Chapter 18A.35
PARKING

Sections:

18A.35.040    Parking.

18A.35.040 Parking.

A.    Purpose. The purpose of this Section is to regulate off-street and on-street parking areas to ensure adequate parking, lessen traffic congestion, and create uniform standards which provide sufficient on-site areas for parking and maneuvering of motor, transit, and nonmotorized vehicles. Associated design standards are located in PCC 18J.15.080.

B.    Applicability. This Section applies to all new construction and expansions to existing structures except where otherwise noted. Off-street parking shall be required for expansions or enlargements of existing structures in accordance with the requirements of Table 18A.35.040-1 unless otherwise specified. This Section shall be used in conjunction with Title 18J PCC standards. When conflicts exist, the most restrictive shall apply.

C.    Required Automobile Parking Spaces. Off-street parking spaces shall meet the requirements of this Section and if applicable, Title 18J PCC, at the time any building or structures is erected, enlarged, or expanded.

D.    Proximity of Parking Facilities. Off-street parking facilities shall be located as hereinafter specified. Where a distance is specified, such distance shall be the walking distance measured from the nearest point of the parking facilities to the nearest point of the building that such facility is required to serve.

1.    For a single-family dwelling, required parking facilities shall be located on the same lot or building site as the building they are required to serve, except for projects designed according to the Small Lot Design Standards of Title 18J PCC.

2.    For multi-family and condo projects, required parking shall be distributed in such a manner that required parking stalls are located no more than 100 feet from the unit they are to serve.

3.    For churches, hospitals, group homes, institutions, rooming and lodging houses, nursing and convalescent homes, community clubs, and club rooms, parking facilities shall be located not farther than 150 feet from the facility.

4.    For mixed use buildings located within a Residential Targeted Area designated by the Pierce County Council pursuant to RCW 84.14, all off-street parking facilities, including parking for residential uses, shall be located no further than 300 feet from the mixed use building.

5.    For uses other than those specified, parking facilities shall be located not farther than 300 feet from the facility.

E.    Parking Quantity Standards. The number of off-street parking spaces shall be determined by using Table 18A.35.040-1. In the case of a land use not specifically mentioned in Table 18A.35.040-1, required off-street parking shall be determined by the approval authority.

1.    Mixed Occupancies. In the case of two or more proposed land uses in the same development, the total off-street parking required shall be the sum of the uses calculated separately. Off-street parking facilities for one use shall not fulfill the parking requirements for any other use, except as hereafter specified in Chapter 18A.75 PCC for Use Permits or when meeting the requirements of shared parking in subsection E.3.

2.    Reducing Minimums. The approval authority may allow less than the minimum parking when:

a.    The applicant is able to demonstrate fewer spaces are needed based on an estimate of parking demand prepared by the applicant or consultant and, if available, other relevant studies; or

b.    On-street parking is available and approved; or

c.    It is an expansion of or change of use in an existing structure where on-street parking has historically been the majority or only parking available or where impervious surfaces are being reduced to meet standards, all landscape standards are being met, and all other parking standards are met in accordance with this Chapter; or

d.    For multi-family housing, universities and colleges, and religious assembly uses where alternative transportation options such as, but not limited to, transit are located adjacent to or are located within convenient walking distance to the development; or

e.    For universities and colleges when the applicant can demonstrate that off-street parking is not needed for a specified number of students who will telecommute; or

f.    For mixed use buildings located within a Residential Targeted Area designated by the Pierce County Council pursuant to RCW 84.14, the total required parking pursuant to Table 18A.35.040-1 may be reduced by 20 percent when the mixed use building(s) is located within 1,200 feet of a transit center and safe walking conditions to the transit center exist. Of the total parking provided, a minimum of one space shall be provided for each residential unit having two or fewer bedrooms and two spaces shall be required for each residential unit having three or more bedrooms. All required residential parking shall be located on-site and shall be clearly reserved for use by the residents of the building. If any portion of the non-residential parking for the mixed use building(s) will be met through the use of on-street parking or off-site parking, it shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Director that adequate on-street or off-site capacity exists to accommodate said parking. The Director may require a written shared parking agreement for off-site parking when the Director determines that such an agreement is necessary to adequately document off-site parking availability.

3.    Shared Parking. Two or more non-residential uses on the same or separate sites may share the same parking if:

a.    The total number of parking spaces provided is at least equal to the sum of the minimum number of spaces required for each use less the mixed use parking reduction standard (subsection 18A.35.040 E.1. above), and no greater than the sum of the maximum number of spaces permitted for each use; or

b.    The uses operate during different hours and the parking demands occur at different times, and the following documentation is submitted in writing to the Department:

(1)    The names and addresses of the owners or tenants that are sharing the parking;

(2)    The uses that are involved in the shared parking;

(3)    The location and number of parking spaces that are being shared;

(4)    An analysis showing that the peak parking times of the uses occur at different times and that the parking area will be large enough for the anticipated demands of both uses; and

(5)    A legal document such as an easement, lease agreement, or deed restriction that guarantees access to the parking lot for both uses.

c.    Where parking lots are shared the combined number of required parking spaces may be reduced by up to 20 percent.

4.    Exceeding Maximums. Parking spaces may exceed the maximum when constructed of permeable pavement or accommodated in a multi-storied or underground parking structure and meets the requirements of the Pierce County Stormwater Management and Site Development Manual.

5.    On-Street Parking. In urban zones, on-street parking may be used to meet off-street parking requirements if approved by the County Engineer.

6.    Carpool Spaces. All major employers or major worksites, as defined by RCW 70.94.524, shall designate at least 5 percent of the required vehicle spaces as carpool spaces. Carpool spaces may be included in total required parking or may exceed maximum allowed.

7.    Bicycle Facilities. New development shall provide at least one bicycle rack or locker for each 25 vehicle parking stalls, with at least one provided for each development.

Table 18A.35.040-1. Required Parking Spaces

Land Use

Minimum Parking

Maximum Parking

Residential Use Category

Single Family, Two Family, Mobile Home

2 per dwelling unit

Multiple-family dwellings:

Studio and one-bedroom units

1.5

per dwelling unit

Two-bedroom units

2 per dwelling unit

Three- or more bedroom units

2.25

per dwelling unit

Community Residential Facilities (Fraternities, Group Homes, Senior Housing, etc.)

1 per 2 bedrooms

1 per two bedrooms

Nursing Homes

1 per 4 beds + 1 per 2 employees on maximum shift

1 per 4 beds + 1 for each maximum shift employee

Civic Use Category

Administrative Government Services, Community and Cultural Services, Postal Services, Public Safety Services, Transportation

1 per 400 square feet

1 per 300 square feet

Daycare centers, including dog daycare and adult daycare

2 loading plus 1 per each employee

8 plus 1 per each employee in a maximum shift

Religious Assembly

1 per 5 seats (18 inches of bench area equals 1 seat) in the principal place of assembly for worship, including balconies and choir lofts, plus 1 per 100 square feet of the principal place of assembly for worship.

1 per 4 seats (18 inches of bench area equals 1 seat) in the principal place of assembly for worship, including balconies and choir lofts, plus 1 per 50 square feet of the principal place of assembly for worship.

Hospitals and Institutions

1 per 4 beds plus 1 for each employee on a maximum shift

1 per 2 beds plus 1 for each employee on a maximum shift

Medical, Dental, Emergency Medical, Libraries, Museums, Art Galleries

1 per 250 square feet

Elementary Schools, Middle and Junior High Schools

1 per employee

2 per employee

High Schools

1 per employee plus 1 per each 10 students

2 per employee plus 1 per each 5 students

University, vocational school, or other post-secondary school/ college

1 per 1,000 feet of floor area exclusive of dormitories plus 1 per 4 dorm rooms, or .3 per maximum student enrollment

.5 per maximum student enrolllment

Office/Business Use Category

Administrative and Professional offices (including banks), Educational Services

2 per 1,000 square feet

5 per 1,000 square feet

Resource Use Category

Resource Uses: For retail or professional uses, see those parking categories for parking standards.

1 per 2 non-resident employees

1 per non-resident employee

Commercial Use Category

Commercial Uses:

2 per 1,000 square feet

7 per 1,000 square feet

Exceptions:

Golf Courses (public and private): Clubhouses, restaurants and other facilities shall be calculated separately by use.

2 per hole and 1 per designated driving station on driving range

6 per hole and 2 per designated driving station on driving range

Eating and Drinking Establishments

1 per 250 square feet

1 per 100 square feet

Drive-up facilities: Drive-up facilities shall be calculated in addition to required parking for primary use.

4 vehicle queue per drive-up facility provided

10 vehicle queue per drive-up facility provided

Mortuaries or funeral homes

1 per 4 seats (18 inches of bench area equals 1 seat) within chapel or other indoor assembly area

2 per 4 seats (18 inches of bench area equals 1 seat) within chapel or other indoor assembly area

Pleasure craft moorages

1 per each 3 moorage stalls

1 per each 2 moorage stalls

Lodging: Additional facilities such as conference rooms, banquet areas, or restaurants shall be calculated separately by use.

1 per 2 units plus 1 per resident manager unit

1.5 per unit plus 1 per resident manager unit

Stadiums, auditoriums, theaters

1 per 4 seats (18 inches of bench area equals 1 seat), or for unseated venue, 1 per 4 occupants per Fire Marshal determination of maximum occupancy

1.5 per 4 seats (18 inches of bench area equals 1 seat) or 1.5 per 4 occupants per Fire Marshal determination of maximum occupancy

Storage

1 per 100 storage units plus 1 per resident or employee, plus 1 space for each unit that could accommodate personal hobby activities

4 per 100 storage units plus 1 per resident or employee

Bowling Alleys

2.5 per alley

4 per alley

Industrial Use Category

Industrial Uses

1 per 1,000 square feet or 1 per each 3 employees on a maximum shift

(Ord. 2017-28s § 7 (part), 2017; Ord. 2013-85 § 1 (part), 2013; Ord. 2013-30s2 § 5 (part), 2013; Ord. 2012-42s § 1 (part), 2012; Ord. 2010-70s § 11 (part), 2010; Ord. 2005-84s § 2 (part), 2005; Ord. 2004-52s § 3 (part), 2004; Ord. 2003-11s § 1 (part), 2003; Ord. 98-85S § 1 (part), 1998; Ord. 96-97 § 4 (part), 1996; Ord. 95-79S § 2 (part), 1995)