Chapter 21A.30
DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS – DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Sections:

21A.30.010    Purpose.

21A.30.020    Lot segregations – Zero lot line development.

21A.30.030    Lot segregations – Clustered development.

21A.30.040    Townhouse development.

21A.30.050    Attached dwellings and group residence – Applicability.

21A.30.060    Attached dwellings and group residences – Vehicular access and parking location.

21A.30.070    Attached dwellings and group residences – Building facade modulation.

21A.30.080    Mixed use development – Percentages of residential uses.

21A.30.090    Mixed use development – Residential density.

21A.30.100    Mixed use development – Building floor area.

21A.30.110    Mixed use development – Shared parking.

21A.30.120    Mobile home parks – Standards for existing parks.

21A.30.130    Mobile home parks – Standards for new parks.

21A.30.140    On-site recreation – Space required.

21A.30.150    Recreation space – Fees in lieu of.

21A.30.160    On-site recreation – Play areas required.

21A.30.170    On-site recreation – Maintenance of recreation space or dedication.

21A.30.180    Storage space and collection points for recyclables.

21A.30.185    Garbage and trash storage design.

21A.30.190    Fences.

21A.30.200    Trail corridors – Applicability.

21A.30.210    Trail corridors – Development standards.

21A.30.220    Trail corridors – Maintenance of trail corridors/improvements.

21A.30.230    Outdoor lighting.

21A.30.240    Nonresidential use design standards.

21A.30.250    Public agency and utility yard – Design requirements.

21A.30.260    Satellite public agency and utility yard – Design requirements.

21A.30.010 Purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to improve the quality of development by providing building and site design standards that:

(1) Reduce the visual impact of large residential buildings from adjacent streets and properties;

(2) Enhance the aesthetic character of large residential buildings;

(3) Contain sufficient flexibility of standards to encourage creative and innovative site and building design;

(4) Meet the on-site recreation needs of project residents;

(5) Enhance aesthetics and environmental protection through site design;

(6) Allow for continued or adaptive reuse of historic resources while preserving their historic and architectural integrity;

(7) Reduce the health and aesthetic impact of waste containers adjacent to streets;

(8) Promote compatibility between residential and nonresidential uses; and

(9) Promote health, safety, and security by minimizing glare and light trespass from outdoor lighting onto adjacent properties. (Ord. O2016-408 § 1 (Att. A); Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.020 Lot segregations – Zero lot line development.

In any R zone or in the NB zone on property designated commercial outside of center in the urban area, interior setbacks may be modified during subdivision or short subdivision review as follows:

(1) If a building is proposed to be located within a normally required interior setback in the NB zone:

(a) An easement shall be provided on the abutting lot of the subdivision that is wide enough to ensure a 10-foot separation between the walls of structures on adjoining lots, except as provided for common wall construction;

(b) The easement area shall be free of permanent structures and other obstructions that would prevent normal repair and maintenance of the structure’s exterior;

(c) Buildings utilizing reduced setbacks shall not have doors that open directly onto the private yard areas of abutting property. Windows in such buildings shall not be oriented toward such private yard areas unless they consist of materials such as glass block, textured glass, or other opaque materials, and shall not be capable of being opened, except for clerestory-style windows or skylights; and

(d) The final plat or short plat shall show the approximate location of buildings proposed to be placed in a standard setback area.

(2) If a building is proposed to be located within a normally required interior setback in an R zone:

(a) The residential development must qualify for the attached housing incentive provided in SMC 21A.85.040;

(b) An easement shall be provided on the abutting lot of the subdivision that is wide enough to ensure a 10-foot separation between the walls of structures on adjoining lots, except as provided for common wall construction;

(c) The easement area shall be free of permanent structures and other obstructions that would prevent normal repair and maintenance of the structure’s exterior;

(d) Buildings utilizing reduced setbacks shall not have doors that open directly onto the private yard areas of abutting property. Windows in such buildings shall not be oriented toward such private yard areas unless they consist of materials such as glass block, textured glass, or other opaque materials, and shall not be capable of being opened, except for clerestory-style windows or skylights; and

(e) The final plat or short plat shall show the approximate location of buildings proposed to be placed in a standard setback area. (Ord. O2008-236 § 1; Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.030 Lot segregations – Clustered development.

When residential lot clustering is proposed, the following provisions shall be met:

(1) Any open space resulting from lot clustering should be located where existing stands of native vegetation exist and shall not be altered or disturbed except as specified on recorded documents creating the open space. Such open spaces may be retained under ownership by the subdivider, conveyed to residents of the development, or conveyed to a third party. When access to the open space is provided, the access shall be located in a separate tract; and

(2) In the R-1 zone, open space tracts created by clustering required by SMC 21A.25.030 shall be located and configured to create urban separators and greenbelts as required by the interim comprehensive plan, to connect and increase protective buffers for critical areas as defined in SMC 21A.15.254, to connect and protect wildlife habitat corridors designated by the interim comprehensive plan, and to connect existing or planned public parks or trails. The City may require open space tracts created under this subsection to be dedicated to the City, an appropriate managing public agency, or qualifying private entity such as a nature conservancy. (Ord. O2016-429 § 4 (Att. D); Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.040 Townhouse development.

In the R-1 through R-8 zones and in the NB zone on property designated commercial outside of center in the urban area, a building that contains a grouping of attached townhouse units shall not exceed a 200-foot maximum length without a separation of at least 10 feet from other groupings or rows of townhouses. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.050 Attached dwellings and group residence – Applicability.

The standards of SMC 21A.30.060 through 21A.30.070 shall apply to all new apartment developments exceeding four dwelling units, new townhouse development and new group residences except Class I community residential facilities (CRF-I). Expansions of existing development that involve four or more dwelling units shall be subject to compliance with SMC 21A.30.060 to 21A.30.070. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.060 Attached dwellings and group residences – Vehicular access and parking location.

(1) On sites abutting an alley constructed to a width of at least 20 feet, apartment and townhouse development and all group residences except Class I community residential facilities (CRF-I) shall have parking areas placed to the rear of buildings with primary vehicular access via the alley, except when waived by the director due to physical site limitations.

(2) When alley access is provided, no additional driveway access from the public street shall be allowed except as necessary to access parking under the structure or for fire protection.

(3) When the number of uncovered common parking spaces for attached dwellings and group residences exceed 30 spaces and when there is alley access, no more than 50 percent of these uncovered parking spaces shall be permitted between the street property line and any building, except when authorized by the director due to physical site limitations. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.070 Attached dwellings and group residences – Building facade modulation.

Apartment and townhouse developments and all group residences shall provide building facade modulation on facades exceeding 60 feet and facing abutting streets or properties zoned R-1 through R-4. The following standards shall apply:

(1) The maximum wall length without modulation shall be 30 feet; and

(2) The sum of the modulation depth and the modulation width shall be no less than eight feet. Neither the modulation depth nor the modulation width shall be less than two feet;

(3) Any other technique approved by the director that achieves the intent of this section. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.080 Mixed use development – Percentages of residential uses.

Residential uses in mixed use developments shall be subject to the following limits:

(1) A maximum of 50 percent of the total built floor area when located in NB zones; and

(2) A maximum of 75 percent of the total built floor area when located in CB and O zones; provided, that the total percentage may be increased by an additional 10 percent with the approval of the director. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.090 Mixed use development – Residential density.

Base residential density for mixed use developments shall be determined using total site area according to SMC 21A.25.040(A). (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.100 Mixed use development – Building floor area.

(1) For mixed use developments that utilize at least 25 percent of building square footage for residential uses in the NB zone and at least 50 percent of building square footage in the CB or O zones, the building floor area ratio shall be as follows:

(a) 1.5/1 in NB zones;

(b) 3.5/1 in CB zones; and

(c) 4.0/1 in O zones.

(2) Building floor area ratios of subsection (1) of this section may be increased when all required parking is contained within a common parking structure, as follows:

(a) 2.0/1 in NB zones;

(b) 4.5/1 in CB zones; and

(c) 5.0/1 in O zones. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.110 Mixed use development – Shared parking.

For mixed use developments, a 20 percent reduction of required parking shall be permitted when the criteria of SMC 21A.40.040 for shared parking facilities are met. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.120 Mobile home parks – Standards for existing parks.

(1) Mobile home parks established prior to August 3, 1999 shall continue to be governed by all standards relating to density, setbacks, landscaping and off-street parking in effect at the time they were approved.

(2) Placement of new accessory structures and replacement mobile homes, either standard or nonstandard, in these mobile home parks shall be governed by the dimensional standards in effect when the parks were approved. Where internal setbacks are not specified, the average of the prevailing setbacks on the pads to either side of the proposed new or replacement structure shall apply.

(3) No spaces or pads in an existing mobile home park shall be used to accommodate recreational vehicles (RVs), except when the spaces or pads were specifically for RVs at the time the park was established.

(4) An existing mobile home park may be enlarged, provided the proposed enlargement meets the standards set forth in SMC 21A.30.130.

(5) Both insignia and non-insignia mobile homes may be installed in established parks; provided, that all mobile homes supported by piers shall be fully skirted, and that nonstandard mobile homes shall meet the minimum livability and safety requirements set forth in SMC Title 16, Buildings and Construction. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.130 Mobile home parks – Standards for new parks.

New mobile home parks shall be developed subject to the following standards:

(1) A mobile home park shall be at least three acres in area;

(2) Residential densities in a mobile home park shall be as follows:

(a) Six dwellings per acre in R-4 zone;

(b) The base density of the zone in which the park is located in all R-6 through R-18 zones; and

(c) Mobile home parks shall be eligible to achieve the maximum density permitted in the zone by providing the affordable housing benefit for mobile home parks set forth in Chapter 21A.75 SMC;

(3) Both insignia and non-insignia mobile homes may be installed in mobile home parks; provided, that non-insignia mobile homes shall meet the minimum livability and safety requirements set forth in SMC Title 16, Uniform Building Code;

(4) A mobile home park shall be exempt from impervious surface limits set forth in Chapter 21A.25 SMC;

(5) At least one of the off-street parking spaces required for each mobile home shall be located on or adjacent to each mobile home pad;

(6) Internal roads and sidewalks shall provide access to each mobile home space and shall be constructed in accordance with the adopted interim street standards as set forth in the public works standards for residential minor access streets;

(7) There shall be a minimum of 10 feet of separation maintained between all mobile homes on the site. Accessory structures shall be located no closer than:

(a) Ten feet to mobile homes on adjacent spaces, unless constructed of noncombustible materials, in which case the minimum setback shall be five feet;

(b) Five feet to accessory structures of mobile homes on adjacent spaces; and

(c) Five feet to the mobile home or other accessory structures on the same space, except a carport or garage may be attached to the mobile home, and the separation may be waived when such structures are constructed of noncombustible materials;

(8) All mobile homes and RVs supported by piers shall be fully skirted; and

(9) A mobile home park may include a storage area for RVs owned by residents of the park, provided the storage area contains no utility hook-ups and no RV within the storage area shall be used as living quarters. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.140 On-site recreation – Space required.

(1) All single-family, multifamily and townhouse developments of more than four units, and mixed use developments of more than four units, shall provide recreation space excluding environmentally sensitive areas as defined by Chapter 21A.50 SMC for leisure, play or sport activities as follows:

(a) Residential developments at a density of eight units or less per acre: 390 square feet per unit;

(b) Attached residential developments at a density of greater than eight units per acre, and mixed use:

(i) Studio and one bedroom: 90 square feet per unit;

(ii) Two bedroom: 130 square feet per unit; and

(iii) Three or more bedroom: 170 square feet per unit.

(2) Any recreation space located outdoors shall:

(a) Be of a grade and surface suitable for recreation;

(b) Be on the site of the proposed development;

(c) Have no dimensions less than 20 feet (except trail segments);

(d) When the required open space is less than 5,000 square feet, the required open space shall be located in a single area or tract;

(e) When the required open space exceeds 5,000 square feet:

(i) The space shall have a street roadway or parking area frontage along 10 percent or more of the recreation space perimeter (except trail segments);

(ii) A minimum of 60 percent of the required open space shall be located in a single area or tract;

(iii) At least one area or tract shall contain a minimum of 5,000 square feet;

(f) Be accessible and convenient to all residents within the development; and

(g) Be accessible by trail or walkway to any existing or planned community park, public open space or trail system, which may be located on adjoining property.

(3) Indoor recreation areas may be credited towards the total recreation space requirement, when the City determines that such areas are located, designed and improved in a manner that provides recreational opportunities functionally equivalent to those recreational opportunities available outdoors. For senior citizen assisted housing, indoor recreation areas need not be functionally equivalent but may include social areas, game and craft rooms, and other multi-purpose entertainment and education areas.

(4) Storm water runoff tracts may be credited for up to 100 percent of the on-site recreation space requirement, subject to the following criteria, which are intended to create ponds that are more natural in shape and appearance; provide opportunities for passive or active recreation, wildlife viewing and educational opportunities; or to create more visual interest:

(a) The storm water runoff tract is dedicated or reserved as a part of a recreation space tract;

(b) To earn a 50 percent credit towards the on-site recreation space requirement, the detention pond shall be constructed to meet the following conditions:

(i) Side slopes shall not exceed 33 percent unless they are existing, natural, or covered with vegetation and meet the design criteria in the Surface Water Design Manual for side slopes.

(ii) A bypass system or an emergency overflow pathway shall be designed to handle flow exceeding the facility design and located so that it does not pass through active recreation areas or present a safety hazard.

(iii) The area surrounding the storm water pond above the live storage shall be landscaped in a manner to enhance passive recreational opportunities such as a trail or pathway around the pond perimeter.

(iv) The storm water pond shall be designed so that it does not require fencing per the fencing requirements in Chapter 5 of 2016 KCSWDM (page 5-6).

(v) Split-rail fencing (three feet minimum height) is required around the pond at the emergency overflow elevation of the pond or higher. Wire mesh backing of the fence is encouraged, but not required.

(c) To receive a 100 percent credit, the storm water pond must meet all the additional requirements in the criteria in subsection (4)(b) of this section, and provide three or more of the following amenities:

(i) Provide seating using walls, benches and/or tables and chairs that view the storm water system.

(ii) Create overlook or destination points with views of the storm water pond.

(iii) Provide vertical planes (using stairs, platforms, etc.) that allow storm water to be interacted with and viewed from different levels.

(iv) Provide interpretive signage describing the storm water feature, or the landscape features (such as highlighting the pollinator benefits of plantings incorporated into the storm water tract).

(v) Stack horizontal and vertical planes to create features such as pools and waterfalls.

(vi) Provide a fountain feature near the pond center.

(vii) Provide at least one fitness station located near the pond accessible via a trail or pathway. (Ord. O2016-429 § 4 (Att. D); Ord. O2004-154 § 1; Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.150 Recreation space – Fees in lieu of.

If on-site recreation space is not provided, the applicant shall pay a fee-in-lieu of actual recreation space. The City’s acceptance of this payment is discretionary, and may be permitted if the proposed on-site recreation space does not meet the criteria of this chapter, or the recreation space provided within a City park in the vicinity will be of greater benefit to the prospective residents of the development. Fees provided in lieu of on-site recreation space shall be determined annually by the City on the basis of the typical market value of the required recreation space land area prior to the development. Any recreational space provided by the applicant shall be credited toward the required fees. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.160 On-site recreation – Play areas required.

(1) All single detached subdivisions, apartment, townhouse and mixed use development, excluding age-restricted senior citizen housing, shall provide children’s play areas within the recreation space on-site, except when facilities are available to the public within one-quarter mile that are developed as parks or playgrounds and are accessible without crossing of arterial streets.

(2) Play apparatus provided in the play area shall meet Consumer Product Safety Standards for equipment, soft surfacing and spacing, and shall be located in an area that is:

(a) At least 400 square feet in size with no dimension less than 20 feet; and

(b) Adjacent to main pedestrian paths or near building entrances. (Ord. O2009-249 § 1; Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.170 On-site recreation – Maintenance of recreation space or dedication.

(1) Recreation space as defined in SMC 21A.30.140(2) may be dedicated as a park open to the public in lieu of providing the on-site recreation required above when the following criteria are met:

(a) The dedicated area is at least 20 acres in size, except when adjacent to an existing or planned public park;

(b) The dedicated land provides one or more of the following:

(i) Shoreline access;

(ii) Regional trail linkages;

(iii) Habitat linkages;

(iv) Recreation facilities; or

(v) Heritage sites; and

(c) The dedicated area is located within one mile of the project site.

(2) Unless the recreation space is dedicated to the City pursuant to subsection (1) of this section, maintenance of any recreation space retained in private ownership shall be the responsibility of the owner or other separate entity capable of long-term maintenance and operation in a manner acceptable to the City. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.180 Storage space and collection points for recyclables.

Developments shall provide storage space for the collection of recyclables as follows:

(1) The storage space shall be provided at the following rates, calculated based on any new dwelling unit in multiple-dwelling developments and any new square feet of building gross floor area in any other developments:

(a) One and one-half square feet per dwelling unit in multiple-dwelling developments except where the development is participating in a county-sponsored or approved direct collection program in which individual recycling bins are used for curbside collection;

(b) Two square feet per every 1,000 square feet of building gross floor area in office, educational and institutional developments;

(c) Three square feet per every 1,000 square feet of building gross floor area in manufacturing and other nonresidential developments; and

(d) Five square feet per every 1,000 square feet of building gross floor area in retail developments.

(2) The storage space for residential developments shall be apportioned and located in collection points as follows:

(a) The required storage area shall be dispersed in collection points throughout the site when a residential development comprises more than one building.

(b) There shall be one collection point for every 30 dwelling units.

(c) Collection points may be located within residential buildings, in separate buildings/structures without dwelling units, or outdoors.

(d) Collection points located in separate buildings/structures or outdoors shall be no more than 200 feet from a common entrance of a residential building.

(e) Collection points shall be located in a manner so that the swing of any collection point gate does not obstruct pedestrian or vehicle traffic or access to parking or that the gate swing or any hauling truck does not project into any public right-of-way.

(3) The storage space for nonresidential developments shall be apportioned and located in collection points as follows:

(a) Storage space may be allocated to a centralized collection point.

(b) Outdoor collection points shall not be located in any required setback areas.

(c) Collection points shall be located in a manner so that the swing of any collection point gate does not obstruct pedestrian or vehicle traffic or access to parking or that the gate swing or any hauling truck does not project into any public right-of-way.

(d) Access to collection points may be limited, except during regular business hours and/or specified collection hours.

(4) The collection points shall be designed as follows:

(a) Dimensions of the collection points shall be of sufficient width and depth to enclose containers for recyclables.

(b) Architectural design of any structure enclosing an outdoor collection point or any building primarily used to contain a collection point shall be consistent with the design of the primary structure(s) on the site.

(c) Collection points shall be identified by signs not exceeding two square feet.

(d) A six-foot wall or fence shall enclose any outdoor collection point, excluding collection points located in industrial developments that are greater than 100 feet from residentially zoned property.

(e) Enclosures for outdoor collection points and buildings used primarily to contain a collection point shall have gate openings at least 12 feet wide for haulers. In addition, the gate opening for any building or other roofed structure used primarily as a collection point shall have a vertical clearance of at least 12 feet.

(f) Weather protection of recyclables shall be ensured by using weather-proof containers or by providing a roof over the storage area.

(5) Only recyclable materials generated on-site shall be collected and stored at such collection points. Except for initial sorting of recyclables by users, all other processing of such materials shall be conducted off-site.

(6) The director may waive or modify specific storage space and collection point requirements set forth in this section if the director finds, in writing, that an alternate recycling program design proposed by the applicant meets the needs of the development and provides an equivalent or better level of storage and collection for recyclables. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.185 Garbage and trash storage design.

(1) Single-family detached homes shall provide a designated location for the storage of garbage, recycling, and other waste containers. The designated location shall either be placed in an enclosure or garage, or screened so that the garbage, recycling, and other waste containers are not visible from public streets. The director may authorize an alternate storage location that will meet the purpose of SMC 21A.30.010.

(2) Residents shall return garbage, recycling, and other waste containers to their designated storage location within 24 hours after collection, or as soon as is feasible. (Ord. O2016-408 § 1 (Att. A))

21A.30.190 Fences.

Fences are permitted as follows:

(1) Fences exceeding a height of six feet shall comply with the applicable street and interior setbacks of the zone in which the property is located, except: fences located on a rockery, retaining wall, or berm within a required setback area are permitted subject to the following requirements:

(a) In R-1 through R-18 zones:

(i) The total height of the fence and the rockery, retaining wall or berm upon which the fence is located shall not exceed a height of 10 feet. This height shall be measured from the top of the fence to the ground on the low side of the rockery, retaining wall or berm; and

(ii) The total height of the fence itself, measured from the top of the fence to the top of the rockery, retaining wall or berm, shall not exceed six feet.

(b) In the R-18 and commercial zones, the height of the fence, measured from the top of the fence to the top of the rockery, retaining wall or berm, shall not exceed six feet.

(c) Any portion of the fence above a height of eight feet, measured to include both the fence and the rockery, retaining wall, or berm (as described in subsection (1)(a)(i) of this section), shall be an open-work fence.

(2) Fences located on a rockery, retaining wall or berm outside required setback areas shall not exceed the building height for the zone, measured in accordance with the standards established in the Uniform Building Code, SMC Title 16.

(3) Electric fences shall:

(a) Be permitted in all zones; provided, that when placed within R-4 through R-18 zones, additional fencing or other barriers shall be constructed to prevent inadvertent contact with the electric fence from abutting property;

(b) Comply with the following requirements:

(i) An electric fence using an interrupted flow of current at intervals of about one second on and two seconds off shall be limited to 2,000 volts at 17 milliamp;

(ii) An electric fence using continuous current shall be limited to 1,500 volts at seven milliamp;

(iii) All electric fences in the R-4 through R-18 zones shall be posted with permanent signs a minimum of 36 square inches in area at 50-foot intervals stating that the fence is electrified; and

(iv) Electric fences sold as a complete and assembled unit can be installed by an owner if the controlling elements of the installation are certified by an A.N.S.I. approved testing agency.

(4) Except as specifically required for the necessary security related to a nonresidential use, no barbed or razor-wire fence shall be located in any R-4 through R-18 zone. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.200 Trail corridors – Applicability.

Trail easements, or tracts, of sufficient width and length consistent with the dimensional standards as defined below, shall be provided by all developments, except for single detached residential permits, when such developments are located on properties that include trail corridors shown within an adopted City parks or trails plan. In addition to the general public, the residents or tenants of the development shall be provided access to the trail easement. The area of the trail easement shall be counted as part of the site for purposes of density and floor area calculations. (Ord. O2005-172 § 3; Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.210 Trail corridors – Development standards.

Proposed public and private trails shall be reviewed by the department of community development for consistency with the following standards:

(1) Use of Existing Corridors. Trails should generally be located along existing cleared areas or on improved corridors, including but not limited to utility corridors, road or railroad rights-of-way, so as to avoid or minimize the need to remove additional vegetation and create other associated impacts. Where an existing right-of-way is wider than the cleared or improved area, proposed trails should generally be located on the cleared or improved portion of the right-of-way wherever possible, subject to safety and other technical factors. If sensitive areas exist on or in proximity to an existing cleared or improved corridor, then impacts from constructing the trail shall be mitigated consistent with Chapter 21A.50 SMC, including the recommendations from any required sensitive areas study. Trails may be located in other areas if it is demonstrated that a new corridor creates less overall or less incremental impact to sensitive areas and habitat while still achieving overall project goals and objectives. As shown in the adopted City comprehensive plan, parks plan or trails plan, trails and corridors should connect public lands, utility corridors, or rights-of-way or other public infrastructure to maximize transportation and public recreation uses.

(2) Compatibility with Adjacent Land Uses. Trails should be designed and constructed to encourage users to remain on the trail, to diminish the likelihood of trespass and to promote privacy for adjacent landowners. The applicant shall propose for the department’s review and approval the use of fencing, signage, landscaping or other appropriate means to accomplish this requirement. Any proposed lighting should be directed away from houses along the trail corridor. Safety of trail users and adjacent landowners shall be addressed through review of vehicle access and crossing locations and design. Allowed uses should be consistent with the trail types identified in an adopted city comprehensive plan, parks plan or trails plan, and/or determined through a City-approved, site-specific master planning process if applicable.

(3) Width. The width of the cleared area, trail corridor, surface and shoulder should be designed consistent with AASHTO standards for public multi-use paved trails (Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 1999, as amended, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials), and with U.S. Forest Service standards (Trails Management Handbook, 1991, as amended, and Standard Specifications for Construction of Trails Handbook, 1984, as amended) if unpaved. Cleared areas shall be the minimum necessary consistent with the standards and requirements in the SMC.

(4) Sensitive Areas and Buffers. Trail impacts to sensitive areas should be reviewed consistent with the impact avoidance and mitigation sequencing requirements of Chapter 21A.50 SMC. Mitigation of impacts is required, even for trails located on existing corridors consistent with subsection (1) of this section. Wetland and stream buffers shall be expanded to compensate for the total area of the trail corridor, including all disturbed areas located within the buffer area. No expansion shall be required for trails located on existing improved corridors, including but not limited to utility corridors, road or railroad rights-of-way, within wetland or stream buffers. Mitigation shall be required for all impacts consistent with Chapter 21A.50 SMC.

(5) Location. Except for approved viewing platforms, spur trails, wetland or stream crossings proposed consistent with Chapter 21A.50 SMC, or trails located on existing corridors consistent with subsection (1) of this section, trails that are proposed in proximity to wetlands or streams or associated buffers may only be located in the outer 25 percent of the wetland or stream buffer and should be generally aligned parallel to the stream or perimeter of the wetland. Spur trails and viewing structures should be designed to minimize impacts on sensitive area and wildlife habitat. Viewing platforms shall be placed landward of the wetland or stream edge.

(6) Wildlife. Trails should be designed and constructed to encourage users to remain on the trail through the use of fencing, signage, landscaping or other appropriate means to minimize impacts to wildlife and habitat. In addition to the requirements related to wildlife corridors elsewhere in the SMC, trail location, lighting, construction decisions, and requirements for use (e.g., pet leash requirements, bicycle speed limits, etc.) should be guided by recommendations from sensitive areas studies to avoid, minimize and mitigate impacts to habitat for sensitive species. In a vegetation management plan developed for City review and approval consistent with SMC 21A.50.160, all disturbed areas shall be landscaped with appropriate native vegetation upon completion of trail construction or as soon thereafter as possible. The trail maintenance entity shall ensure that such vegetation survives through an appropriate mechanism. An integrated vegetation and pest management plan shall be developed by the applicant and approved by the department that avoids or minimizes the use of pesticides, herbicides and other hazardous substances.

(7) Surfacing. To promote infiltration and groundwater recharge and to minimize slope instability, trail surfaces shall be made of pervious materials. Public multi-use trails, or other trails determined by the department to require impervious surfaces, may be paved; however, pervious paving or other low-impact techniques that meet overall project goals for cost and durability are encouraged. Boardwalks may be used for areas subject to regular inundation, and should be constructed with nonhazardous materials. Impervious materials may also be used if necessary for soil stabilization or to prevent soil erosion, or if the trail is specifically designed and intended to be accessible to physically challenged persons and is identified as such in an adopted city comprehensive plan, parks plan or trails plan. (Ord. O2005-172 § 3; Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.220 Trail corridors – Maintenance of trail corridors/improvements.

Maintenance of any trail corridor or improvements, retained in private ownership, shall be the responsibility of the owner or other separate entity capable of long-term maintenance and operation in a manner acceptable to the City. (Ord. O99-29 § 1)

21A.30.230 Outdoor lighting.

(1) Applicability. This section applies to the following types of lighting:

(a) All new and replacement exterior light fixtures in parking lots, and associated with commercial, institutional, and mixed-use buildings; and

(b) All existing, new, or replacement security or floodlighting associated with residential uses.

(2) Exemptions. The following types of lighting are exempt from the provisions of this section:

(a) Seasonal decorations;

(b) Lighting used under emergency conditions (e.g., searchlights, law enforcement vehicles);

(c) Moving vehicle lights;

(d) Underwater lighting in swimming pools;

(e) Lighting for signs, if permitted under Chapter 21A.45 SMC;

(f) Traffic control devices;

(g) Lights required by state or federal law (e.g., wireless communication facility towers);

(h) Temporary lighting for construction sites, special events (e.g., theatrical performances, community events); and

(i) Other lighting of a similar nature as approved by the director.

(3) Standards.

(a) Security or Floodlighting Fixtures Associated with Single-Family Residences and Townhouses.

(i) Lighting fixtures shall be properly aimed and installed in a manner that causes minimal or no light trespass onto adjacent properties;

(ii) Lighting fixtures shall not exceed 1,260 lumens, unless the lighting fixture is fully shielded; and

(iii) Motion sensors associated with security or floodlighting shall not be activated by off-site movement.

(b) Parking Lots.

(i) Lighting fixtures shall be partially shielded so that minimal light is emitted above a horizontal plane, and shall be installed and maintained in a way that causes minimal or no light trespass onto adjacent properties.

(ii) Outdoor lighting shall not exceed 5.0 lumens per square foot of parking lot surface and pedestrian walkway. Requests for additional lighting may be considered with the approval of the director.

(iii) Lighting fixtures shall be no more than 25 feet tall, with lower light fixtures preferable so as to maintain a human scale. Requests for higher light fixtures may be considered with the approval of the director.

(iv) Site light fixtures shall be designed to use metal halide or LED light sources unless an alternative is approved by the director.

(v) Solar-powered and high-energy-efficient lighting is encouraged. The director may allow flexibility level standards for solar-powered lights.

(vi) Motion-sensing lighting is encouraged. The director may allow flexibility with outdoor lighting standards when motion-sensing technology is used.

(c) Commercial, Institutional, and Mixed-Use Buildings.

(i) Outdoor light fixtures shall be fully shielded, pointed downward, and should be maintained in a way that causes minimal or no light trespass onto adjacent properties.

(ii) Outdoor lighting shall not exceed 5.0 lumens per square foot of hardscape outside the building structure. Requests for additional lighting may be considered with the approval of the director.

(iii) Exceptions.

(A) One partially shielded light fixture or sconce is allowed if it is located beneath a building overhang and will generate less than 630 lumens;

(B) Landscape/accent lighting; provided, that the combined output of the light fixture does not exceed 2,100 lumens;

(C) Motion-sensor lighting that extinguishes the light no more than 15 minutes after the area is vacated.

(iv) Outdoor lighting shall not exceed 5.0 lumens per square foot of hardscape. Requests for additional lighting may be considered with the approval of the director. Except:

(A) Drive-up windows may add 8,000 lumens per drive-up window. In order to use this allowance, light fixtures must be within 20 feet horizontal distance of the center of the window.

(B) Vehicle service stations may add lighting that results in a total of 16,000 lumens per fuel pump.

(v) Site lighting shall be metal halide or LED unless an alternative is approved by the director.

Smaller scale lighting fixtures

(Ord. O2016-408 § 1 (Att. A))

21A.30.240 Nonresidential use design standards.

(1) Applicability. This section applies to new nonresidential uses or improvements within the R-1, R-4, R-6, and R-8 zoning designations. Nonresidential uses and improvements include, but are not limited to, those uses specified in SMC 21A.20.050 through 21A.20.080 and 21A.20.100 and supporting improvements (e.g., parking lots), or other similar uses or improvements as determined by the director.

(2) Location. New nonresidential uses and improvements shall be located with direct access to a neighborhood collector or arterial street, as defined in the adopted Public Works Standards.

(3) Traffic Demand Management. New nonresidential uses shall prepare and adhere to a traffic demand management plan to reduce traffic generation during the a.m. and p.m. peak hours. The traffic demand management plan shall be reviewed and approved by the City.

(4) Parking Lots. New parking lots for nonresidential uses, or parking lots that are expanded by more than 50 percent of the original parking lot area, shall:

(a) Incorporate the following low impact development design into the parking lot design as follows:

(i) Infiltration of all stormwater generated from the proposed parking lot is required. The director may authorize a reduction in infiltration required if the applicant demonstrates that infiltration is not feasible due to site-specific soil and/or geologic conditions.

(ii) Required landscaping shall incorporate soil amendments. Soil amendments shall be comprised of a compost or soil amendment mix consistent with the adopted Sammamish Surface Water Design Manual.

(iii) Incorporate any other low impact development technique required by Sammamish Surface Water Design Manual.

(b) Incorporate a berm around the perimeter of the parking lot where adjacent to public right-of-way and neighboring properties, designed such that the berm height is no less than three feet above the highest elevation of the parking lot. The berm shall be maintained as needed to ensure the berm height is not diminished over time due to erosion or other causes. The director may authorize an alternative design to the berm that will provide an equivalent amount of screening for vehicle headlights and follow Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles. (Ord. O2016-408 § 1 (Att. A))

21A.30.250 Public agency and utility yards – Design requirements.

Public agency and utility yards are subject to the following design requirements:

(1) Public agency and utility yards and associated structures located on sites that have direct access to principal arterials shall be set back a minimum of 15 feet from residentially zoned properties;

(2) Public agency and utility yards and associated structures located on sites that have direct access to minor or collector arterials shall be set back a minimum of 20 feet from residentially zoned properties and shall incorporate one of the following into the site design:

(a) Solid wood fencing around the perimeter of the site; or

(b) Increased landscaping density to provide a “green wall” or visually solid landscaping effect.

(3) Vehicle and equipment start-up and maintenance areas shall be buffered from adjacent properties by buildings or structures designed to reduce visual and noise impacts; and

(4) Vehicle and equipment start-up and maintenance areas shall be set back from adjacent properties subject to the following criteria:

(a) Vehicle and equipment startup and maintenance areas shall be set back a minimum of 30 feet from adjacent properties; or

(b) Vehicle and equipment start-up and maintenance areas shall be set back a minimum of 15 feet from adjacent properties, provided:

(i) That site design shall ensure that noise generated on the site does not exceed 70 decibels as measured at the shared property line; and

(ii) That site design incorporates buildings or structures designed to be consistent with the design of adjacent residential development;

(c) Required setback areas shall provide landscaping for the entire setback area. (Ord. O2005-170 § 1)

21A.30.260 Satellite public agency and utility yards – Design requirements.

Satellite public agency and utility yards are subject to the following design requirements:

(1) Buildings and structures shall be set back a minimum of 15 feet from residentially zoned properties;

(2) Vehicle and equipment start-up and maintenance areas shall be buffered from adjacent properties by incorporating one of the following site design features:

(a) Buildings or structures are designed to reduce visual and noise impacts;

(b) Ensuring that noise generated from the satellite public agency and utility yard shall not exceed 60 decibels as measured at the property line; or

(c) Providing 30 feet of landscaping area between the proposed development and adjacent residentially zoned properties;

(3) Hours of operation shall be limited to Monday through Friday, 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., and Saturday and Sunday, 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., except in response to emergency situations or following community events (e.g., ball games, concerts, community picnics, etc.). (Ord. O2005-170 § 1)