Chapter 21B.30
DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS – DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Sections:

Article I. Site Planning Elements

21B.30.010    Purpose.

21B.30.020    Applicability.

21B.30.030    Site planning – Streetfront orientation.

21B.30.040    Site planning – Street layout.

21B.30.050    Site planning – Multiple building/large lot/multiple lot developments.

21B.30.060    Site planning – Pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicle circulation.

21B.30.070    Site planning – Internal vehicular circulation.

21B.30.080    Site planning – Side and back yard compatibility.

21B.30.090    Site planning – Open space.

21B.30.100    Site planning – Stormwater facility planning.

21B.30.110    Site planning – Street corners.

Article II. Site Design Elements

21B.30.120    Site design elements – Pedestrian amenities.

21B.30.130    Site design elements – Internal pedestrian paths.

21B.30.140    Site design elements – Mechanical equipment and service areas.

21B.30.150    Site design elements – Street design.

21B.30.160    Site design elements – Open space design.

21B.30.170    Site design elements – Trail corridors.

21B.30.180    Site design elements – Fences and retaining walls.

21B.30.190    Site design elements – Lighting.

Article III. Building Design

21B.30.200    Building design – Character.

21B.30.210    Building design – Architectural scale.

21B.30.220    Building design – Details.

21B.30.230    Building design – Exterior materials and colors.

21B.30.240    Building design – Blank walls.

21B.30.250    Building design – Parking garage design.

Article IV. Single-Family, Duplexes, and Cottages

21B.30.260    Single-family – Subdivision design.

21B.30.270    Single-family and duplexes – Lot and building design.

21B.30.280    Single-family – Cottage housing.

Article I. Site Planning Elements

21B.30.010 Purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to implement the goals and policies of the Town Center Plan by providing site planning, pedestrian access and amenities, and building design standards that:

(1) Orient development to adjacent streets and open spaces;

(2) Provide an attractive and connected system of sidewalks, trails, and pathways throughout the Town Center;

(3) Provide for compatibility and an appropriate transition between developments;

(4) Preserve and integrate sensitive natural features as an amenity for developments;

(5) Locate and design service elements and mechanical equipment to minimize impacts to the visual environment and surrounding uses;

(6) Provide a hierarchy of public and private open spaces in the Town Center;

(7) Emphasize human scale, fine detailing, quality building materials, and an inviting appearance in new buildings; and

(8) Provide a site layout and facilities that encourage pedestrian and bicycle access and reduce vehicle trip miles. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A))

21B.30.020 Applicability.

The design requirements within this chapter shall apply to all development proposals within the Town Center unless otherwise noted. For example, some sections apply only to commercial and multifamily development, while others apply only to detached single-family development. Unless otherwise indicated, duplexes, apartments, and townhomes are considered multifamily residences. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A))

21B.30.030 Site planning – Streetfront orientation.

The streetfront orientation standards for Town Center properties vary depending on the type of street(s) or public open space the property fronts on. These standards provide for five different street types: (1) pedestrian-oriented streets (and corridors) – which are intended to be lined with storefronts, (2) mixed-use streets – which could include storefronts or a combination of retail, office, civic, and/or residential uses with modest landscaped setbacks, (3) residential streets – which include residential streets with modest landscaped setbacks; (4) connector streets – which are treated similar to residential streets but with some extra flexibility; or (5) 228th Avenue SE – where trees and other landscaping elements should be emphasized along the streetfront.

Figure 21B.30.030a illustrates an example configuration of street types based on the vision illustration in the Town Center Plan. Pedestrian-oriented streets and mixed-use street designations shall be designated by the adopted unified zone development plans (see Chapter 21B.95 SMC) for TC-A zoned properties. The criteria for designating street types are set forth in SMC 21B.30.040(2). The standards herein thus apply to developments that front onto these street types.

Figure 21B.30.030a. An example configuration of street types in the Town Center based on the vision illustration in the Town Center Plan. Street alignments and designations are conceptual only and may be significantly revised during the unified zone development planning process.

(1) Properties Adjacent to Pedestrian-Oriented Streets and Corridors (Including Specified Park Edges).

(a) Buildings shall be located adjacent to (within three feet of) the sidewalk and feature a “pedestrian-oriented facade.” To meet this requirement, the ground floor facade shall incorporate the following characteristics:

(i) Transparent window area along a minimum of 75 percent of the ground floor facade between a height of two and eight feet above the ground;

(ii) The primary building entry shall be on this facade; and

(iii) Weather protection shall be provided at least six feet in depth (measured perpendicular to the building front) along at least 75 percent of the facade width.

(iv) If the building occupies a corner site, then the standards apply to both streets, unless the director finds such orientation not feasible.

Specific requests, exceptions, and departures to the above requirements:

(v) Buildings may be set back from the sidewalk where pedestrian-oriented space (as defined in SMC 21B.30.090(1)) or setback landscaping, as approved by the director, is included between the sidewalk and the building. In this case, no parking or vehicular circulation is allowed between the street right-of-way and the building.

(vi) For buildings fronting on two pedestrian-oriented streets, pedestrian entries shall be placed on both facades or at the street corner. Individual unified zone development plans (see Chapter 21B.95 SMC) may provide greater specificity and/or departures to this requirement.

(vii) Civic uses fronting on pedestrian-oriented streets warrant greater flexibility in the application of the transparency and weather protection requirements due to their unique disposition. However, alternative frontage treatments shall meet the following objectives, as determined by the director:

(A) The building emphasizes civic uses and includes a visually prominent element within the subject TC-A zone. The building shall be visually prominent from the street;

(B) The design treatment contributes to the desired pedestrian-oriented character of the TC-A zone;

(C) The design treatment provides continuous visual interest at the pedestrian scale along the adjacent sidewalk;

(D) There is a direct pedestrian connection between the building and the street; and

(E) There is no parking between the building and the street.

Figure 21B.30.030b. Pedestrian-oriented facade requirements.

Figure 21B.30.030c. Acceptable and unacceptable pedestrian-oriented facade examples.

(b) Surface parking lots shall be located behind buildings and away from pedestrian-oriented streets. A safe, attractive pathway consistent with SMC 21B.30.130 shall be provided between parking areas and the storefront and street. New surface parking lots adjacent to a pedestrian-oriented street are prohibited.

(c) Driveways for surface parking lots are prohibited on pedestrian-oriented streets unless the director determines there is no feasible or preferred option to meet the Town Center Plan’s goals and policies.

(d) Parking structures located adjacent to pedestrian-oriented streets shall be designed with commercial space fronting on the street consistent with standards herein. Such commercial space shall be at least 30 feet deep. Vehicular entrances and other ground floor openings of the parking garage are allowed but shall not count as transparent window area for the purpose of determining compliance with pedestrian-oriented street frontage requirements. Also see SMC 21B.40.150 for related parking structure provisions.

(e) There shall be a pedestrian walkway at least six feet wide between the parking area or garage and the public right-of-way.

Figure 21B.30.030d. Acceptable and unacceptable structured parking configurations along pedestrian-oriented streets.

Figure 21B.30.030e. Examples of civic building orientation.

(2) Properties Adjacent to Mixed-Use Streets.

(a) Buildings featuring nonresidential uses on the ground floor may be placed up to the edge of the sidewalk (unless otherwise noted herein) only if they feature a pedestrian-oriented facade (see Figure 21B.30.030b).

(b) All other developments shall feature at least 10 feet of landscaping or pedestrian-oriented space between the sidewalk or front property line and any building, parking area, storage, or service area. Exceptions and departures:

(i) See SMC 21B.25.170 for projections and structures allowed within the setback area.

(ii) Reduced building setbacks shall be permitted where the director determines that the proposed streetfront design will create an attractive, safe, and comfortable pedestrian environment. At least one of the following features shall be integrated into the design (or preferably a combination of features). Adopted unified zone development plans may include more detailed departure criteria.

(A) The building’s facade includes artwork or special treatment that adds interest to the streetscape;

(B) The building includes effective pedestrian cover and lighting; and/or

(C) The setback area includes an especially attractive treatment or feature, such as a fountain, water feature, special masonry, special material detailing, or specially designed raised planter area with stormwater function.

All buildings with setback departures shall meet minimum transparency requirements set forth in subsection (2)(h) of this section.

Figure 21B.30.030f. Building setback departure examples along a designated mixed-use street.

(c) Required Landscaping Types.

(i) Type II, III, or IV landscaping (or a combination thereof) is required between sidewalk and any building without pedestrian-oriented facade. However, landscaping types and species shall be utilized and maintained to maximize for views between windows and the street for safety, as determined by the director.

(ii) Type III landscaping is required between sidewalk and any parking lot.

(iii) Type I or Type II landscaping shall be used to screen any unwanted views, such as service areas or mechanical equipment, as determined by the director.

Alternative landscaping types may be considered for approval by the director, provided the project applicant can successfully demonstrate that the landscaping enhances the pedestrian environment along the sidewalk and effectively screens any unwanted views. Specific examples include:

(iv) Landscaping includes a colorful mixture of native and drought tolerant shrubs, perennials, and groundcover that provides four-season interest;

(v) Landscaping includes a distinctive mixture of trees, shrubs, and groundcover that do not meet specific landscaping type definitions, but meet the intent of the standards;

(vi) Terraced planting beds with a combination of shrubs, perennials, and groundcover; and

(vii) Landscape plan integrates pre-existing vegetation with new trees, shrubs, perennials, and groundcover.

(d) Buildings shall feature primary pedestrian entrances that face the street. Exceptions and departures:

(i) Buildings organized around a courtyard may feature entrances facing the courtyard provided there is clear pedestrian access between the courtyard and the street.

(ii) For corner buildings fronting on both a pedestrian-oriented street and mixed-use street, pedestrian entrances for nonresidential uses shall be placed on the pedestrian-oriented street, adjacent to the street corner, or both streets.

(e) Surface parking lots shall be located to the side or back of buildings. No more than 50 percent and not more than 130 linear feet of the ground floor street frontage of a lot may be occupied by parking lots or vehicular access areas. Parking lots with more than 64 feet of frontage on a street shall include an architectural feature (in addition to the required landscaping) that maintains visual continuity and interest along the street. Examples could include a landscaped trellis, decorative low wall (perhaps doubling as a sitting ledge), weather protection element, or architectural columns.

Exception: Adopted unified zone development plans may include provisions that provide for flexibility in the location and frontage design of temporary surface parking facilities in conjunction with the phasing plan. However, design elements shall be included along the sidewalk edge to mitigate impacts of the parking area on the street and enhance the pedestrian environment, even if the parking areas are only temporary.

Figure 21B.30.030g. Example architectural treatments that maintain visual continuity and interest along the street (all are from Mill Creek Town Center).

(f) Parking lots shall not be located adjacent to street corners. Parking garages may be located at street corners provided commercial uses occupy the ground floor at the street corner. The depth of the commercial space shall be at least 30 feet wide and deep.

(g) Structured parking facilities shall generally be concealed within or under buildings and away from streetfronts. Where in-structure parking is provided on the ground floor, for example, provide residential or retail uses along the streetfront, with parking facilities placed behind the uses and away from streets. Structured parking on upper floors along streets is discouraged, but may be allowed if the facade meets transparency standards herein and articulation standards set forth in SMC 21B.30.210. Except for required driveways, ground-level structured parking exposed to the street shall be prohibited, except where the design features that add visual interest to the pedestrian and minimize unwanted views into garage are included.

(h) Transparent windows and/or doors shall cover at least 50 percent of the ground floor facade of nonresidential uses between four and eight feet above the sidewalk. For residential uses, the standard for transparency is 15 percent and applies to all vertical surfaces of the facade facing the street as determined by the director. Reduced transparency proposals will be considered provided alternative design treatments create an interesting pedestrian experience and meet the goals and policies of the Town Center Plan and the adopted unified zone development plan. Examples could include, but are not limited to, a vertical trellis with vine plants, a mural, a series of terraced planting beds between the facade and the sidewalk, or distinctive building details that provide interest at a pedestrian scale. A blank wall with no windows and a simple evergreen planting screen will not be enough to meet the intent of the guidelines.

Figure 21B.30.030h. Acceptable and unacceptable development along mixed-use streets.

Figure 21B.30.030i. Acceptable and unacceptable parking lot configurations along mixed-use streets. Note that in the middle example, plantings between parking area and sidewalk should allow for visibility so that a driver and pedestrian can see one another and avoid a collision.

(3) Properties Adjacent to Residential Streets.

(a) Standards below apply to all development except for single detached dwelling units and duplexes. (See SMC 21B.30.260 through 21B.30.280 for related site planning standards.)

(b) Developments shall feature at least 10 feet of landscaping, pedestrian-oriented space, or a combination thereof, between the sidewalk or front property line and any building, parking area, or service area. Exceptions and departures:

(i) See SMC 21B.25.170 for projections and structures allowed within the setback area.

(ii) Reduced setbacks shall be permitted where the director determines that the proposed streetfront design will create an attractive, safe, and comfortable pedestrian environment and the privacy and comfort of residents are ensured. The finished ground floor elevation of dwelling units within 10 feet of the sidewalk should be elevated at least 30 inches above the level of the sidewalk to increase privacy of residents while enhancing the residents’ ability to observe activity on the street. For example, proposals for a reduced planting area width could include terraced planting beds along the sidewalk and/or special building detailing that adds special interest at a pedestrian scale. The far left image in Figure 21B.30.030h is a good example.

(c) Required landscaping types between the sidewalk and any building, parking area, or service area shall include:

(i) Type II, III, or IV landscaping (or a combination thereof) is required between sidewalk and any building. However, landscaping types and species shall be utilized and maintained to maximize for views between windows and the street for safety, as determined by the director;

(ii) Type III landscaping is required between sidewalk and any parking lot; and

(iii) Type I or Type II landscaping may be used to screen any unwanted views, such as service areas or mechanical equipment.

Alternative landscaping types will be considered provided the director determines that the landscaping achieves design and environmental goals and policies of the Town Center Plan, especially:

(iv) To maintain existing vegetated corridors and restore degraded corridors; and

(v) To create a hierarchy of public and private open spaces.

(d) Buildings shall feature pedestrian entrances that face the streets. Exceptions and departures:

(i) Buildings organized around a courtyard may feature entrances facing the courtyard provided there is clear pedestrian access between the courtyard and the street.

(ii) For street corner sites, the pedestrian entries may be placed on either or both streets.

(iii) Residential buildings with entrances that are visible from the street and which connect to the street by a clear and well-lit pathway are acceptable.

(e) Parking Standards.

(i) Parking lots (including structured parking of more than two vehicles) shall be located behind, to the side, back, or underneath buildings. No more than 50 percent of the street frontage shall be occupied by surface or structured parking. Exceptions may be considered by the director provided the building/parking area location takes advantage of unique site features and the design treatment along the street minimizes the visual impacts of parking areas on the streetscape and adds visual interest to pedestrians;

(ii) Where alleys are present, vehicular access shall be from the alley;

(iii) One shared driveway access is permitted from residential streets for each building. Additional driveways may be permitted at the director’s discretion where such driveways do not negatively impact the pedestrian environment; and

(iv) Individual private driveways and garages onto a public street are prohibited. Such private garages may be accessed off of internal private streets.

Figure 21B.30.030j. Acceptable and unacceptable development along residential streets.

(f) For residential uses, the standard for transparency is 15 percent and applies to all vertical surfaces of the facade facing the street as determined by the director.

(4) Properties Adjacent to Connector Streets. Properties shall comply with frontage standards for residential streets in subsection (3) of this section with the following exceptions:

(a) Developments are exempt from subsection (3)(d) of this section, which requires pedestrian building entries to face the street.

(b) Developments are exempt from parking lot location standards set forth in subsection (3)(e)(i) of this section provided the minimum required landscaping between the street and the parking area be increased from 10 to 20 feet in width and the parking areas are effectively screened from views from the right-of-way by trees and shrubs.

(5) Properties Adjacent to 228th Avenue SE.

(a) Developments shall adhere to at least one of the sets of standards, Options 1, 2, or 3 below (or any combination of the three).

Option 1: Developments shall maintain a landscaped buffer a minimum of 50 feet in width between the back of the sidewalk and any building or parking area. Pathways and pedestrian-oriented space are permitted within the designated landscape buffer area provided the buffer design meets the design criteria set forth below. The required landscape buffer shall include:

(i) Retention of existing trees and understory native vegetation to the extent practical and desirable as determined by the director; and

(ii) Infill landscaping shall be planted that will provide full screening of buildings (up to a height of 15 feet for multi-story buildings) and structures and also all signs, parking lots, and storage areas within five years.

Figure 21B.30.030k. Trees and landscaping should be the predominant feature along 228th Avenue SE within the Town Center.

Option 2: The facades, site layout and building orientation of developments shall adhere to the requirements for pedestrian-oriented streets, although one driveway (20 feet maximum width) is permitted if the director determines that no other access option is feasible.

Option 3: Developments shall be shielded from 228th Avenue SE by at least a 20-foot-wide strip of landscaping. At a minimum, the landscaping shall include:

(iii) One row of evergreen trees, no more than 10 feet or three-fourths the width of the tree crown at maturity, whichever is greater, on center. The mature height of these trees shall not be less than 40 feet. The tree planting shall consist of at least two different species;

(iv) One or more rows of evergreen trees and shrubs spaced no more than six feet apart. The shrubs shall have a mature height of at least eight feet and be at least 75 percent evergreen. The planting of small trees and shrubs shall feature at least three different species;

(v) Smaller shrubs and groundcover to completely cover the landscape strip within three years;

(vi) Irrigation to maintain the plantings as approved by the director; and

(vii) The plantings shall obscure at least 50 percent of the building and parking upon development occupancy and be designed to obscure 100 percent of all within 10 years.

(b) Additional Standards Applicable to All Options.

(i) Sign Standards along 228th Avenue SE.

(A) The only signs visible from 228th Avenue SE shall be either monument signs no taller than seven feet above grade or wall signs less than 30 square feet or 18 inches multiplied by the length of the front facade measured parallel to 228th Avenue SE (whichever is smaller);

(B) Except for wall signs on pedestrian-oriented facades built up to the sidewalk, all signs visible from 228th Avenue SE are limited to signs that advertise a commercial node or group of businesses rather than a single business; and

(C) For all other sign standards, see Chapter 21B.45 SMC.

(ii) Accessory use parking, service areas, mechanical equipment, storage areas, blank walls and outdoor sales areas shall not be visible from 228th Avenue SE.

(iii) Required landscaping may include parts of the public right-of-way if the director determines that pedestrian safety or access is not adversely impacted and the area is not needed for future public improvements. In this case, the project proponent shall be responsible for the irrigation and maintenance of the landscaping for the duration of the occupancy.

(iv) Single-purpose residential development shall be set back at least 50 feet from the public right-of-way.

(6) Orientation to a Public Park. The site development orientation to a public park for properties in the TC-A zones shall be determined during the unified zone development planning process.

For other properties adjacent to a park, orientation requirements shall be set by the director during the permit application review process. All of the following shall apply:

(a) Buildings with nonresidential uses on the ground floor facing a park with usable outdoor space shall feature transparent windows or entries over at least 50 percent of the ground floor facade of nonresidential uses between four and eight feet above the sidewalk.

(b) For residential uses, the standard for transparency is 15 percent and applies to all vertical surfaces of the facade facing the street as determined by the director.

(c) In lieu of subsection (6)(a) of this section, new development may be screened from the public park by at least 10 feet of Type I landscaping.

(d) Parking and service areas shall be screened from a public park by at least 15 feet of Type I landscaping. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.100))

21B.30.040 Site planning – Street layout.

The Transportation Element of the Town Center Plan includes goals, policies, and actions aimed at producing a connected hierarchy of streets that accommodates desired Town Center land uses and human activities. Streets within the mixed-use nodes will be planned during the unified zone development planning process (see Chapter 21B.95 SMC) with reference to the Town Center Infrastructure Plan. Other streets may be planned either collectively or by individual property owners. The following provisions serve as guidelines for the unified zone development planning process and development standards if the roads are planned by a private property owner in the TC-B or TC-C zones.

Figure 21B.30.040a illustrates a conceptual layout of streets within the Town Center. While it is expected that the network of streets that is eventually built will differ from this configuration, the provisions below are intended to ensure that new streets meet the goals and policies of the Town Center Plan.

(1) Connected Network of Streets. Project applicants shall demonstrate to the director’s satisfaction how the proposed development meets the following policies of the Town Center Plan:

(a) Provide for a safe and connected network of roadways to serve Town Center development;

(b) Limit the placement of buildings or other development features that inhibit the desired connectivity of the Town Center circulation network; and

(c) Configure roadways to minimize impacts to environmentally critical areas.

(2) Provide for a Hierarchy of Streets. Provide for a hierarchy of streets, including:

(a) Connector roads that provide for automobile, service, bicycles, and pedestrian circulation throughout the Town Center. Development in the Town Center shall accommodate connector streets in the northwest, northeast, and southeast quadrants consistent with the goals and policies of the Town Center Plan.

(b) Pedestrian-oriented streets. TC-A-1, A-2, and A-3 zoned areas shall include designated pedestrian-oriented street segment, as determined by the City through the unified zone development planning process. Pedestrian-oriented streets are intended to be streets featuring continuous storefronts or plaza spaces, wide sidewalks, street trees, bioretention, and on-street parking. Designations for pedestrian-oriented streets could cover an entire street, a single block, or a portion of a block, depending upon the area. Pedestrian-oriented street designations are intended for areas where a concentration of pedestrian activity is desired. See SMC 21B.30.030(1) for related development frontage standards.

(c) Mixed-use streets, which are all other new streets besides connector roads and pedestrian-oriented streets within the TC-A zones. These are localized streets which should include generous sidewalks, street trees, bioretention, on-street parking (to the extent possible), and slow moving traffic.

(d) Residential streets, which are all other new streets besides connector roads within the TC-B and TC-C zones. These are localized streets within residential neighborhoods and should contain sidewalks, planting strips with street trees or bioretention, on-street parking on one or both sides, and slow moving traffic.

(e) Alleys are encouraged where useful to access parking or service areas.

(3) Maximum Block Dimensions for Individual Development. For an individual development, unless otherwise stated in a unified zone development plan, the maximum block length in any direction is 480 feet and maximum block perimeter is 1,400 feet. Departures are permitted in the TC-A zones subject to unified zone development plan approval and compliance with the Town Center Plan’s goals and policies. Departures for streets in all other Town Center zones shall be considered by the director based on one or more criteria listed below.

(a) Topography, right-of-way, existing construction or physical conditions, or other geographic conditions impose an unusual hardship on the project applicant, and an equivalent alternative which can meet the Town Center Plan’s goals and policies is available;

(b) A departure provides the opportunity for a public open space or other public amenity that would otherwise not be possible;

(c) The location of institutional or other similar uses requires a larger block size; and/or

(d) A private internal road(s) or pedestrian route may be used to meet cross circulation standards as determined by the director per the following:

(i) Adjacent properties do not rely on applicable roadway for primary vehicular access;

(ii) Roadway should be designed to look and function like public streets (planting strips, street trees, sidewalks, and parallel parking, where appropriate per the director); and

(iii) Roadway or pedestrian route shall be accessible to the public.

(4) Multimodal Transportation. The layout of streets shall include consideration of vehicular, transit, bicycle, and pedestrian circulation.

Figure 21B.30.040a. A desirable configuration of connected public and private streets and alleys in the Town Center. Also see the Town Center Infrastructure Plan for more guidance on the street layout for the areas west of 228th Avenue SE.

(Ord. O2016-429 § 10 (Att. J); Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.110))

21B.30.050 Site planning – Multiple building/large lot/multiple lot developments.

(1) Large Lots with Multiple Buildings. All development permit applications for sites over two acres or with multiple buildings, except for single-family development, shall demonstrate that the project is based on a unifying site planning concept that meets the following criteria:

(a) Incorporates open space and landscaping as a unifying element;

(b) Where possible, incorporates screening, environmental mitigation, utilities, and drainage as positive elements (ex: create a “natural” open space or wet pond as a site feature to accommodate surface water runoff);

(c) Provides pedestrian paths or walkways connecting all businesses and the entries of multiple buildings;

(d) Incorporates low impact development measures and stormwater management systems as part of the site plan, unless infeasible. Participating in a multi-property stormwater facility or system will also satisfy this requirement; and

Figure 21B.30.050a. Example of an attractive stormwater pond used as a site amenity.

(e) Building entrances shall not be focused around a central parking lot but be connected by a sidewalk/pathway system and/or open space(s).

The director may waive or modify this standard if it has been addressed within an adopted unified zone development plan.

Figure 21B.30.050b. The Juanita Village site plan exemplifying objectives for multiple building large lot development.

(Ord. O2016-429 § 10 (Att. J); Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.120))

21B.30.060 Site planning – Pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicle circulation.

Project applicants shall be prepared to demonstrate that the proposal includes an integrated pedestrian circulation system that connects buildings, open space, and parking areas with the adjacent street sidewalk system, trail network, and adjacent properties. Specific standards:

(1) Trail Network. Developments shall provide off-street trails that meet the goals and policies of the Town Center Plan. The conceptual trails plan in Figure 21B.30.060a shall serve as an example of a desirable trail network within the Town Center. The trail network is to be accessible for pedestrians, cyclists, and other nonmotorized vehicles, although some sections may be for pedestrians only. Trails within the TC-A zones shall be planned during the unified zone development planning process (see Chapter 21B.95 SMC). Other trails may be planned either collectively or by individual property owners. The conceptual trails plan serves as a guideline for development in the TC-A zones (through the unified zone development planning process) and as a standard for development in the TC-B or TC-C zones. Alternative trail configurations may be considered, provided the project applicant can demonstrate that the proposed trail network is equal to or better than the conceptual trails plan in terms of trail connectivity, accessibility, scenic values, safety, and minimizing environmental impacts, as determined by the director. See SMC 21B.30.170 for trail corridor design standards.

Figure 21B.30.060a. Conceptual trail network for the Town Center.

(2) Access to Sidewalk. All buildings shall have clear pedestrian access to a public sidewalk. Where a use fronts onto two streets, access shall be provided from the road closest to the main entrance, but preferably from both streets. The walkway shall be at least six feet wide. The director may require wider pathways where significant pedestrian activity is expected. Exceptions will be granted for sites with existing physical constraints that prevent conformance with the standard, as determined by the director.

(3) Entrances. Developments shall adapt building access to site conditions for level, convenient, clearly identified pedestrian entry.

(4) On-Site Connections. Pedestrian paths or walkways connecting all businesses and the entries of multiple commercial buildings frequented by the public on the same development site shall be provided.

(5) Future Connectivity. For sites abutting vacant or underdeveloped land, the director may require new development to provide for the opportunity for future connection to its interior pathway system through the use of pathway stub-outs, building configuration, and/or parking lot layout. For example, a grid of pedestrian connections at intervals of 200 to 300 feet in the TC-A and TC-B zones would meet the intent statements above and be scaled consistent with the Town Center vision.

(6) Parking Lot Pathways. A paved walkway or sidewalk shall be provided for safe walking areas through surface parking lots greater than 180 feet long (measured either parallel or perpendicular to the streetfront). Walkways shall be provided for every three parking aisles or a distance of less than 180 feet shall be maintained between paths (whichever is more restrictive). Such access routes through parking areas shall be separated from vehicular parking and travel lanes by use of contrasting paving material which may be raised above the vehicular pavement. Speed bumps may not be used to satisfy this requirement.

(7) Americans with Disabilities Act. All pathways shall conform to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

Figure 21B.30.060b. Pedestrian paths in parking lots.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.130))

21B.30.070 Site planning – Internal vehicular circulation.

(1) Vehicular Circulation. Developments shall provide a safe and convenient network of vehicular circulation that connects to the surrounding road/access network and provides opportunities for future connections to adjacent parcels, where applicable.

(2) Internal Access Roads. Interior access roads in multi-building commercial or multifamily developments shall look and function more like public streets. This includes planting strips and street trees or bioretention on both sides, sidewalks on one or both sides, and perpendicular parking on one or both sides. The use of these features will be determined for developments in the TC-A zones through the unified zone development planning process (see Chapter 21B.95 SMC), depending on the size and configuration of the development and nature of uses and the circulation system. The director may approve innovative and special street designs, such as a woonerf people street, provided pedestrian safety and other street functions are achieved.

(3) Driveway Standards and Guidelines for All Nonresidential and Multifamily Development.

(a) Driveways to surface parking lots are prohibited on pedestrian-oriented streets, unless there are no alternatives, as determined in the unified zone development planning process;

(b) Driveways shall be restricted to no more than one entrance and exit lane per 300 lineal feet (lf) of frontage. Properties with less than 300 lineal feet of frontage shall be restricted to one entrance and exit lane for vehicular access. For corner properties, the separate street frontages shall be measured separately unless both streets are classified as an arterial or collector;

(c) Vehicular access to corner lots shall be located on the lowest classified roadway and as close as practical to the property line most distant from the intersection;

(d) Driveway widths shall be minimized per the director to reduce pedestrian conflicts. Driveway lanes shall be no wider than 11 feet per entry or exit lane unless the director determines wider lanes are appropriate for the use and that the design does not significantly impact vehicular circulation, stormwater runoff, public safety, pedestrian movement, or visual qualities; and

(e) All dedicated truck loading zones and service areas for commercial businesses, except for on-street loading zones and businesses under 20,000 square feet that use parking spaces for incidental deliveries, shall be in the back of the building and shall not face a pedestrian or residential street. For related standards on loading zones, see SMC 21B.40.070. (Ord. O2016-429 § 10 (Att. J); Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.140))

21B.30.080 Site planning – Side and back yard compatibility.

The following specific requirements take precedence over the minimum setback requirements listed in SMC 21B.25.030.

(1) Specific Side and Back Yard Setback Requirements.

(a) TC-A Zones and Other Unified Zone Development Plan Sites.

(i) Zero feet for windowless fire walls up to 35 feet in height are allowed unless provisions for taller fire walls are allowed through a unified zone development plan.

(ii) Ten feet minimum for all other buildings and portions of buildings over 35 feet high unless otherwise permitted by an adopted unified zone development plan.

(b) Nonresidential and Multifamily Buildings in Any Town Center Zone Except TC-A. Minimum 15 feet for buildings up to 35 feet in height. One foot of additional setback is required for each foot of height over 35 feet (applied to building portions over 35 feet high). These side yard setbacks do not apply to lot lines that divide individual townhouse units within a building.

Figure 21B.30.080a. Setbacks for multifamily buildings in all zones except TC-A.

(2) Solar Access and Privacy for Multifamily Dwelling Units.

(a) Buildings or portions thereof containing dwelling units whose only solar access is from the applicable side of the building (facing towards the side property line) shall be set back from the applicable side or back property lines at least 15 feet;

(b) Transparent windows shall occupy no more than 10 percent of any facade within 15 feet of the side or back property line facing an adjacent property where either property’s residential privacy may be compromised; and

(c) Balconies shall be set back at least 10 feet from side or back yard property lines separating adjacent residential or mixed-use properties. Balconies or rooftop decks within 15 horizontal feet of a side or back property line shall utilize opaque guard rails to minimize impacts to privacy on adjacent properties.

The director may relax or waive these requirements where he or she finds that it achieves no practical increase in privacy. Consideration shall be given to the physical and development conditions on-site and any applicable recorded agreements between property owners.

Figure 21B.30.080b. Side yard and setbacks for solar access.

(3) Side and Back Yard Design Options for Nonresidential and Multifamily Development. Project applicants shall incorporate one or more of the following design options into the site’s design:

(a) Provide a zero lot line fire wall for commercial or mixed-use developments within unified zone development plan areas;

(b) Provide a shared internal roadway along the property line;

(c) Provide a trail or other internal pathway along the property line. This may be required in some areas to implement the Town Center Trails Plan;

(d) Retain existing native or desirable mature vegetation along the side or back property line. Chapter 21B.35 SMC standards for tree protection apply;

(e) Provide Type I, II, or III landscaping at least seven feet deep along side and back property lines. A fence may be included with the landscaping. This option may be used only where options (a), (b), or (c) above are not viable as determined by the director; and/or

(f) Other treatments that meet the intent of the standards as approved by the director. Factors that shall be considered in determining the appropriate treatment include views, applicable uses, connectivity, environmental conditions, and desired level of privacy;

(g) A rain garden or other low impact development measure may be incorporated as part of the treatments above.

Figure 21B.30.080c. Side and back yard design options for nonresidential and multifamily development.

(4) Table of Landscaped Separators and Buffers. In order to mitigate the impacts of new development on adjacent residential areas, public open spaces, and public trails, the required buffer standards listed in the table below are established. A new development use or facility listed in the first column shall include the buffer indicated in the cell in the applicable Adjacent Uses and Zoning column. The buffers are only required where the new and existing developments have a common property line (not properties across the street from one another). The director may modify the requirements if such a revision results in a public benefit and better condition for the adjacent properties. See subsection (5) of this section for buffers and setbacks for interface between TC-A and TC-C and TC-A and E zones. Other ways to provide separation include artistically treated walls and dense vegetated screens. Where this chart conflicts with another standard in these regulations, the widest dimension shall apply.

PROPOSED NEW DEVELOPMENT

ADJACENT USES AND ZONING

Existing Single-Family Residential and Undeveloped Land in the TC-C or TC-E Zones or Land Outside the Town Center1

Existing Multifamily, Mixed-Use, or Undeveloped Land in the TC-B Zones

Street Right-of-Way (Note: screening standards for specific street types noted in SMC 21B.30.030 take precedence over this chart)

Public Trail or Public Open Space

USES AND ZONES

New Multifamily Residential

20 feet of Type I, Type II, or Type IV landscaping

None required

None required

10 feet of any type of landscaping

New Townhouse, Cottage Housing, or Cluster Development

10 feet of Type I, Type II, or 20 feet of Type IV landscaping

None required

None required

None required

New Commercial or Mixed-Use

20 feet of Type I landscaping

10 feet of Type I, Type II, or Type III landscaping

None required

None required with a pedestrian-oriented facade; 10 feet of Type I, Type II, or Type III landscaping without a pedestrian-oriented facade

FACILITIES

Parking Area

20 feet of Type I or Type II landscaping

10 feet of Type I or Type II landscaping

10 feet of Type III landscaping

6 feet of Type I, Type II, or Type III landscaping

Service, Loading, or Waste Management Areas

20 feet of Type I landscaping

15 feet of Type I or Type II landscaping

10 feet of Type I landscaping

6 feet of Type I or Type II landscaping

Notes:

1.    These buffers do not apply to new development that is adjacent to single-family residences in the TC-A or TC-B zones.

Figure 21B.30.080d. Side yard treatment examples. The left example would be appropriate in denser TC-A areas, while the middle image could represent an attractive treatment between multifamily developments in the TC-A or B zones. The right image shows a good example along the edge of the Town Center boundary or adjacent to pre-existing homes in the TC-C or E zones.

(5) Where TC-A zones are adjacent to either TC-C or E zoned properties, the following shall apply.

(a) Portions of buildings and structures, including parking garages, over 35 feet in height shall be set back from TC-C and E zoned properties at least 50 feet and shall be buffered by at least a 20-foot-wide strip of Type I, II or IV landscaping if there is not another improvement, such as a roadway or parking lot between the structure and the building, which requires a different form of buffering;

(b) Storage areas, service areas, activities and site elements that could cause significant adverse glare, shading, noise or odor impacts to residential properties in the TC-C or E zoned properties shall be set back at least 50 feet from TC-C and E zoned properties and shall be buffered by at least a 20-foot-wide strip of Type I, II or IV landscaping if they are within 60 feet of the TC-C or E zoned properties. Parking lots and standard mechanical equipment for heating and cooling of buildings shall not be considered to cause adverse impacts but service areas for large trucks and exhaust from restaurants may be considered to cause such impacts;

(c) All structures in TC-A zoned properties over 10 feet in height and all parking lots shall be set back from TC-C and E zoned properties and buffered by at least a 20-foot-wide strip of Type I, II or IV landscaping;

(d) Trails and parks may be located adjacent to TC-C and E zoned properties. Active recreation areas such as sports fields and children’s play area shall be buffered by at least a 10-foot-wide strip of Type I, II or IV landscaping unless the City and adjacent property owners agree that such landscaping is not necessary;

(e) Public and private roadways may be located adjacent in TC-A zoned properties adjacent to TC-C and E zoned properties. The director may require that the roadway be buffered from the TC-C and E zoned properties if (s)he determines that such a roadway will cause significant adverse impacts to existing residences. The director may also require additional landscaping to either side of the roadway to mitigate significant adverse impacts to properties in TC-C or E zones; and

(f) Land areas in TC-A zones adjacent to TC-C and E zones that are left unimproved after development of the A zone property shall be landscaped with Type I, II or IV landscaping as described in SMC 21B.35.030. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.150))

21B.30.090 Site planning – Open space.

(1) Intent and Explanation of Terms. The Sammamish Town Center Plan Policy OS-1 calls for “a hierarchy of interconnected public and private open spaces, ranging from an active town centralized plaza or town square to less formal gathering areas, quiet residential courts, and natural open spaces.” To implement this directive, this section and SMC 21B.30.160 establish standards for several different types of open spaces in different settings within the Town Center. This section establishes requirements for the amounts and location of open spaces, and SMC 21B.30.160 sets standards for the characteristics and elements of each type of required open space. To facilitate the application of these two sections, the following terms are employed.

(a) “Pedestrian-oriented open space” means publicly accessible spaces that enliven the pedestrian environment by providing opportunities for outdoor dining, socializing, relaxing, etc., and visual amenities that contribute to the unique character of the Town Center. Pedestrian-oriented open spaces are often, but not necessarily, associated with commercial and civic uses where pedestrian activity is particularly encouraged.

(b) “Usable open space” means space that accommodates human activity, generally featuring some pavement, lawn area, or element such as a play area that allows for movement. Gardens with pathways for strolling and trails or walkways may be considered usable open space. Usable open space may be either public or private. Steep slopes, critical areas, and vehicle circulation and parking areas shall not be considered usable open space.

(c) “Common open space” means spaces that are available to all the residents in a particular development. Types of common open space include landscaped courtyards or decks, front porches, gardens with pathways, children’s play areas, or other multi-purpose recreational and/or green spaces.

(d) “Indoor recreation area” means a room or indoor space where formal or informal recreational activities, such as exercise, classes, reading, meetings, board games, etc., can take place.

(e) “Landscaped open space” means areas featuring primarily vegetation or special pavements and outdoor furniture. Pedestrian-oriented, usable, common and multifamily open space may also be considered landscaped open space provided the landscaped elements meet the standards set forth in Chapter 21B.35 SMC. Calculations to determine compliance with landscaped area standards shall apply to development on each lot. Public rights-of-way or alleys shall not count as lot area in the calculations. Critical areas, if within the applicable lot, shall be counted as landscaped open space in the calculations.

(f) “Multifamily open space” means private open space primarily, but not necessarily, exclusively for the use of the development’s residents. Multifamily open space may be in the form of balconies, decks, common open space (courtyards or gardens, etc.), or interior open space as noted in subsection (3) of this section.

(g) “Public open space” means publicly accessible open space on public land or land that has been officially dedicated to open space for public use through an easement or other agreement.

Figure 21B.30.090a. Examples of different types of open spaces.

Figure 21B.30.090b. Examples of pedestrian-oriented open space, common open space, and landscaped open space.

(2) Open Space Requirements for Nonresidential Uses.

(a) All nonresidential development, including commercial portions of mixed-use development, shall provide pedestrian-oriented open space as determined in the unified zone development planning process described in Chapter 21B.95 SMC. For nonresidential developments in the TC-A-4 and A-5 zones, the pedestrian open space shall be at least equal to one percent of the net developable site area plus one percent of the gross nonresidential building floor area, exclusive of structured parking; and

(b) All other portions of the site not occupied by building, pavement for circulation or human activity, or pedestrian open space shall be landscaped open space meeting the requirements in Chapter 21B.35 SMC.

(3) Open Space Requirements for Multifamily Uses (Excluding Townhouses and Cottage Housing).

(a) The intent of these standards is to provide a variety of private and common open spaces to serve the development. All multifamily development, including multifamily portions of mixed-use development, shall provide open space at least equal to 10 percent of the building living space, not counting corridors, lobbies, etc. For buildings that are adjacent to or across the street from a public park, the minimum required open space shall be five percent of the livable floor area of dwelling units within each building. The required open space may be provided in a combination of the following ways.

(i) One hundred percent of the required open space may be in the form of common open space available to all residents and meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.160(3)(a). Common open space may be in the form of courtyards, front porches, patios, play areas, gardens or similar spaces;

(ii) Up to 50 percent of the required open space may be provided by private or common balconies meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.160(3)(b);

(iii) Up to 50 percent of the required open space may be provided by shared roof decks located on the top of buildings which are available to all residents and meet the requirements of SMC 21B.30.160(3)(c); and/or

(iv) Up to 25 percent of the required open space may be provided by common indoor recreation areas meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.160(3)(d).

(b) All other portions of the site not occupied by building, pavement for circulation or human activity, or pedestrian open space shall be landscaped open space meeting the requirements in Chapter 21B.35 SMC. For those multifamily developments not within a unified zone development plan area, the minimum amount of landscaped open space is 30 percent of the net developable site area. Pathways and common open spaces as described in SMC 21B.30.160(3) may be counted towards the 30 percent site area requirement, upon the director’s approval.

(4) Open Space Requirements for Townhouses. Townhouses and other ground based multifamily residential units with individual exterior entries shall provide open space at least equal to 10 percent of the building living space, not counting automobile storage. The required open space may be provided by one or more of the following ways:

(a) Usable on-site open space that has minimum dimensions of at least 12 feet on all sides and is configured to accommodate human activity such as outdoor eating, gardening, toddler play, etc.;

(b) Balconies, decks and/or front porches meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.160(3)(b); and/or

(c) At least 50 square feet of landscaped open space meeting the requirements of Chapter 21B.35 SMC in the front yard of the house.

(5) Open Space Requirements for Detached Single-Family Housing and Duplexes. See the requirements set forth in SMC 21B.30.270.

(6) Open Space Requirements for Cottage Housing. See the requirements set forth in SMC 21B.30.280.

(7) Maintenance and Dedication of Cooperative Public Open Space.

(a) Public open space that is dedicated to the City as a park shall meet the following criteria:

(i) The dedicated area is at least one acre in size, except when adjacent to an existing or planned public park;

(ii) The dedicated land provides one or more of the following:

(A) Shoreline access;

(B) Regional trail linkages;

(C) Habitat linkages;

(D) Recreation facilities; or

(E) Heritage sites.

(iii) The dedicated area is located within 1,200 feet of the project site.

(b) Unless the open space is dedicated to the City pursuant to subsection (7)(a) of this section, maintenance of any recreation space retained in private ownership shall be the responsibility of the owner or other separate entity capable of long-term maintenance and operation in a manner acceptable to the City. There shall be a public easement or other instrument to ensure continued public access.

(8) Children Play Areas. The TC-A-1, A-2, and A-3 zones shall include at least one children’s play area, play fountain, or other facility. This area should include active recreation opportunities for all age groups (e.g., sports courts). Size and location will be determined during the unified zone development planning process.

(9) Open Space Tracts in Clustered Developments. Any open space resulting from lot clustering shall not be altered or disturbed except as specified on recorded documents creating the open space. Such open spaces may be retained under ownership by the subdivider, conveyed to residents of the development, or conveyed to a third party. When access to the open space is provided, the access shall be located in a separate tract. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.160))

21B.30.100 Site planning – Stormwater facility planning.

(1) Policy Intent. This section is intended to implement the Town Center Plan natural systems section in Chapter IV by directing project proponents to conform to Town Center Stormwater Master Plan and unified zone development plan recommendations, employing low impact development techniques, and where feasible, treating stormwater management facilities as visual, open space and natural resources.

Acknowledging that not all low impact development techniques will be effective on all sites, the intent of these guidelines is to achieve what is possible to improve stormwater conditions on site in an integrated manner coordinated with other stormwater management efforts.

(2) Adherence to Sub-Basin Plans and Unified Zone Development Plan. Project proponents shall demonstrate that their proposals adhere to the recommendations of the applicable Stormwater Sub-basin Plan and Stormwater Master Plan for the Town Center.

(3) Low Impact Development (LID) Requirements. The project shall adhere to the low impact development standards and requirements in the Stormwater Master Plan for the Town Center.

(a) Rain gardens and similar landscape measures to treat stormwater may be counted as part of landscaped open space, pedestrian-oriented space, and common open space for the purpose of meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.090; provided, that the director finds that they are located and designed to enhance the visual, pedestrian-oriented or residential qualities of the development as well;

(b) Green roofs may be counted for up to 50 percent of the required multifamily residential open space required in SMC 21B.30.090(3) if there is access for residents to the roof and elements, such as seating to allow them to enjoy the space;

(c) Stormwater ponds meeting the requirements of subsection (4) of this section may be counted as landscaped area in meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.090; and

(d) Areas where native vegetation is retained may be counted as landscaped area in meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.090.

(4) Visual Standards for Stormwater Management Ponds and Biofiltration Swales and Other Stormwater Management Features (Reference Chapter 21B.35 SMC).

(a) Intent. To integrate detention ponds, grass swales and other features into site design while maintaining biofiltration efficiency.

(b) Where possible, integrate biofiltration swales and ponds into the overall site design. Methods of filtration are listed below in order of preference:

(i) Locate biofiltration swales, ponds, or other approved stormwater management systems as part of a landscape feature such as a screen, natural area or garden. Trees may be planted near the grass swale as long as they do not substantially shade the grass within the swale. The swale or pond should be designed so it does not impede pedestrian circulation or shared parking between two or more properties;

(ii) Where topography is favorable, locate the biofiltration swale, wet pond, or other approved stormwater management system within the paved parking or service area. The swale or pond should be landscaped as part of the required internal parking lot landscaping and oriented so it does not impede pedestrian circulation; or

(iii) Locate the swale along the front edge of the property. Incorporate landscaping and screening to visually enhance the swale without reducing maintainability and sun exposure; and

(iv) The incorporation of landscaping into biofiltration swale designs is encouraged if the biofiltration swale is located and/or designed as a positive landscaping feature with approved design and plant materials. Where appropriate, shade tolerant plants should be used.

(v) The sloped edges of unfenced bioswales shall be no greater than two and one-half percent. Where slopes are greater than two and one-half percent, the swale shall be fenced or vegetated to avoid safety hazards.

Figure 21B.30.100a. Examples of integrating stormwater management systems into development.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.170))

21B.30.110 Site planning – Street corners.

(1) Street Corner Treatments. All development proposals located at street corner sites in the TC-A-1, A-2, and A-3 zones shall include at least one of the design treatments described below (in order of preference, subsection (1)(a) of this section being the highest):

(a) Locate a building on the street corner (preferably with a corner entry); or

(b) Provide pedestrian-oriented space at the corner leading directly to a building entry or entries.

If the director determines that subsection (1)(a) or (b) of this section is not feasible, and if the site is not on a pedestrian-oriented street, provide for one of the following options:

(c) Install substantial landscaping: At least 30 feet by 30 feet or 900 square feet of ground surface area with trees, shrubs, and groundcover in a decorative manner that provides four-season interest. The space shall include a special architectural element, such as a trellis, to add identity or demarcation of the area. Such an architectural element may have a sign incorporated into it (as long as such sign does not identify an individual business or businesses); or

(d) Other treatments will be considered, provided they meet the intent of the standards and guidelines as determined by the director.

Figure 21B.30.110a. Street corner treatment.

Note: Ensure that “sight triangles” are maintained for visibility from vehicles. See SMC 21B.25.200. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.180))

Article II. Site Design Elements

21B.30.120 Site design elements – Pedestrian amenities.

(1) Durable Pedestrian Furniture. Pedestrian furniture provided in public spaces shall be made of durable, vandal- and weather-resistant materials that do not retain rainwater and can be reasonably maintained over an extended period of time.

(2) Streetscape Amenity Requirements for Pedestrian-Oriented and Mixed-Use Streets. Streetscape amenities shall be included along all designated pedestrian-oriented streets and mixed-use streets. For each 100 cumulative lineal feet of pedestrian-oriented street frontage, at least three of the desired amenity elements listed below shall be included. At least one element shall be seating. Along designated mixed-use streets, at least two amenity elements shall be included unless otherwise noted. The type, location, and design of chosen amenities shall contribute to a well-balanced mix of features on the street, as determined by the director. All amenities below are valued at one amenity element unless otherwise noted. Desired amenities include:

(a) Seating. Each six feet of seating area or four fixed individual seats count as one amenity element. Seating areas should generally be located in areas that provide views of pedestrian activity. Seating ledges shall be at least 12 inches wide to qualify;

(b) Trash Receptacles. To qualify as an amenity, at least one trash receptacle is needed per 100 linear feet of sidewalk.

(c) Permanent landscaping elements including planting beds, large containers, and other landscaping elements that add visual interest to the sidewalk as determined by the director;

(d) Special pavement patterns and/or tree grates;

(e) Bicycle racks;

(f) Informational kiosks (worth two amenity elements);

(g) Transit shelters (worth two amenity elements unless provided by applicable transit agency);

(h) Decorative clocks (worth two amenity elements);

(i) Artwork as approved by the arts commission (worth two amenity elements);

(j) Special lighting; and

(k) Other amenities that meet the intent as determined by the director.

Features above that are publicly funded, already required by code, and/or obstruct pedestrian movement shall not qualify as an amenity to meet this standard.

(3) Seating Requirement. For developments in TC-A and B zones with residential units not on pedestrian-oriented or mixed-use streets, provide one bench or seating area for every 600 feet of street frontage. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.200))

21B.30.130 Site design elements – Internal pedestrian paths.

(1) Internal Pathway Standards and Guidelines.

(a) All internal pedestrian walkways shall have at least six-foot-wide unobstructed walking surfaces. Walkways adjacent to a building entrance or pedestrian-oriented facade shall be at least 12 feet wide from the building to the face of the curb.

(b) Where walks are adjacent to parking areas, they shall be set back or widened so that overhanging parked vehicles do not narrow the pathway width to less than six feet. See also subsection (2)(b) of this section for landscaping requirements.

(2) Landscaping along Pathways.

(a) Pedestrian walks shall be separated from structures at least three feet for landscaping, except where the adjacent building features a pedestrian-oriented facade or other treatment, such as the use of a trellis with vine plants on wall or sculptural, mosaic, bas-relief artwork, or other decorative wall treatments, that adds visual interest at a pedestrian scale that is acceptable to the director.

(b) All internal walkways along pedestrian-oriented building fronts and walkways on the edge of parking areas shall feature at least one street tree (on average) for every 30 feet of walk. Trees may be sited to maintain entry sign visibility.

Figure 21B.30.130a. Provide landscaping between walkways and buildings that do not comply with pedestrian-oriented facade requirements.

Figure 21B.30.130b. Acceptable and unacceptable internal walkways.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.210))

21B.30.140 Site design elements – Mechanical equipment and service areas.

(1) Service Enclosure Space Standards. The storage space for the collection of trash and recyclables shall be provided on-site. The applicant shall demonstrate to the director’s satisfaction that the service area is adequate to handle the anticipated trash containers and equipment and does not conflict with the primary pedestrian entrance to the building. The following provisions in subsections (1)(a) through (d) of this section provide guidance for trash and service space:

(a) One and one-half square feet per dwelling unit in multiple-dwelling developments except where the development is participating in a county-sponsored or approved direct collection program in which individual recycling bins are used for curbside collection;

(b) Two and one-half square feet per every 1,000 square feet of building gross floor area in office, educational and institutional developments;

(c) Four square feet per every 1,000 square feet of building gross floor area in manufacturing and other nonresidential developments; and

(d) Six square feet per every 1,000 square feet of building gross floor area in retail developments.

(2) Service Element Location Standards and Guidelines.

(a) Service and storage areas shall be located to minimize impacts on the pedestrian environment and adjacent uses. Such areas may not be located in any required setback areas.

(b) Multifamily Service Element Location.

(i) Service elements should generally be concentrated and located where they are accessible to service vehicles and convenient for tenant use. For buildings with more than 20 dwelling units, the trash/service area shall be located within the building.

(ii) Collection points located in separate buildings/structures or outdoors shall be no more than 200 feet from a common entrance of a residential building.

(c) For nonresidential uses, storage space may be allocated to a centralized collection point. Nonresidential buildings greater than 30,000 gross square feet of floor area shall provide a trash/service area within the building.

Figure 21B.30.140a. Service element location.

(3) Outdoor Service Enclosure Standards.

(a) Service areas visible from the street, pathway, pedestrian-oriented space or public parking area (alleys are exempt) shall be enclosed and screened around their perimeter by a solid wall or fence at least six feet high.

(b) Service enclosures should be designed consistent with the architecture of the primary structures. This includes the use of similar material and/or detailing. Acceptable materials include masonry, ornamental metal or wood, or some combination of the three.

(c) Trash and recyclable collection points shall be identified by signs not exceeding two square feet.

(d) If the area is adjacent to a public or private street, sidewalk, or internal pathway or within 10 feet of an adjacent property, it shall be fully enclosed, including a roof, with access away from pedestrian circulation patterns.

(e) Service enclosures shall have gate openings at least 12 feet wide for haulers. In addition, the gate opening for any building or other roofed structure used primarily as a collection point shall have a vertical clearance of at least 12 feet.

(f) Weather protection of recyclables shall be ensured by using weather-proof containers or by providing a roof over the storage area.

(g) Collection points shall be located and configured so that the enclosure gate swing does not obstruct pedestrian or vehicle traffic, or does not require that a hauling truck project into any public right-of-way.

(h) The architectural design of any outdoor collection point enclosure shall be consistent (in terms of design details, materials, articulation, color, and/or finish) with the design of the primary building and/or site structures. Metal fencing, especially chain link fencing, is not acceptable.

Figure 21B.30.140b. Service enclosure example – note the use of materials similar to the nearby building.

(i) Only recyclable materials generated on site shall be collected and stored at such collection points. Except for initial sorting of recyclables by users, all other processing of such materials shall be conducted off site.

(j) The director may waive or modify specific storage space and collection point requirements set forth in this section if the director finds, in writing, that an alternate recycling program design proposed by the project applicant meets the needs of the development and provides an equivalent or better level of storage and collection for recyclables.

(4) Roof-Mounted Mechanical Equipment and Other Systems.

(a) Roof-mounted mechanical equipment should be located so as not to be visible from the street, public open space, parking areas, and from the ground level of adjacent properties. Screening features should utilize similar building materials and forms to blend with the architectural character of the building. SMC 21B.25.180 provides exceptions to height limits for any screening necessary to hide or enclose roof-mounted equipment.

Figure 21B.30.140c. Options for reducing visibility of roof-mounted equipment.

(b) Locate and screen utility meters, electrical conduit, and other service and utilities apparatus so as not to be visible from adjoining and nearby streets and minimize visual impacts from private internal streets, open spaces, and pedestrian walkways. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.220))

21B.30.150 Site design elements – Street design.

(1) Street Design Standards. The streets shall be designed consistent with the goals and policies of the Town Center Plan, the adopted street standards, and the development principles of the Town Center Infrastructure Plan. To meet this standard, project applicants shall use the figures below, reproduced from the Town Center Plan, reproduced as Figure 21B.30.150a, as a guide to determining the appropriate sidewalk width, landscaping elements, and roadway width and configuration until the City develops a more specific set of roadway standards applicable to the Town Center. During the permit application review process, the City will determine the appropriate cross-section(s) for the road(s) being proposed. Some flexibility to the design of the streets may be granted by the City based on unique environmental challenges or where alternative designs can better meet the Town Center Plan’s goals and policies.

Figure 21B.30.150a. Conceptual street cross-sections for the Town Center’s roads. Colors next to each cross-section match those of roadway(s) shown in the conceptual plan to the left.

(2) Crosswalks and Driveways.

(a) Crosswalks are required when a walkway crosses a paved area accessible to vehicles.

(b) Project applicants shall continue the sidewalk pattern and material across driveways.

(3) Traffic Calming. Street design should include traffic calming measures as indicated in the Town Center Infrastructure Plan, unified zone development plan (see Chapter 21B.95 SMC), and/or other applicable street design standards as determined by the City. Examples include raised crosswalks, traffic circles, and medians, where directed by the director to increase pedestrian and vehicular safety, reduce traffic speeds, ease congestion, and enhance streetscapes.

(4) Low Impact Development. Street design shall include low impact development measures as indicated in the Town Center Infrastructure Plan, Town Center Stormwater Master Plan, unified zone development plan, and/or other applicable street design standards as determined by the City.

(5) Multimodal Transportation. The planning and design of streets shall include consideration of vehicular, transit, bicycle, and pedestrian circulation. (See Figure 21B.30.060a, Conceptual trail network for the Town Center.) (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.230))

21B.30.160 Site design elements – Open space design.

(1) General Requirements for All “Common,” “Pedestrian-Oriented” and “Public Open Space” Open Space Design Criteria. The design of all “common,” “pedestrian-oriented” and “public open space” required per SMC 21B.30.090 shall meet the following design criteria to the director’s satisfaction:

(a) All open spaces shall be physically and visually accessible from the adjacent street or major internal pedestrian route. Open spaces shall be in locations that the intended user(s) can easily access and use, rather than simply left-over or undevelopable space in locations where very little pedestrian traffic is anticipated;

(b) The grade and configuration of the open space shall be suitable to recreational activities (e.g., locate play areas on relatively level ground and picnic areas in sunny locations);

(c) The open space shall feature amenities and activities that encourage pedestrians to use the space. Spaces larger than 2,500 square feet should include a combination of active and/or passive recreational uses that attracts a variety of people. “Active” features could include, for example, a trail, sports court, or children’s play area. “Passive” features could include an informal garden, fountain, sculpture, nature viewing area, picnic area, or seating. No use shall be allowed within the open space that adversely affects the aesthetic appeal or usability of the open space;

(d) Project applicants shall demonstrate how the space incorporates crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) principles, including:

(i) Natural surveillance, which occurs when parks or plazas are open to view by the public and neighbors. For example, a plaza that features residential units with windows looking down on space means that the space has good “eyes” on the park or plaza;

(ii) Lighting levels according to SMC 21B.30.190 or as noted in this section;

(iii) Landscaping and Fencing. Avoid configurations that create dangerous hiding spaces and entrapment conditions;

(iv) Entrances should be prominent, well lit, and highly visible from inside and outside of the space;

(v) Maintenance. Open spaces shall utilize commercial grade materials that will last and require minimal maintenance costs. Walls, where necessary, shall be designed and treated to deter graffiti. Use and maintain landscape materials that reduce maintenance cost and maintain visibility, where desired, although some maintenance for landscaping is expected;

Figure 21B.30.160a Illustrating CPTED principles.

(e) Covered open space, such as a picnic shelter or covered sports court, is encouraged;

(f) Landscape elements shall also serve as a stormwater quality improvement function and as rain gardens. See SMC 21B.30.100(4) and Chapter 21B.35 SMC;

(g) In order to qualify as part of required open space, including multifamily open space, an open space shall conform to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA); and

(h) Existing trees and significant vegetation shall be maintained in open space areas unless an alternate landscaping plan for such areas is required or approved or unless planned active recreational activities would conflict with existing vegetation. In case of conflicts with planned activities, the design should strike a balance, as determined by the director, where it maximizes active recreation opportunities while trying to maintain the most important stands of trees and vegetation.

(2) Pedestrian-Oriented Open Space Design Criteria. These spaces, as required per SMC 21B.30.090, are intended to be publicly accessible spaces that enliven the pedestrian environment by providing (1) opportunities for outdoor dining, socializing, and relaxing and (2) visual amenities that contribute to the unique character of the Town Center. Design criteria for pedestrian open space:

(a) Sidewalk area, where widened beyond minimum requirements, shall count as pedestrian-oriented open space. The additional sidewalk area may be used for outdoor dining and temporary display of retail goods. The standards in subsections (2)(b) and (c) of this section shall not apply to sidewalks, where used as usable open space;

(b) The following design elements are required for pedestrian-oriented open space:

(i) Pedestrian access to the abutting structures from the street, private drive, or a nonvehicular courtyard;

(ii) Paved walking surfaces of either concrete, porous concrete or approved unit paving;

(iii) Pedestrian-scaled lighting (no more than 14 feet in height) at a level averaging at least two foot-candles throughout the space. Lighting may be on site or building-mounted lighting;

(iv) At least three feet of seating area (bench, ledge, etc.) or one individual seat per 60 square feet of plaza area or open space. This provision may be relaxed or waived where there are provisions for movable seating that meet the intent of the standard as determined by the director;

(v) Spaces shall be positioned in areas with significant pedestrian traffic to provide interest and security – such as adjacent to a building entry; and

(vi) Landscaping that adds visual or seasonal interest to the space;

Figure 21B.30.160b. Illustration of key pedestrian-oriented open space standards.

(c) The following features are encouraged in pedestrian-oriented space:

(i) Pedestrian amenities such as a water feature, drinking fountain, and/or distinctive paving or artwork;

(ii) Provide pedestrian-oriented facades on some or all buildings facing the space;

(iii) Consideration of the sun angle at noon and the wind pattern in the design of the space;

(iv) Transitional zones along building edges to allow for outdoor eating areas and a planted buffer;

(v) Movable seating;

(vi) Incorporation of water treatment features such as rain gardens or the use of an area over a vault as a pedestrian-oriented space; and

(vii) Weather protection, especially weather protection that can be moved or altered to accommodate conditions; and

(d) The following features are prohibited within pedestrian-oriented space:

(i) Asphalt or gravel pavement, except where continuous gravel or asphalt paths intersect with the space;

(ii) Adjacent chain link fences;

(iii) Adjacent blank walls; and

(iv) Adjacent dumpsters or service areas.

Figure 21B.30.160c. Examples of pedestrian-oriented open space. Clockwise from upper left: University Village (Seattle, WA), Pearl District (Portland, OR), Kent Station (Kent, WA), Walnut Creek (CA), Fremont (Seattle, WA), and Mill Creek Town Center (Mill Creek, WA).

(3) Multifamily Open Space Design Criteria.

(a) Common open space includes landscaped courtyards or decks, front porches, gardens with pathways, children’s play areas, or other multi-purpose recreational and/or green spaces. Special requirements and recommendations for common open spaces include the following:

(i) Required setback areas shall not count towards the open space requirement unless they are portions of a space that meets the dimensional and design requirements and guidelines herein as determined by the director;

(ii) Space shall be large enough to provide functional leisure or recreational activity. To meet this requirement, no dimension shall be less than 15 feet in width (except for front porches);

(iii) Spaces (particularly children’s play areas) shall be visible from at least some dwelling units and positioned near pedestrian activity;

(iv) Spaces shall feature paths, landscaping, seating, lighting and other pedestrian amenities to make the area more functional and enjoyable;

(v) Individual entries may be provided onto common open space from adjacent ground floor residential units, where applicable. Small, semi-private open spaces for adjacent ground floor units that maintain visual access to the common area are strongly encouraged to enliven the space. Low walls or hedges (less than three feet in height) are encouraged to provide clear definition of semi-private and common spaces;

(vi) Separate common space from ground floor windows, automobile circulation, service areas and parking lots with landscaping, low-level fencing, and/or other treatments as approved by the director that enhance safety and privacy (both for common open space and dwelling units);

(vii) Space should be oriented to receive sunlight, facing east, west, or (preferably) south, when possible;

(viii) Stairways, stair landings, above grade walkways, balconies and decks shall not encroach into the minimum required common open space areas. An atrium roof covering may be built over a courtyard to provide weather protection provided it does not obstruct natural light inside the courtyard. Front porches are an exception; and

(ix) Unenclosed front porches qualify as common open space provided:

(A) No dimension is less than eight feet; and

(B) The porches are accessible to all residents.

Figure 21B.30.160d. Good examples of common open space. Clockwise from upper left: Vancouver (WA), Redmond (WA), unknown, and Redmond (WA).

Figure 21B.30.160e. This courtyard is too narrow to function as usable open space, particularly given the height of the building.

(b) Private Balconies and Decks. To qualify as open space meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.090, such spaces shall be at least 35 square feet, with no dimension less than four feet, to provide a space usable for human activity. The space shall meet ADA standards. This standard also applies to individual front porches if counted toward townhouse open space requirements.

(c) Shared Rooftop Decks. To qualify as open space meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.090, such spaces shall meet the following requirements:

(i) Space shall be ADA accessible to all dwelling units;

(ii) Space shall provide amenities such as seating areas, landscaping, and/or other features that encourage use as determined by the director;

(iii) Space shall feature hard surfacing appropriate to encourage resident use; and

(iv) Space shall incorporate features that provide for the safety of residents, such as enclosures and appropriate lighting levels.

Figure 21B.30.160f. Balconies and roof decks: Examples of what can and cannot be considered open space.

(d) Indoor Recreational Areas. To qualify as open space meeting the requirements of SMC 21B.30.090, such spaces shall meet the following conditions:

(i) The space shall meet ADA standards and shall be located in a visible area, such as near an entrance, lobby, or high traffic corridors; and

(ii) Space shall be designed specifically to serve interior recreational functions and not merely be leftover unrentable space used to meet the open space requirement. Such space shall include amenities and design elements that will encourage use by residents as determined by the director.

(4) Children Play Area Safety Requirements. All children play area apparatus shall meet Consumer Product Safety Standards for equipment, soft surfacing and spacing, and shall be located in an area that is:

(a) At least 400 square feet in size with no dimension less than 20 feet; and

(b) Adjacent to main pedestrian paths or near building entrances. (Ord. O2016-429 § 10 (Att. J); Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.240))

21B.30.170 Site design elements – Trail corridors.

Trails, as required in SMC 21B.30.060, shall be provided within easements, or tracts, of sufficient width and length consistent with the dimensional standards as defined below.

Proposed public and private trails shall be reviewed by the director for consistency with the following standards:

(1) Trails Master Plan. The Sammamish Trails, Bikeways, and Paths Master Plan provides design standards for the full range of trails and pedestrian routes desired within the City. This document shall be used as a guide to help determine the type of trail to be constructed in specific locations of the Town Center depending on the terrain, environmental conditions, adjacent uses, connectivity, and anticipated usage. Trails shall be constructed per design standards set forth in the Trails, Bikeways, and Paths Master Plan.

(2) Use of Existing Corridors. To the extent practical in implementing the conceptual Town Center Trails Plan as shown in Figure 21B.30.060a, trails should generally be located to minimize the need to remove additional vegetation and create other associated impacts. If sensitive areas exist on or in proximity to an existing cleared or improved corridor, then impacts from constructing the trail shall be mitigated consistent with Chapter 21A.50 SMC, including the recommendations from any required sensitive areas study. Trails may be located in other areas if it is demonstrated that a new corridor creates less overall or less incremental impact to sensitive areas and habitat while still achieving overall project goals and objectives.

(3) Compatibility with Adjacent Land Uses. Trails should be designed and constructed to encourage users to remain on the trail, to diminish the likelihood of trespass and to promote privacy for adjacent landowners. The project applicant shall propose for the department’s review and approval the use of fencing, signage, landscaping or other appropriate means to accomplish this requirement. Any proposed lighting should be directed away from houses along the trail corridor. Ground-level lighting, such as bollards, is preferred. Safety of trail users and adjacent landowners shall be addressed through review of vehicle access and crossing locations and design.

(4) Width. The width of the cleared area, trail corridor, surface and shoulder should be designed consistent with AASHTO standards for public multi-use paved trails (Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 1999, as amended, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials), and with U.S. Forest Service standards (Trails Management Handbook, 1991, as amended, and Standard Specifications for Construction of Trails Handbook, 1984, as amended) if unpaved. Cleared areas shall be the minimum necessary consistent with the standards and requirements in the SMC.

(5) Sensitive Areas and Buffers. Trail impacts to sensitive areas should be reviewed consistent with the impact avoidance and mitigation sequencing requirements of Chapter 21A.50 SMC. Mitigation of impacts is required, even for trails located on existing corridors consistent with subsection (2) of this section. Wetland and stream buffers shall be expanded to compensate for the total area of the trail corridor, including all disturbed areas located within the buffer area. No expansion shall be required for trails located on existing improved corridors, including but not limited to utility corridors, road or railroad rights-of-way, within wetland or stream buffers. Mitigation shall be required for all impacts consistent with Chapter 21A.50 SMC.

(6) Location. Except for approved viewing platforms, spur trails, wetland or stream crossings proposed consistent with Chapter 21A.50 SMC, or trails located on existing corridors consistent with subsection (2) of this section, trails that are proposed in proximity to wetlands or streams or associated buffers may only be located in the outer 25 percent of the wetland or stream buffer and should be generally aligned parallel to the stream or perimeter of the wetland. Spur trails and viewing structures should be designed to minimize impacts on sensitive area and wildlife habitat. Viewing platforms shall be placed landward of the wetland or stream edge.

(7) Wildlife. Trails should be designed and constructed to encourage users to remain on the trail through the use of fencing, signage, landscaping or other appropriate means to minimize impacts to wildlife and habitat. In addition to the requirements related to wildlife corridors elsewhere in the SMC, trail location, lighting, construction decisions, and requirements for use (e.g., pet leash requirements, bicycle speed limits, etc.) should be guided by recommendations from sensitive areas studies to avoid, minimize and mitigate impacts to habitat for sensitive species. In a vegetation management plan developed for City review and approval consistent with SMC 21A.50.160, all disturbed areas shall be landscaped with appropriate native vegetation upon completion of trail construction or as soon thereafter as possible. The trail maintenance entity shall ensure that such vegetation survives through an appropriate mechanism. An integrated vegetation and pest management plan shall be developed by the applicant and approved by the department that avoids or minimizes the use of pesticides, herbicides and other hazardous substances.

(8) Surfacing. The director will determine pavement options for the specific trail section. To promote infiltration and groundwater recharge and to minimize slope instability, trail surfaces shall be made of pervious materials unless infeasible. Boardwalks may be used for areas subject to regular inundation, and should be constructed with nonhazardous materials. Impervious materials may also be used if necessary for soil stabilization or to prevent soil erosion, or if the trail is specifically designed and intended to be accessible to physically challenged persons and is identified as such in the City’s adopted Comprehensive Plan, parks plan or trails plan.

(9) Maintenance. Maintenance of any trail corridor or improvements, retained in private ownership, shall be the responsibility of the owner or other separate entity capable of long-term maintenance and operation in a manner acceptable to the City. (Ord. O2016-429 § 10 (Att. J); Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.250))

21B.30.180 Site design elements – Fences and retaining walls.

Fences are permitted as follows:

(1) Fences up to Three Feet. Fences up to three feet are permitted between any non-pedestrian-oriented street and any building. This standard applies to all properties regardless of whether the frontage is considered a front, street side, or back yard.

(2) Fences up to Six Feet. Fences up to six feet in height may project into the side or back setback, except where otherwise provided in subsection (1) of this section and SMC 21B.30.260(3), regarding fences along an alley.

(3) Fences Exceeding Six Feet. Fences exceeding a height of six feet shall comply with the applicable street and interior setbacks of the zone in which the property is located, except: fences located on a rockery, retaining wall, or berm within a required setback area are permitted subject to the following requirements:

(4) Fences in TC-B, TC-C, and TC-E Zones.

(a) The total height of the fence and the rockery, retaining wall or berm upon which the fence is located shall not exceed a height of 10 feet. This height shall be measured from the top of the fence to the ground on the low side of the rockery, retaining wall or berm;

(b) The total height of the fence itself, measured from the top of the fence to the top of the rockery, retaining wall or berm, shall not exceed six feet; and

(c) Any portion of the fence above a height of eight feet, measured to include both the fence and the rockery, retaining wall, or berm, shall be an open-work fence.

(5) Fences on a Rockery, Retaining Wall, or Berm. Fences located on a rockery, retaining wall or berm outside required setback areas shall not exceed the building height for the zone, measured in accordance with the standards established in the building code (SMC Title 16).

(6) Prohibited Fences. Chain link fences and electric fences are prohibited in the Town Center, except to enclose service areas that are fully screened with landscaping and for public park areas such as dog runs and ball fields. In such cases, the fencing shall be vinyl coated.

(7) Retaining Wall Standards. Retaining walls taller than four feet and visible from a street shall be terraced so that no individual segment is taller than four feet. Terraced walls shall be separated by a landscaping bed at least two feet in width that includes one shrub every three lineal feet of retaining wall. Departures from this standard may be considered provided the combination of wall treatment and landscaping reduces the bulk and scale of the retaining wall and enhances the streetscape. In determining whether departures will be granted, the director will consider the level of visibility of the wall (from adjacent uses, streets, parks, and pathways), quality of landscaping and wall materials, detailing, and overall design quality.

Figure 21B.30.180a. Retaining wall standards.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.260))

21B.30.190 Site design elements – Lighting.

(1) Site Lighting Levels.

(a) All publicly accessible areas shall be lighted with average minimum and maximum levels as follows:

(i) Minimum (for low or nonpedestrian and vehicular traffic areas) of one-half foot-candle;

(ii) Moderate (for moderate or high volume pedestrian areas) of one to two foot-candles; and

(iii) Maximum (for high volume pedestrian areas and building entries) of four foot-candles;

(b) Lighting shall be provided at consistent levels, with gradual transitions between maximum and minimum levels of lighting and between lit areas and unlit areas. Highly contrasting pools of light and dark areas shall be avoided; and

(c) Site lighting shall be metal halide or LED unless an alternative is approved by the director.

(2) Light Quality and Shielding.

(a) All fixtures in the Town Center shall be full cut-off, dark sky rated and mounted no more than 25 feet above the ground, with lower fixtures preferable so as to maintain a human scale. Requests for higher lighting fixtures may be considered with the approval of the director;

(b) All fixtures over 14 feet in height shall be fitted with a full cut-off shield conforming to “dark sky” standards;

Figure 21B.30.190a. Acceptable and unacceptable parking lot lighting.

(c) Pedestrian-scaled lighting (light fixtures no taller than 14 feet) is required in areas of pedestrian activity, including “pedestrian-oriented open spaces” and “collective open spaces.” Lighting shall enable pedestrians to identify a face 45 feet away in order to promote safety;

(d) Lighting is not permitted to trespass onto adjacent private parcels nor shall light source (luminaire) be visible at the property line. All building lights shall be directed onto the building itself and/or the ground immediately adjacent to it. The light emissions shall not be visible above the roofline of the building;

(e) Uplighting of vegetation, other objects, or the sky is prohibited; and

(f) Solar-powered and high-energy-efficient lighting is encouraged. The director may allow a modest lowering of light level standards for solar-powered lights. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.270))

Article III. Building Design

21B.30.200 Building design – Character.

(1) The Town Center Plan allows for a diversity of architectural style.

The focus is to promote architecture with a strong sense of human scale, fine detailing, quality materials, sensitive to the environment, oriented to pedestrians, and designed appropriate to the site’s unique context. This approach is intended to allow for a diversity of architectural styles provided they meet the design standards of this chapter.

(2) No Corporate Architecture. Architecture that is defined predominately by corporate identity features (and difficult to adapt to other uses) is prohibited. For example, some fast food franchises have very specific architectural features that reinforce their identity. Buildings that act as signs are prohibited.

Figure 21B.30.200a. Buildings with acceptable architectural character. Clockwise from top: Woodinville (WA), University Village (Seattle, WA), Whistler (BC), Mill Creek (WA), and Issaquah (WA).

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.300))

21B.30.210 Building design – Architectural scale.

(1) Building Articulation – All Nonresidential Buildings. Building facades (containing a public entry and/or facing a street, park, or pedestrian-oriented space) shall include articulation features every 50 feet to create a pattern of small storefronts and/or to reduce the perceived scale of the building and add visual interest. At least three of the following articulation methods shall be employed at intervals no greater than 50 feet:

(a) Window patterns and/or entries that reinforce the pattern of small storefront spaces; e.g., groups of windows that repeat every 50 feet or less as opposed to a uniform row, or “ribbon,” of windows;

(b) Weather protection features that reinforce 50-foot storefronts. For example, for a business that occupies 150 feet of street frontage, use three separate awnings to articulate the facade;

(c) Change of roofline as described in subsection (3) of this section;

(d) Providing building modulation of at least two feet in depth and four feet in width if tied with a change in roofline as described in subsection (3) of this section or change in building materials or siding style. For all other facades, building modulation shall be at least 10 feet in depth and 20 feet wide;

(e) Placement of building columns or piers that reinforce storefront pattern;

(f) Change in building material or siding style;

(g) Elements such as planters, art pieces, or other features that repeat at intervals of 50 feet or less;

(h) Design that features a top, middle, and bottom (see Figure 21B.30.210c). The maximum articulation interval does not apply to this method; and/or

(i) Other methods that meet the intent of the standards as approved by the director.

Figure 21B.30.210a. Examples of nonresidential building articulation.

Figure 21B.30.210b. Acceptable and unacceptable examples of nonresidential building articulation.

Figure 21B.30.210c. Illustration of a building facade with a distinct top, middle, and bottom

(2) Building Articulation – Townhouses and Multifamily Residential Buildings. Residential buildings and residential portions of mixed-use buildings shall include at least three of the following modulation and/or articulation features at intervals of no more than 35 feet along all facades facing a street, park, common open space, and common parking areas:

(a) Repeating distinctive window patterns at intervals no more than 35 feet;

(b) Vertical building modulation. Minimum depth and width of modulation is 18 inches and four feet, respectively, if tied to a change in color or building material and/or roofline modulation as defined in subsection (3) of this section. Otherwise, minimum depth of modulation is 10 feet and minimum width for each modulation is 15 feet. See Figure 21B.30.210f for vertical building modulation examples. Balconies may be used to meet the modulation if they are recessed or projected from the facade by at least 18 inches. Balconies that appear to be “tacked on” to the facade will not qualify for this option unless they employ high quality materials and add visual interest to the facade as determined by the director;

(c) Change of roofline, as described in subsection (3) of this section;

(d) Horizontal modulation (upper level step-backs). To qualify for this measure, the minimum horizontal modulation (setback) shall be five feet;

(e) Articulation of the building’s top, middle, and bottom. This typically includes a distinctive ground floor or lower floor design, consistent articulation of middle floors, and a distinctive roofline. The maximum articulation interval does not apply to this method;

(f) Other methods that effectively reduce the perceived scale of the building and add visual interest as determined by the director; and/or

(g) Building elements such as balconies, bay windows, porches, canopies, chimneys, or other repetitive feature.

Figure 21B.30.210d. Residential building articulation.

Figure 21B.30.210e. Acceptable and unacceptable examples of residential building articulation.

(3) Roofline Modulation.

(a) In order to qualify as an articulation feature in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, rooflines shall be varied by emphasizing dormers, chimneys, stepped roofs, gables, prominent cornice or wall, or a broken or articulated roofline.

(b) The width of any continuous flat roofline should extend no more than 120 feet without modulation. Modulation shall consist of one of the following:

(i) A change in elevation of the visible roofline of at least four feet if the particular roof segment is less than 50 feet wide and at least eight feet if the particular roof segment is greater than 50 feet in length;

(ii) A sloped or gabled roofline segment of at least 20 feet in width and no less than four feet vertical in 12 feet horizontal;

(iii) A combination of the above; or

(iv) Other modulation measures approved by the director.

Figure 21B.30.210f. Roofline modulation standards.

(4) Maximum Facade Width. The maximum facade width (the facade includes the apparent width of the structure facing the street and includes required modulation) is 120 feet. Buildings exceeding 120 feet in width along the streetfront shall be divided by a minimum 30-foot-wide modulation of the exterior wall, so that the maximum length of a particular facade is 120 feet. Such modulation shall be at least 20 feet or deeper and extend through all floors. Other design features will be considered by the director that effectively break up the scale of the building and add visual interest. The director may waive this provision for special conditions, such as a parking garage or institutional building if the structure is screened from view or located in a visually obscure location. In order to grant such a waiver, the director shall find that the building’s use and purpose warrant a continuous building perimeter.

Figure 21B.30.210g. Facade width requirement examples.

Figure 21B.30.210h. Acceptable and unacceptable examples of meeting maximum facade width standards.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.310))

21B.30.220 Building design – Details.

(1) Details Toolbox. All nonresidential and mixed-use buildings shall be enhanced with appropriate details. All new buildings shall employ at least one detail element from each of the three categories below for each facade facing a street or public space. For example, a large building with multiple storefronts will likely need more than one decorative sign, one transom window, and one decorative kick-plate to meet the intent of the standards.

(a) Window and/or Entry Treatment.

(i) Display windows divided into a grid of multiple panes;

(ii) Transom windows;

(iii) Roll-up windows/doors;

(iv) Other distinctive window treatment that meets the intent of the standards;

(v) Recessed entry;

(vi) Decorative door;

(vii) Arcade;

(viii) Landscaped trellises or other decorative element that incorporates landscaping near the building entry; and/or

(ix) Other decorative or specially designed entry treatment that meets the intent of the standards.

(b) Building Elements and Facade Details.

(i) Custom-designed weather protection element such as a steel or glass canopy, or cloth awning;

(ii) Decorative, custom hanging sign(s);

(iii) Decorative building-mounted light fixtures;

(iv) Bay windows, trellises, towers, and similar elements; and/or

(v) Other details or elements that meet the intent of these standards, as determined by the director.

(c) Building Materials and Other Facade Elements.

(i) Decorative building materials/use of building materials. Examples include decorative use of brick, tile, or stonework;

(ii) Artwork on building (such as a mural) or bas-relief sculpture;

(iii) Decorative kick-plate, pier, belt course, or other similar feature;

(iv) Hand-crafted material, such as special wrought iron or carved wood; and/or

(v) Other details that meet the intent of the standards as determined by the director.

“Custom,” “decorative,” or “hand-crafted” elements referenced above shall be distinctive or “one-of-a-kind” elements or unusual designs that require a high level of craftsmanship as determined by the director.

Figure 21B.30.220a. Examples of acceptable and unacceptable details.

(2) Window Design. Buildings shall employ techniques to recess or project individual windows above the ground floor at least two inches from the facade or incorporate window trim at least four inches in width that features color that contrasts with the base building color. Exceptions will be considered by the director where buildings employ other distinctive window or facade treatment that adds a sense of depth to the facade and/or visual interest to the building.

Figure 21B.30.220b. Acceptable and unacceptable window design examples.

(3) Principal Building Entrances. The principal building entrances of all commercial, mixed-use, and multifamily buildings shall feature the following improvements, unless the director determines an alternate solution better provides a safe, comfortable, and inviting entrance:

(a) Pedestrian Covering. Building entrances shall be covered by at least 50 square feet of pedestrian weather protection and be at least six feet wide. Entries are encouraged to satisfy this requirement by being set back into the building facade;

(b) Lighting. Pedestrian entrances shall be lit to at least four foot-candles as measured on the ground plane for commercial buildings and two foot-candles for residential buildings;

(c) Building or Business Name. Primary commercial use entries shall be identified with respect to building and/or business;

(d) Visibility. Building entrances shall be visible from the roadway and/or major public pedestrian pathway;

(e) Transparency. Primary commercial use entries shall feature glass doors or glazing near the door so that the visitor can view people opening the door from the other side;

(f) Security. To the extent feasible, entries shall be visible from areas with high pedestrian activity or where residents can view the entry (passive surveillance); and

(g) Architectural or Artwork Enhancements. Primary building entrances shall be enhanced by two or more of the following measures, which can be used to concurrently satisfy subsection (1) of this section, Details Toolbox:

(i) Special or ornamental doors, windows, or other architectural elements;

(ii) Special paving or materials (e.g., decorative tile work);

(iii) Special architectural lighting;

(iv) Landscaping;

(v) Artwork as approved by the arts commission; and/or

(vi) Other similar feature approved by the director.

The director’s decision on the applicability of an element or treatment to meet this requirement is final.

(4) Secondary Public Access for Commercial Buildings. Whereas these standards require businesses on a pedestrian-oriented street within the downtown to front on streets rather than parking lots, a large number of customers use the “secondary” entry off of a parking lot. Such businesses that have secondary public access shall comply with the following measures to enhance secondary public access (applies only to entries used by the public):

(a) Weather protection at least three feet deep is required over each secondary entry;

(b) A sign may be applied to the awning; provided, that the sign complies with other regulations and guidelines;

(c) There shall be at least two foot-candles illumination on the ground surface;

(d) One or more of the design elements noted in subsection (3)(g) of this section shall be incorporated within or adjacent to the secondary entry; and

(e) To the extent feasible, entries shall be visible from a public right-of-way and/or high pedestrian traffic area.

Figure 21B.30.220c. Acceptable and unacceptable examples of secondary public access.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.320))

21B.30.230 Building design – Exterior materials and colors.

(1) Complementary and Quality Materials. The intent of guidelines in this section is that Town Center buildings complement each other in design character and exhibit a high-quality, low-maintenance exterior finish. Generally speaking, materials and colors, except for natural materials such as wood, brick, and stone, should not be employed to call attention to the building. Industrial materials, such as metal manufactured panels, glazing, and concrete, should be finished, detailed, and colored to at least meet industry standards and specifications and should exhibit a high degree of craftsmanship in fabrication and installation. Adhere to the director’s direction regarding materials and colors not covered in this section or where there is a question of quality appropriateness of a proposed material or color.

(2) Metal Siding Standards. If metal siding is used, it shall have visible corner moldings and trim and shall not extend lower than two feet above grade. Masonry, concrete, or other durable material shall be incorporated between the siding and the ground plane. Metal siding may be used only in conjunction with other approved materials and may comprise no more than 25 percent of facades facing public rights-of-way or open space. Glazing, awnings, doors, and other features may count as portions of the facade. Pre-formed panels do not count as metal siding. Metal siding shall be factory finished, with a matte, nonreflective surface.

(3) Concrete Block Standards.

(a) When used for the primary facade, buildings shall incorporate a combination of textures and/or colors to add visual interest. For example, combining split or rock-facade units with smooth blocks can create distinctive patterns. Concrete block may comprise no more than 25 percent of a facade facing a public right-of-way or open space.

(b) Concrete block use on the side of fire walls/zero lot line walls (when visible from a public street, pedestrian plaza, or parking area) shall include changes in textures and shapes, colors, and/or other masonry materials to add visual interest as determined by the director.

(4) Standards for Stucco or Other Similar Troweled Finishes.

(a) Stucco and similar troweled finishes (including exterior insulation and finish system or “EIFS”) shall be trimmed in wood, masonry, or other material and shall be sheltered from extreme weather by roof overhangs or other methods and are limited to no more than 25 percent of the facade area facing a public right-of-way or open space;

(b) Horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather shall be avoided; and

(c) Stucco, EIFS, and similar surfaces should not extend below two feet above the ground plane. Concrete, masonry, or other durable material shall be used below the two-feet-above-grade line to provide a durable surface where damage is most likely.

(5) Wood Products Standards.

(a) Use only exterior-grade wood products;

(b) Plywood sheathing, “T-111,” and other sheet wood products shall not be used for exterior cladding, except as authorized by the director. Architectural-grade panels, such as “Hardy Plank,” specifically fabricated and detailed for exterior cladding are generally acceptable;

(c) Finish wood with exterior-grade sealer, stain, or paint; and

(d) Detail exposed wood member edges to prevent weathering and deterioration.

(6) Stonework Standards. Stone facing shall be of natural or local stone, not Southwest sandstone or other material not typical of the Pacific Northwest.

(7) Prohibited Materials. The following materials are prohibited (in addition to any prohibited materials noted above):

(a) Mirrored glass;

(b) Chain link fencing (except for temporary fencing and for parks);

(c) Fiberglass products and similar sheet products; and

(d) Back-lit vinyl awnings used as signs.

(8) Colors.

(a) Intent. To encourage a wide range of harmonious building colors that complement the Town Center’s natural landscape and the envisioned diverse architectural character. The predominance of earth tones and background colors for building shells is to increase continuity within an otherwise wide range of building types and styles.

(b) Acceptable Colors. The following percentages are intended as a rough guide. The director may allow variations that meet the guidelines’ intent.

(i) Basic Building Shell Colors. Use any of the following colors, indicated as acceptable in Figure 21B.30.230a, for areas that total more than 20 percent of the building shell that is visible from public (including rights-of-way) or adjacent properties: earth tones (brown, beige, tan, red-brown, or ochre); grey or slate; dark, highly saturated (but not bright) colors (forest green, dark red, maroon, burnt orange, olive, dark brown, or terra cotta); or natural colors of materials such as brick, stone, or stained or sealed wood;

(ii) Trim and Secondary Colors. Use one or a combination of the following colors, indicated as acceptable in Figure 21B.30.230a, for up to 20 percent of the facade surfaces that are visible from public or adjacent properties, excluding glazing and roofs: earth tones (brown, beige, tan, red-brown, or ochre); grey or slate; white or ivory; dark, highly saturated (but not bright) colors (forest green, dark red, maroon, burnt orange, olive, dark brown, or terra cotta); natural colors of materials such as brick, stone, or stained or sealed wood; or black or charcoal;

(iii) Accent Colors. Use any accent color indicated as acceptable in Figure 21B.30.230a for not more than 10 percent of any building facade that is visible from public or adjacent properties: earth tones (brown, beige, tan, red-brown, or ochre); grey or slate; white or ivory; dark, highly saturated (but not bright) colors (forest green, dark red, maroon, burnt orange, olive, dark brown, or terra cotta); natural colors of materials such as brick, stone, or stained or sealed wood; primary and bright colors (such as purple or orange), gold, or metallic; or black or charcoal; and

(iv) Roof. Use any color indicated as acceptable in Figure 21B.30.230a for roofs visible from the ground level of public or adjacent properties: earth tones (brown, beige, tan, red-brown, or ochre); grey or slate; dark, highly saturated (but not bright) colors (forest green, dark red, maroon, burnt orange, olive, dark brown, or terra cotta); natural colors of materials such as brick, stone, or stained or sealed wood; or black or charcoal.

 

Basic Building Shell

Trim

Accent

Roof

Earth tones (brown, beige, tan, red-brown, or ochre)

λ

λ

λ

λ

Grey or slate

λ

λ

λ

λ

White or ivory

 

λ

λ

 

Dark, highly saturated (but not bright) colors (forest green, dark red, maroon, burnt orange, olive, dark brown, or terra cotta)

λ

λ

λ

λ

Natural colors of materials such as brick, stone, or stained or sealed wood

λ

λ

λ

λ

Primary or bright colors (such as purple or orange), pastels, gold, or metallic

 

 

λ

 

Black or charcoal

 

λ

λ

λ

Figure 21B.30.230a. Building color standard summary matrix.

(c) Color combinations that are signature elements for corporate businesses are restricted to 10 percent of each building facade as accent colors. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.330))

21B.30.240 Building design – Blank walls.

(1) Blank Wall Definition. A wall (including building facades and retaining walls) is considered a blank wall if:

(a) A ground floor wall or portion of a ground floor wall over six feet in height has a horizontal length greater than 15 feet and does not include a transparent window or door with glazing; or

(b) Any portion of a ground floor wall having a surface area of 400 square feet or greater does not include a transparent window or door.

(2) Blank Wall Treatments. Untreated blank walls visible from a public street, park or pedestrian pathway are prohibited. Methods to treat blank walls can include:

(a) Display windows at least 18 inches deep and integrated into the facade. Tack on display cases do not qualify as a blank wall treatment. Figure 21B.30.030c shows an example of a tack on display case;

(b) Landscape planting bed at least five feet wide or a raised planter bed at least two feet high and three feet wide in front of the wall with planting materials that are sufficient to obscure or screen at least 75 percent of the wall’s surface within three years;

(c) Installing a vertical trellis in front of the wall with climbing vines or plant materials; and/or

(d) Special building detailing that adds visual interest at a pedestrian scale as determined by the director. Such detailing shall use a variety of surfaces; monotonous designs will not meet the intent of the standards.

Figure 21B.30.240a. Blank wall definition and examples of acceptable treatments.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.340))

21B.30.250 Building design – Parking garage design.

(1) Parking Garage Design.

(a) Parking garages shall be designed to obscure the view of parked cars at the ground level with parking preferred to the back of buildings or underground.

(b) Ground-level parking garages facing pedestrian-oriented streets are not allowed. Ground-level parking may be allowed on mixed-use streets if street trees approved by the City are provided.

(c) Where the garage wall is built to the sidewalk edge, the facade shall incorporate a combination of artwork, grillwork, special building material or treatment/design, and/or other treatments as approved by the City that enhance the pedestrian environment. Ground-level parking garage floors shall conform to SMC 21B.30.210 and 21B.30.220. Small setbacks with terraced landscaping elements can be particularly effective in softening the appearance of a parking garage and may satisfy this requirement if approved by the director.

(d) Upper-level parking garages shall use articulation treatments or landscaped screening that break up the massing of the garage and add visual interest, and obscure the view of parked cars from adjacent properties.

Figure 21B.30.250a illustrates examples of acceptable parking garage treatments.

Figure 21B.30.250a. Acceptable parking garage design examples.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.350))

Article IV. Single-Family, Duplexes, and Cottages

21B.30.260 Single-family – Subdivision design.

(1) Development of “Neighborhoods.” New detached single-family/duplex subdivisions shall be designed to integrate with the larger mixed-use development and with surrounding properties and neighborhoods. Subdivisions shall be designed so that individual, separately developed projects work together to create distinct neighborhoods, instead of disjointed or isolated enclaves. To accomplish this, such developments shall comply with the following standards:

(a) Provide for a connected network of streets per SMC 21B.30.040.

(b) Provide for public open space per SMC 21B.30.090.

(c) Provide for pedestrian-friendly street design per SMC 21B.30.150.

(d) Provide for pedestrian-friendly building design that promotes “eyes on the street” and deemphasizes the garage (see SMC 21B.30.270).

(2) Cul-de-Sac Streets. The use of cul-de-sac streets is not allowed unless the director determines there is no other feasible option (for example, the development site is long and narrow and surrounded on three sides by a critical area).

(3) Alleys.

(a) The use of alleys is encouraged to minimize the appearance of garages from the street. For developments with more than 20 single-family dwelling units, at least 25 percent of the homes should be served by alleys. If a development is to be constructed in phases, then this requirement applies to each phase of construction.

(b) Alleys shall be designed to incorporate landscaping and lighting elements. Specifically:

(i) Landscaping elements may be used as an alternative to fencing to separate private yard space from the alley;

(ii) Fences shall be set back at least three feet from the alley (pavement) to provide for landscaping to soften the fence. See Figure 21B.30.260a for a good example of how landscaping can enhance the design of an alley; and

(iii) Garages shall feature building-mounted lighting to provide illumination of alleys for safety.

Figure 21B.30.260a. Acceptable and unacceptable alley designs.

(4) Alternative Lot Configurations. Encourage alternative lot configurations, including:

(a) Zero Lot Line. This is a configuration where the house and/or garage are built up to one of the side property lines, providing the opportunity for more usable side yard space. Standards:

(i) Dwelling units and accessory structures may be placed on one interior side property line. The opposite side yard shall be at least 10 feet;

(ii) Privacy Wall. In order to maintain privacy, no windows, doors, air conditioning units, or any other types of openings in the walls along a zero lot line structure are allowed except for windows that do not allow for visibility into the side yard of the adjacent lot. Examples include clerestory or obscured windows; and

(iii) Eaves along a zero lot line may project a maximum of 18 inches over the adjacent property line.

Figure 21B.30.260b. Zero lot line example.

(b) Courtyard Access Lots. This includes a series of lots clustered around a private internal roadway. Standards:

(i) Maximum number of lots served by a courtyard access: five (this includes lots fronting the street on either side of the courtyard access);

(ii) Maximum length of a courtyard access: 100 feet (or deeper if approved by the local fire department);

(iii) Surface width of courtyard access: 15 feet. Due to the limited length, wider drives are unnecessary (safety and function) and undesirable (aesthetics); and

(iv) An easement of 20 feet in width shall be secured over the applicable parcels to allow lots legal access to the public street. A maintenance agreement shall be required for all applicable lots and shall be recorded on the final plat.

Figure 21B.30.260c. Examples of courtyard access lots.

(c) Pedestrian-Only Entry Lots. This includes configurations where one or more lots are clustered around a pedestrian easement and/or common open space and do not front on a street. Standards:

(i) A pedestrian entry easement shall be provided to all homes that do not front on a street, alley, or common open space;

(ii) Pedestrian entry easements shall be a minimum of 15 feet wide with a five-foot minimum sidewalk; and

(iii) These lots shall contain private detached or shared garages off an alley or other access if approved by public works and reviewed for conflicts with existing codes.

Figure 21B.30.260d. Pedestrian-only entry lot configuration examples (right image is from Issaquah Highlands, WA).

(5) Stormwater Management. All developments shall adhere to sub-basin plans per SMC 21B.30.100. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.400))

21B.30.270 Single-family and duplexes – Lot and building design.

(1) Intent.

(a) To enhance the character of the street;

(b) To deemphasize garages and driveways as major visual elements along the street;

(c) To provide usable yard space for residents; and

(d) To emphasize landscaping in residential neighborhoods and minimize impervious surfaces.

(2) Garage Placement and Design.

(a) Where lots front on a public street and where vehicular access is from the street, garages or carports shall be set back at least five feet behind the front wall of the house or front edge of an unenclosed porch. On corner lots, this standard shall only apply to the designated front yard;

(b) The garage face shall occupy no more than 50 percent of the ground-level facade facing the street;

(c) Where lots abut an alley, the garage or off-street parking area shall take access from the alley, unless precluded by steep topography; and

(d) Garages facing the street shall have similar materials and building forms as the residence, and the front facades shall be enhanced with building details such as decorative lighting or a trellis.

(3) Driveway Standards.

(a) No more than one driveway per dwelling unit;

(b) Driveways for individual lots 50 feet or wider may be up to 20 feet in width; and

(c) Driveways for individual lots less than 50 feet wide may be up to 12 feet in width. Tandem parking configurations may be used to accommodate two-car garages.

(4) Covered Entry. All houses shall provide a covered entry with a minimum dimension of eight feet by six feet. Exceptions may be granted by the director for the use of regional housing styles that do not traditionally contain such entries. Porches up to 200 square feet may project into the front yard. See SMC 21B.25.170.

(5) Windows on the Street. Transparent windows and/or doors are required on at least 15 percent of the facade (all vertical surfaces facing the street) as determined by the director.

Figure 21B.30.270a. Some single-family design requirements.

(6) Stormwater Management. All developments shall adhere to sub-basin plans per SMC 21B.30.100.

(7) Minimum Landscaped Open Space. All single-family housing lots shall provide landscaped open space at least equal to 40 percent of the lot area. See SMC 21B.30.090(1)(e) and Chapter 21B.35 SMC for the definition and provisions for landscaped open space. Critical areas, naturally vegetated areas, and all other landscaped areas shall be counted as landscaped open space provided they are on the applicable lot.

(8) Minimum Usable Open Space. All residences with garages in the back yard shall provide a contiguous open space equivalent to 10 percent of the lot size. Such open space shall not be located within the front yard. The required open space shall feature a minimum dimension of 15 feet on all sides. For example, a 3,000 square foot lot would require a contiguous open space of at least 300 square feet, or 15 feet by 20 feet in area. Rooftop decks with direct and level access from dwelling units may be used to meet the requirements. Driveways shall not count in the calculations for usable open space. The director may modify this requirement for angled building orientations, nonrectilinear or constrained (such as lots with steep topography) lots.

Figure 21B.30.270b. Open space requirements for alley-loaded lots.

(9) Duplex Design Standards. Duplexes should be designed similar in nature to single-family homes and shall feature a visible entry and windows facing the street. The visibility of driveways and garages shall be minimized and sufficient private open space provided. Specifically, duplexes shall comply with subsections (1) through (6) of this section with the following exceptions and additional provisions:

(a) Duplexes may include a 20-foot-wide shared driveway or two 12-foot driveways on opposite ends of the lot;

(b) Separate covered entries for each unit are required;

(c) Duplexes on corner lots shall place pedestrian entries on opposite streets; and

(d) At least 10 percent of the street-facing facade shall be windows or other glazing (e.g., door glazing).

Figure 21B.30.270c. Diagram illustrating some duplex design standards.

Figure 21B.30.270d. Examples of duplex standards.

(Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.410))

21B.30.280 Single-family – Cottage housing.

(1) Intent.

(a) To provide an opportunity for small, detached housing types clustered around a common open space;

(b) To ensure that cottage developments contribute to the overall character of the Town Center;

(c) To provide for centrally located and functional common open space that fosters a sense of community;

(d) To provide for semi-private area around individual cottages to enable diversity in landscape design and foster a sense of ownership;

(e) To minimize visual impacts of parking areas on the street and adjacent properties and the visual setting for the development; and

(f) To promote conservation of resources by providing for clusters of small dwelling units on a property.

(2) Description. Cottage housing refers to clusters of small detached dwelling units arranged around a common open space.

(3) Lot Configuration. Cottages may be configured as condominiums or fee-simple lots provided they meet the standards herein.

(4) Density Bonus. Due to the smaller relative size of cottage units, each cottage shall be counted as one-half a dwelling unit for the purpose of calculating density. For example, a cluster of six cottages would be equivalent to three dwelling units.

(5) Table of Dimensional Standards. Dimensional standards for cottages are identified below:

Standard

Requirement

Maximum Floor Area

1,200 SF

Maximum Floor Area/Ground or Main Floor

800 SF

Minimum Common Space (see design standards below for more info)

400 SF/unit

Minimum Private Open Space (see design standards below for more info)

200 SF/unit

Maximum Height for Cottages

25' (all parts of the roof above 18' shall be pitched with a minimum roof slope of 6:12)

Maximum Height for Cottage Accessory Structures

18'

Setbacks (to exterior property lines)

Same as single-family detached (except as noted in subsection (6) of this section

Minimum Landscaped Open Space (see SMC 21B.30.090(1)(e) and Chapter 21B.35 SMC)

40% of site

Minimum Distance Between Structures (including accessory structures)

10'

Minimum Parking Spaces per Cottage

1.5

(6) Units in Each Cluster. Cottage housing developments shall contain a minimum of four and a maximum of 12 cottages located in a cluster to encourage a sense of community among the residents. A development site may contain more than one cottage housing development.

(7) Parking and Driveway Location and Design.

(a) Parking shall be located on the same property as the cottage development;

(b) Parking areas shall be located to the side or rear of cottage clusters and not between the street and cottages. Parking is prohibited in the front and interior setback areas;

(c) Parking and vehicular areas shall be screened from public street and adjacent residential uses by landscaping or architectural screens. For parking lots adjacent to the street, at least 10 feet of Type III landscaping shall be provided between the sidewalk and the parking area. For parking lots along adjacent residential uses, at least five feet of Type I, II, or III shall be required. The director will consider alternative landscaping techniques provided they effectively mitigate views into the parking area from the street or adjacent residential uses and enhance the visual setting for the development;

(d) Parking shall be located in clusters of not more than five adjoining uncovered spaces (except where adjacent to an alley). Exceptions will be considered by the director provided alternative configurations improve the visual setting for development;

(e) Garages may be attached to individual cottages provided all other standards herein are met and the footprint of the ground floor, including garage, does not exceed 1,000 square feet. Such garages shall be located away from the common open spaces; and

(f) No more than one driveway per cottage cluster shall be permitted, except where clusters front onto more than one street.

(8) Common Open Space Requirements.

(a) Shall abut at least 50 percent of the cottages in a cottage housing development;

(b) Shall have cottages abutting on at least two sides;

(c) Cottages adjacent to common open space shall be oriented around and have the main entry from the common open space;

(d) Cottages shall be within 60 feet walking distance of the common open space; and

(e) Open space shall include at least one courtyard, plaza, garden, or other central open space, with access to all units. The minimum dimensions of this open space are 15 feet by 20 feet.

(9) Required Private Open Space. Required private open space shall be adjacent to each dwelling unit, for the exclusive use of the cottage resident(s). The space shall be usable (not on a steep slope) and oriented toward the common open space as much as possible, with no dimension less than 10 feet.

(10) Porches. Cottage facades facing the common open space or common pathway shall feature a roofed porch at least 80 square feet in size with a minimum dimension of eight feet on any side.

(11) Covered Entry and Visual Interest. Cottages facing a public street shall provide:

(a) A covered entry feature (with a minimum dimension of six feet by six feet) visible from the street;

(b) At least 10 feet of landscaped open space between the residence and the street; and

(c) At least two architectural details approved by the director, such as:

(i) Decorative lighting;

(ii) Decorative trim;

(iii) Special door;

(iv) Trellis or decorative building element; and/or

(v) Bay window.

Alternative design treatments may be considered by the director provided the design treatments provide visual interest to the pedestrian.

(12) Character and Diversity. Cottages and accessory buildings within a particular cluster shall be designed within the same “family” of architectural styles. Example elements include:

(a) Similar building/roof form and pitch;

(b) Similar siding materials;

(c) Similar porch detailing; and/or

(d) Similar window trim;

A diversity of cottages can be achieved within a “family” of styles by:

(e) Alternating porch styles (such as roof forms);

(f) Alternating siding details on facades and/or roof gables; and/or

(g) Different siding color.

Figure 21B.30.280a. Typical cottage housing layouts.

Figure 21B.30.280b. Cottage housing examples.

(13) ADA Accessibility. Developments are encouraged to maximize the number of units that are accessible per ADA requirements as provided in the adopted International Building Code. (Ord. O2010-293 § 1 (Att. A §  21B.30.420))