aisles or at a distance of not more than 150-foot intervals, whichever is less, and meet the standards of subsection (3)(a) of this section.

Pathways must be provided through parking areas.

FIGURE 105.18.C

(Ord. 4637 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4636 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4495 § 2, 2015; Ord. 4390 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4350 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4320 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4121 § 1, 2008; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007)

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105.19 Public Pedestrian Walkways

1.    Public Pedestrian Walkways – Location – In addition to the pedestrian walkways required in KZC 105.18, the City may require the applicant to install pedestrian walkways for use by the general public on the subject property and dedicate public pedestrian access rights in any of the following circumstances where the walkway is reasonably necessary as a result of the development activity:

a.    A pedestrian connection is indicated as appropriate in the Comprehensive Plan or Active Transportation Plan; or designated elsewhere in this code; or

b.    A walkway is reasonably necessary to provide efficient pedestrian access to an activity center of the City, such as schools, parks, shopping areas, employment centers or transit; or

c.    A through-block pedestrian pathway where specifically required in Design Districts; or

d.    A through-block pedestrian pathway if blocks are unusually long; or

e.    Pedestrian access is necessary to connect between:

i.    Existing or planned dead-end streets; or

ii.    Through streets; or

iii.    An existing street and the Cross Kirkland Corridor or Eastside Rail Corridor; or

iv.    Other public pedestrian access walkways.

2.    Required Improvements – The applicant shall install public pedestrian walkways pursuant to the following standards:

a.    General:

1)    Pedestrian access shall be provided by means of dedicated rights-of-way, tracts, or easements at the City’s option;

2)    The width of the access right-of-way, tract, or easement, and the walkway material and width, shall be determined per the Public Works Pre-Approved Plans;

3)    The height of solid (blocking visibility) fences along a pedestrian walkway that is not directly adjacent to a public or private street right-of-way shall be limited to 42 inches unless otherwise approved by the Planning or Public Works Directors;

4)    All new building structures shall be set back a minimum of five (5) feet from any pedestrian access right-of-way, tract, or easement that is not directly adjacent to a public or private street right-of-way;

5)    The alignment of walkways shall consider the location of proposed and existing buildings (preferably located along building fronts or property lines);

6)    Adequate pedestrian lighting at a maximum of 12 feet in height shall be provided along the pathway;

7)    Overhead weather protection shall be installed consistent with KZC 105.18(3).

b.    Through-Block Pathway Standards – General – If a through-block pathway is designated to be installed on the subject property, it shall be installed pursuant to the following standards. See subsection (2)(c) of this section for standards within specified Design Districts.

1)    A minimum unobstructed pavement width of eight (8) feet, paved with decorative concrete. A minimum of five (5) feet may be approved for residential uses.

2)    Trees placed at an average of 30 feet on-center between the pathway and any parking or vehicular access area (see Figure 105.19.A). Exceptions:

a)    To increase business visibility and accessibility, the City may allow modifications in the required tree coverage adjacent to primary building entries; however, no less than one (1) tree per 60 lineal feet of the required pathway shall be provided.

b)    The required trees must be placed in planting strips at least 4.5 feet in width or within tree grates.

3)    Adequate pedestrian lighting at a maximum of 12 feet in height shall be provided along the pathway.

4)    Barriers that will limit pedestrian access between the subject property and adjacent properties are not permitted.

5)    The through-block pathway may be retained within dedicated rights-of-way, tracts, or easements at the City’s option. The width of the pathway right-of-way, tract, or easement will be determined by the Planning Official.

6)    If subject to Design Review the City will specifically review and approve the material and configuration of all through-block pathways as part of the Design Review decision.

c.    Through-Block Pathway Standards Specific to Certain Design Districts

1)    In JBD 1 – See Use Zone Chart KZC 52.10 for location of through-block pathways in JBD 1. Through-block pathways adjacent to the front of buildings must be 10 feet wide with a 6-inch vertical curb, and paved with concrete or unit pavers. Pathways that are not adjacent to the front of buildings must have a minimum width of eight (8) feet and differentiated with texture or material from adjacent driveway and parking area pavement unless otherwise determined through Design Review.

2)    In TL 2 – See Use Zone Chart KZC 55.19 for location of through-block pathways in TL 2. The minimum width, curb specifications and paving materials for through-block pathways shall be established through the Conceptual Master Plan review. Through-block pathways must have adequate lighting, with increased illumination around building entrances and at street crossings.

3)    In TL 5 – See Use Zone Chart KZC 55.37 for location of through-block pathways in TL 5. See subsection (b) of this section for development standards.

4)    In TL 6B – See Use Zone Chart Section 55.43 for location of through-block pathways in TL 6B. See subsection (b) of this section for development standards.

Through-Block Pathway

FIGURE 105.19.A

(Ord. 4749 § 1, 2021; Ord. 4442 § 1, 2014; Ord. 4350 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4320 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007)

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105.20 Number of Parking Spaces

1.    Minimum Spaces – The number of parking spaces required for a use is the minimum required. The applicant shall provide at least that number of spaces, consistent with the provisions of this chapter. If the required number of parking spaces results in a fraction, the applicant shall provide the number of spaces equal to the next higher whole number.

2.    Exclusions – The square footage of pedestrian, transit, and/or bicycle facilities, and/or garages or carports, on the subject property shall not be included in the gross floor area calculation used to determine required number of parking stalls.

3.    Guest Parking – For medium- and high-density residential uses, parking spaces in addition to the minimum required parking shall be required parking as follows:

a.    A minimum ten (10) percent of the total number of required parking spaces shall be provided for guest parking and located in a common area accessible by guests. If the required number of guest parking spaces results in a fraction, the applicant shall provide the number of spaces equal to the next higher whole number. If the result is a fraction that requires less than one (1) guest stall, no guest parking stall is required if on-street parking is available within 600 feet of the subject property.

b.    Residential dwelling units with driveways that meet the minimum parking stall dimensional standards of this chapter and with an associated garage containing their respective required number of parking stalls may be excluded from the guest parking calculation required in subsection (3)(a) of this section since the driveway can be used to provide guest parking for the associated dwelling unit.

c.    Guest parking stalls located in a common area shall not be leased or assigned to residents.

d.    Guest parking stalls shall not be gated and shall be accessible to guests between 6:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m.

4.    Parking Space Reductions Near Transit – In accordance with RCW 36.70A.620, minimum parking space requirements for specified residential uses are reduced pursuant to subsections (4)(a) through (c) of this section:

a.    For dwelling units that are affordable to very low-income households or extremely low-income households as defined by RCW 36.70A.030, and that are located within one-quarter mile of a transit stop that receives transit service at least two (2) times per hour for 12 or more hours per day, minimum parking requirements for one-bedroom and studio units are reduced to one (1) parking space per one-bedroom unit and 0.75 space per studio unit. The City will require an applicant to record a covenant that prohibits the rental or sale of a unit subject to this parking reduction for any purpose other than providing for housing for very low-income or extremely low-income individuals.

b.    For senior citizen households or housing units specifically for people with disabilities that are located within one-quarter mile of a transit stop that receives transit service at least four (4) times per hour for 12 or more hours per day, minimum parking space requirements are eliminated for residents. Parking requirements for staff and visitors of such housing units will be established pursuant to KZC 105.25. The City will require an applicant to record a covenant that prohibits the rental or sale of a unit subject to this parking restriction for any purpose other than providing for senior citizen households or housing for people with disabilities.

c.    For market rate multifamily dwelling units that are located within one-quarter mile of a transit stop that receives transit service from at least one (1) route that provides service at least four (4) times per hour for 12 or more hours per day, minimum parking requirements for one-bedroom and studio units are reduced to one (1) parking space per one-bedroom unit and 0.75 space per studio unit.

d.    When utilizing parking space reductions for one-bedroom or studio units in subsections (4)(a) and/or (c) of this section, those dwelling units shall provide additional guest parking consistent with the requirements in subsection (3) of this section. The Planning Official may reduce or eliminate the number of required on-site quest parking spaces for those units where a peak occupancy analysis of on-street parking along the subject property’s street frontage, using methodology approved by the City’s Transportation Engineer, shows availability of an equal or greater number of available on-street parking spaces.

(Ord. 4749 § 1, 2021; Ord. 4487 § 1, 2015; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 3852 § 1, 2002; Ord. 3814 § 1, 2001)

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105.25 Number of Parking Spaces – Not Specified in Use Zones

If this code does not specify a parking space requirement for a particular use in a particular zone, the Planning Official shall establish a parking requirement on a case-by-case basis. The Planning Official shall base this determination on the actual parking demand on existing uses similar to the proposed use; provided, that shelters permitted as a community facilities use may count available on-street parking toward the parking requirement at the discretion of the City. The number of available on-street parking spaces shall be determined by the City Traffic Engineer based on a study prepared by a licensed transportation engineer or other qualified professional. The scope of the study shall be proposed by the transportation engineer and approved by the City Traffic Engineer. The study shall provide at least two (2) days of data for morning, afternoon and evening hours, or as otherwise approved or required by the City Traffic Engineer.

(Ord. 4619 § 1, 2017; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007)

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105.32 Bicycle Parking

Bicycle parking spaces shall be provided in all new development required to provide six (6) or more motor vehicle parking spaces to encourage the use of bicycles as a form of transportation by providing safe and convenient places to park bicycles. Exception: single-family and duplex development are exempt from this section.

Bicycle parking spaces shall be provided at a ratio of one (1) bicycle space for each 12 required motor vehicle parking spaces. The Planning Official may modify the number of bicycle racks according to size of development and anticipated pedestrian and bicycle activity.

Bicycle parking in the form of a bike rack or enclosed storage container shall be conveniently located for the users, generally within 50 feet of an exterior entrance of all uses, and within 50 feet of a retail use entrance. Bicycle racks shall be located in a visible, well lit, sheltered area such as under an eave, awning, or other similar enclosure and located to not impede vehicle parking or pedestrian movement. A bike rack(s) shall be installed with the capacity to accommodate the required number of bicycle spaces. For buildings with multiple uses such as a commercial or mixed use residential-commercial centers, bicycle spaces may be clustered between businesses to serve up to six (6) businesses.

(Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007)

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105.34 Covered Bicycle Storage

If covered and secured bicycle storage is provided on site, a credit towards parking requirements at a ratio of one (1) less parking stall per six (6) bicycle spaces will be granted. The Planning Official may increase credits according to size of development and anticipated pedestrian and bicycle activity and proximity to transit facilities. A maximum reduction of five (5) percent of required parking stalls may be granted. If a reduction of five (5) or more stalls is granted, then changing facilities including showers, lockers shall be required.

(Ord. 4350 § 1, 2012)

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105.35 Driveway Entrances

The City may restrict the width, number and location of driveways along the frontage of the subject property to improve vehicle circulation, public safety, or to enhance pedestrian movement.

(Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007)

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105.40 Location of Parking Areas – General

Unless otherwise specified, the applicant shall provide the required number of parking spaces either:

1.    On the lot(s) containing the proposed use which generates the parking space(s) requirement; or

2.    On a lot adjoining subsection (1) of this section if that lot is in a zone that permits the use conducted on the subject property.

For either situation in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, shelters permitted as a community facilities use may count available on-street parking toward the parking requirement as determined in KZC 105.25, Number of Parking Spaces – Not Specified in Use Zones.

For situation in subsection (2) of this section, where the lot is not owned by the same person who owns the lot containing the proposed use which generates the parking space requirements, the owner of the lot containing the parking must sign a statement in a form acceptable to the City Attorney, stating that the lot is devoted in whole or in part to required parking for the use on another lot. The applicant must file this statement with the King County Recorder’s Office to run with the property.

(Ord. 4619 § 1, 2017; Ord. 4491 § 11, 2015)

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105.45 Location of Parking Areas – Shared Facilities

Two (2) or more uses may share a parking area if the number of parking spaces provided is equal to the greatest number of required spaces for uses operating at the same time. The City may approve the shared parking if a peak demand study demonstrates that the shared facilities are sufficient to fully serve the uses during the peak parking period for the uses. The study shall be prepared by a licensed transportation engineer or other qualified professional and the scope of the study shall be approved by the City traffic engineer. To ensure that a parking area is shared, the property owner(s) must sign a covenant in a form acceptable to the City Attorney, committing to the shared use of parking facilities and the conditions under which the City approved the use of shared parking. The covenant shall include language regarding the following:

1.    A guarantee among the property owner(s) for access to and use of the shared parking facilities; and

2.    Acknowledgement that it is a violation of this code to deviate from the conditions under which the City approved the use of shared parking.

The applicant must file this statement with the King County Recorder’s Office to run with the property(ies).

(Ord. 4487 § 1, 2015)

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105.47 Location of Parking Areas – Garages in Low Density Zones

Except for garages accessed from an alley, garages serving detached dwelling units in low density zones shall provide a minimum 20-foot by 20-foot parking pad between the garage and the access easement, tract, or right-of-way providing access to the garage. These dimensions may be reduced if the Planning Official or Public Works Official determines that the reduction will not:

1.    Impede vehicular or pedestrian use of the easement, tract, or right-of-way by other users; and

2.    Impede emergency vehicle movement through the easement, tract, or right-of-way.

(Ord. 4072 § 1, 2007)

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105.50 Location of Parking Areas – Adjoining Low Density Zones

The applicant shall locate a parking area for a use other than a detached dwelling unit as far as possible from any adjoining low density zone, or existing low density permitted use.

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105.55 Location of Parking Areas – Required Setback Yards

For regulations on parking areas in required setback yards, see Chapter 115 KZC.

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105.58 Location of Parking Areas Specific to Design Districts

If the subject property is located in a Design District, the applicant shall locate parking areas on the subject property according to the following requirements:

1.    Location of Parking Areas in the CBD, HENC, BDC (TL 1, TL 2, TL 3) Zones

a.    Parking areas shall not be located between a pedestrian-oriented street and a building unless specified in a Conceptual Master Plan in TL 2. (See Plate 34 in Chapter 180 KZC and Chapters 92 and 110 KZC for additional requirements regarding pedestrian-oriented streets).

b.    On all other streets, parking lots shall not be located between the street and the building on the subject property unless no other feasible alternative exists.

2.    Location of Parking Areas in the JBD 2, NRHBD and YBD Zones – Parking areas shall not be located between the street and the building unless no other feasible alternative exists on the subject property.

3.    Location of Parking Areas in Certain TLBD and RHBD Zones – Parking areas and vehicular access may not occupy more than 50 percent of the street frontage in the following zones (see Figure 105.58.A):

a.    TL 4, only properties fronting on 120th Avenue NE;

b.    TL 5;

c.    TL 6A, only properties fronting on 124th Avenue NE. Auto dealers in this zone are exempt from this requirement;

d.    TL 6B, only properties fronting on NE 124th Street;

e.    TL 10E.

Alternative configurations may be considered through the Design Review process, if the project meets the objectives of the KMC Design Guidelines for the Totem Lake Business District.

f.    In the Regional Center (RH 1A, RH 2A, RH 3 and RH 5A zones west of 124th Avenue). For parcels over two (2) acres in size, parking lots and vehicular access areas may not occupy more than 50 percent of the NE 85th Street property frontage (see Figure 105.58.A). Alternative configurations will be considered through the Design Review process, if the project meets the intent of the KMC Design Guidelines for the Rose Hill Business District.

FIGURE 105.58.A

(Ord. 4637 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4636 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4495 § 2, 2015; Ord. 4390 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4333 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4307 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4107 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007)

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105.60 Parking Area Design – General

1.    The minimum dimensions for parking aisles, parking spaces, and parking areas are displayed in plates in Chapter 180 KZC. These plates apply to parking for all uses except detached dwelling units. Columns may encroach a maximum of six (6) inches into the specified minimum dimensions for parking stall width provided:

a.    The columns are set back at least two (2) feet from the required driving aisle so as not to encumber vehicles turning into the stall; and

b.    The columns are not within the center eight (8) feet of the specified minimum dimensions for parking stall length so as to not interfere with opening of vehicle doors of parked cars.

2.    Driveways not within a parking area or structure shall be a minimum width of 20 feet. Driveways within a parking area or structure shall be a minimum width of 24 feet. This standard may be reduced if the City’s Transportation Engineer determines that there are no conflicts due to sight obstructions, location, traffic volumes, or other circulation factors. Driveways shall also comply with Public Works Pre-Approved Plans.

3.    Parking areas must be constructed so that car wheels are kept at least two (2) feet from pedestrian and landscape areas; provided, that parking areas may be constructed in a manner which allows vehicles to overhang a pedestrian or landscape area by up to two (2) feet if the pedestrian or landscape area within the area of vehicle overhang is not required by this or any other code (see Figure 105.60.A).

4.    Shared parking lot entrances and driveways between properties shall be installed whenever feasible as determined by the Planning Official.

5.    Parking areas must have adequate lighting. Lights in parking lots must be nonglare and must be mounted no more than 20 feet above the ground.

Extended Curb Used To Protect Landscape Strip

FIGURE 105.60.A

(Ord. 4703 § 1, 2019; Ord. 4413 § 1, 2013; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 3852 § 1, 2002)

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105.62 Parking Area Design – Turnaround Space

All parking stalls located at the end of a dead end parking aisle must be provided with adequate backing and turnaround space. The required depth of the turnaround space shall be determined as follows (see also Plate 20):

Width of Driving Aisle

Depth of Turnaround Space

24′ or less

6′

25′

5′

26′

4′

27′

3′

28′

2′

29′

1′

30′

0′

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105.65 Parking Area Design – Compact Car Spaces

The applicant may develop and designate up to 50 percent of the number of parking spaces for compact cars.

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105.67 Parking Area Design – Preferential Parking Allowance

Parking stalls may be allocated for preferential parking. A restriction on types of vehicles using preferred stalls applies from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. daily.

(Ord. 4350 § 1, 2012)

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105.70 Parking Area Design – Parking Designed for the Handicapped

The applicant shall design the parking area using standards set forth in Washington State regulations for barrier-free facilities.

(Ord. 3814 § 1, 2001)

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105.75 Parking Area Design – Landscaping

See Chapter 95 KZC for parking area landscaping requirements.

(Ord. 4010 § 3, 2005; Ord. 3972 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3889 § 2, 2003)

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105.77 Parking Area Design – Curbing

All parking areas and driveways, for uses other than detached dwelling units, must be surrounded by a 6-inch-high vertical concrete curb. Gaps in curbs are allowed for stormwater runoff.

(Ord. 4350 § 1, 2012)

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105.80 Parking Area Design – Buffering

See Chapter 95 KZC for parking area buffering requirements.

(Ord. 4010 § 3, 2005; Ord. 3972 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3889 § 2, 2003)

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105.85 Parking Area Design – Dedication

The City may require the applicant to dedicate development rights, air space, or an open space easement to the City in order to ensure the preservation of significant natural vegetation or planted materials.

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105.90 Parking Area Design – Plant Choice

The provisions of Chapter 95 KZC regarding plant choice apply to the landscaping and buffering required in this chapter.

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105.95 Parking Area Design – Traffic Control Devices

If the parking area serves a use other than a detached dwelling unit, the applicant shall clearly delineate parking spaces, traffic direction, and entrance and exitways. The City may require other traffic control devices necessary to ensure the safe and efficient flow of traffic.

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105.96 Parking Area Design – Drive-Through Facilities and Circulation

General – The applicant may propose drive-through facilities incorporated into parking areas associated with such uses as fast food, banks, pharmacies or other similar uses (unless prohibited in a zone), provided the access, location, and specific design of the facilities meet the following standards and approval by both the Public Works and Planning Officials.

1.    The applicant shall submit a site plan to the Public Works Department including the requirements of KZC 105.17, and showing compliance with the standards of subsections (1)(a) through (c) of this section:

a.    The Public Works Official determines that the vehicle queue will not:

1)    Impede pedestrian or vehicular movement within the right-of-way;

2)    Impede vehicle or pedestrian visibility as vehicles enter the sidewalk area;

3)    Block parking aisles nor impede on-site vehicular and pedestrian circulation;

4)    Access will not be located within the left turn lane at a signalized intersection;

b.    Driveway access to the drive-through facility is not located directly from an arterial unless the Public Works Official determines that sufficient driveway throat length is provided to accommodate the queues. If driveway access is allowed from an arterial, left turn movements may be restricted;

c.    The Public Works Official determines that parking circulation patterns avoid crossings of queuing areas.

(Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4037 § 1, 2006; Ord. 4030 § 1, 2006)

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105.97 Parking Area Design – Backing Onto Street Prohibited

Parking areas for uses other than detached dwelling units must be designed so that traffic need not back onto any street.

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105.100 Parking Area Design – Surface Materials

1.    General – The applicant shall surface the parking area and driveway with a material comparable or superior to the right-of-way providing direct vehicle access to the parking area. Pervious surfaces (such as pervious concrete or asphalt, and modular grid pavement) can be used in compliance with the stormwater design manual adopted in KMC 15.52.060.

2.    Exception – Grassed modular pavement may be used for emergency access areas that are not used in required permanent circulation and parking areas.

(Ord. 4350 § 1, 2012)

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105.102 Parking Area Design – Streets Used in Circulation Pattern

If a parking lot is designed so that a street is used as part of the circulation pattern, the parking lot must be designed so that traffic turning into or out of the parking area need not cross any moving lanes of traffic in the street. See Plate 8.

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105.103 Modifications

1.    General – The provisions of this section establish under what circumstances the requirements of this chapter may be modified.

2.    Authority to Grant and Duration

a.    If the proposed development of the subject property requires approval through Process I, IIA, or IIB, described in Chapters 145, 150 and 152 KZC, respectively, a request for a modification will be considered as part of that process under the provisions of this section. The City must find that the applicant meets the criteria listed below in subsection (3) of this section. If granted under Process I, IIA, or IIB, the modification is binding on the City for all development permits issued for that development under the Building Code within five (5) years of the granting of the modification.

b.    For projects requiring Design Review described in Chapter 142 KZC, a request to modify the requirements in KZC 105.18 or 105.19 will be considered as part of the Design Review process. The Design Review Board must find that the applicant meets the criteria listed below in subsection (3)(b) of this section.

c.    If subsection (2)(a) and/or (2)(b) of this section does not apply, the Planning Official may grant a modification in writing under the provisions of this section.

3.    Modifications – A modification to improvement requirements of this chapter may be required or granted if the applicant demonstrates on submitted plans and/or in writing that the following criteria have been met for modifications to the applicable sections:

a.    For a modification to KZC 105.10 for vehicular access easements or tracts and for KZC 105.60(3) and 105.97 for parking area design, the requirements may be modified if:

1)    The modifications will not affect the ability to provide any property with police, fire, emergency medical, or other essential services; and

2)    One (1) of the following requirements is met:

a)    The modification is necessary because of a preexisting physical condition; or

b)    The modification will produce a site design superior to that which would result from adherence to the adopted standard.

3)    Exception: KZC 105.10(2)(g) relating to screening for access easements or tracts will use the modification criteria in subsection (3)(h) of this section.

b.    For a modification to KZC 105.18 or 105.19 the requirements for pedestrian access may be modified if:

1)    The modification is necessary because of the size, configuration, topography or location of the subject property;

2)    The modification will provide for equal or improved pedestrian and bicycle safety and convenience; and

3)    The modification will not have any substantial detrimental effect on nearby properties and the City as a whole.

c.    For a modification to KZC 105.20 and 105.45, a decrease in the required number of spaces may be granted if the number of spaces proposed is documented by an adequate and thorough parking demand and utilization study to be sufficient to fully serve the use. The study shall be prepared by a licensed transportation engineer or other qualified professional, and shall analyze the operational characteristics of the proposed use which justify a parking reduction. The scope of the study shall be proposed by the transportation engineer and approved by the City Transportation Engineer. The study shall provide at least two (2) days of data for morning, afternoon and evening hours, or as otherwise approved or required by the City Transportation Engineer. Approval of a parking reduction shall be solely at the discretion of the City. A decrease in the minimum required number of spaces may be based in whole or part on the provision of nationally accepted TDM (transportation demand management) measures. Data supporting the effectiveness of the TDM measures shall be provided as part of the parking demand and utilization study and approved by the City Transportation Engineer.

For multifamily parking modifications in zones outside of the Totem Lake Urban Center, the parking demand rate result shall be increased by fifteen (15) percent and the resultant total shall then be subject to the visitor parking requirements in KZC 105.20(3).

For multifamily parking modifications in TL zones within the Totem Lake Urban Center, the parking demand rate total shall be subject to the visitor parking requirements in KZC 105.20(3), and the applicant must submit a Transportation Management Plan (TMP) for review and approval of the City Transportation Engineer. At a minimum, requirements for the TMP include:

1)    A parking management plan for all stalls associated with the development; and

2)    Confirmation that parking charges will be unbundled from the leases for the development.

The Planning Official shall not approve or deny a modification to decrease the number of parking spaces without first providing notice of the modification request to the owners and residents of property within 300 feet of the subject property and providing opportunity for comment. The Planning Official shall use mailing labels provided by the applicant, or, at the discretion of the Planning Official, by the City. Said comment period shall not be less than seven (7) calendar days.

Properties located in the CBD 1A, 1B, 2, and 8 zones that receive parking modification approval under this section are not eligible to utilize the special parking provisions in KZC 50.60(3)(a), Certain Floor Area Exempt from Parking Requirements.

d.    For a modification to KZC 105.40, the requirements for parking area location may be modified if:

1)    The proposed parking area will have no adverse impacts on adjacent properties;

2)    It is reasonable to expect that the proposed parking area will be used by the subject use; and

3)    A safe pedestrian and/or shuttle connection exists, or will be created, between the subject use and the proposed parking area.

e.    For a modification to the landscape and buffer requirements for parking and driving areas, see Chapter 95 KZC.

f.    For a modification to KZC 105.60(1) for parking area design, the requirements may be modified if the reduced dimensions are supported by an adequate and thorough parking design and operational study demonstrating functional and user-friendly parking operations. The study shall be prepared by a licensed transportation engineer or other qualified professional and shall analyze the operational characteristics of the proposed parking, including parking maneuvers, queuing, turnover frequency, safety, and traffic volumes. The scope of the study shall be proposed by the transportation engineer and approved by the City Traffic Engineer. Approval of reduced dimensions shall be solely at the discretion of the City.

g.    For a modification to KZC 105.77, the curbing requirement for parking areas and driveways may be modified if:

1)    The modification would result in superior landscaping and/or increased retention of significant natural vegetation;

2)    The modification will not result in increased hazards for pedestrians or vehicles; and

3)    The modification will not result in increased erosion of unpaved areas onto the parking area, driveway, or rights-of-way.

h.    For a modification to KZC 105.10(2)(g), the screening requirements for access easements or tracts may be modified if:

1)    The existing topography of or adjacent to the subject property decreases or eliminates the need for visual screening; or

2)    The modification will be of more benefit to the adjoining property by causing less impairment of view or sunlight; or

3)    The modification will provide a visual screen that is comparable or superior to the buffer required by KZC 105.10(2)(g).

i.    For a modification to KZC 105.100, the surface material requirement for parking areas and driveways may be modified if:

1)    The surfacing material will not enter into the drainage system, or onto public or other private property; and

2)    The material will provide a parking surface which is usable on a year-round basis.

(Ord. 4749 § 1, 2021; Ord. 4627 § 1, 2017; Ord. 4487 § 1, 2015; Ord. 4413 § 1, 2013; Ord. 4372 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4320 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4286 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4250 § 1, 2010; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4010 § 3, 2005; Ord. 3852 § 1, 2002)

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105.104 Planning Director Authority to Adopt Standards

1.    The Planning Director is authorized to develop, consistent with this chapter, any additional dimensional or similar standards that may be necessary for implementation of this chapter.

2.    The City shall enforce any standards established under subsection (1) of this section as if they were part of this code.

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105.105 Appeals

Modifications granted by the Planning Official under KZC 105.103 and standards established by the Planning Director under KZC 105.104 may be appealed using the appeal provisions of Process I of this code, KZC 145.60 through 145.100.

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105.106 Bonds

The City may require or permit a bond under Chapter 175 KZC to ensure compliance with any of the requirements of this chapter.

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