Chapter 13.20
TRANSPORTATION

Sections:

Article I. General Considerations

13.20.110    Purpose.

13.20.120    Additional design standards.

13.20.130    Standardized format for traffic analyses.

13.20.140    Developments on substandard streets.

13.20.150    Street frontage improvements.

Article II. Streets

13.20.205    General.

13.20.210    Design.

13.20.215    Functional classification.

13.20.220    Right-of-way.

13.20.225    Private streets.

13.20.230    Dead-end streets.

13.20.235    Medians.

13.20.240    Intersections.

13.20.245    Driveways.

13.20.250    Sight obstruction.

13.20.255    Surfacing requirements.

13.20.260    Excavation and backfill.

13.20.265    Street patching and restoration.

Article III. Emergency Vehicle Access

13.20.310    General.

13.20.320    Modifications.

13.20.330    Exceptions.

13.20.340    Additional access.

13.20.350    EV access specifications.

13.20.360    EV access approval.

Article IV. Sidewalks, Curbs and Gutters

13.20.405    General.

13.20.410    Purpose.

13.20.415    Sidewalks.

13.20.420    Pedestrian guardrails.

13.20.425    Joint-use facilities.

13.20.430    Accessibility.

13.20.435    Curb and gutter.

13.20.440    Bus pads.

13.20.445    Pedestrian protection during construction.

Article V. Paved Shoulders/Bicycle Lanes

13.20.510    General.

13.20.520    Purpose.

13.20.530    Design standards.

Article VI. Illumination

13.20.610    General.

13.20.620    Purpose.

13.20.630    Design standards.

13.20.640    Warranty and testing.

Article VII. Traffic Control Devices

13.20.710    Signing.

13.20.720    Signals.

13.20.730    Roundabouts.

Article VIII. Roadside Features

13.20.810    General.

13.20.820    Survey monuments.

13.20.830    Bus stops, shelters, and amenities.

13.20.840    Mailboxes.

13.20.850    Guardrails.

13.20.860    Walls.

13.20.870    Right-of-way landscaping and irrigation.

13.20.880    Temporary right-of-way signs, street banners and decorations.

13.20.885    Temporary “open during construction” right-of-way signs.

Article IX. Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements

Article IX-A. General Provisions

13.20.910    Introduction.

13.20.920    Organization.

13.20.930    Definitions.

Article IX-B. Streetscape Design for Vehicular Zone

13.20.940    Purpose.

13.20.950    Streetscape types.

13.20.960    Streetscape type standards.

13.20.970    Intersection improvements.

Article IX-C. Streetscape Design for Pedestrian Zone

13.20.980    Introduction.

13.20.990    Sidewalks.

13.20.1000    Curb return radii.

13.20.1010    Street widths.

13.20.1020    Street furniture.

13.20.1030    Bus shelters.

13.20.1040    Utilities.

13.20.1050    Medians.

13.20.1060    Streetscape landscaping.

Article I. General Considerations

13.20.110 Purpose.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide for the development of an integrated, uniform, multimodal, fully accessible transportation system that facilitates present and future travel demand with minimal environmental impact to the community.

A. The design objective for vehicular zones is to create a circulation system that provides for the safe and efficient movement of vehicles and reduces conflict with pedestrians and bicyclists and to provide roadway standards that will help create streets that are inviting, multimodal public places.

B. The design objective for pedestrian zones is to provide a high level of design detail, promote walkability by improving pedestrian safety, convenience, and comfort, and enhance the aesthetic character and quality of the pedestrian experience.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.120 Additional design standards.

The “City of University Place Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements” are contained in Article IX, Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements.

These standards and guidelines apply to neighborhood collector streets and local streets associated with new development as well as qualifying modifications to existing development.

(Ord. 679 § 1 (Exh. A), 2016; Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.130 Standardized format for traffic analyses.

A. Introduction. A traffic impact analysis (TIA) is a specialized study of the impacts that a certain type and size of development will have on the surrounding transportation system. The TIA is an integral part of the development impact review process. It is specifically concerned with the generation and distribution of traffic to and from the development.

The purpose of the TIA is to determine the impacts of the development traffic on the existing and proposed street network and the impacts of the existing and projected traffic on the development. The level of detail and scope of work of a TIA may vary with the size, complexity, and location of the development. A TIA shall be a thorough review of the immediate and long-range traffic impacts. The Director may accept the TIA as satisfying the requirements for a concurrency test as identified in UPMC Title 22.

B. When Required. To adequately assess a development’s traffic impact on the transportation system and level of service (LOS), the Director may require a TIA based upon the evaluation of the size of the development proposed, existing street and intersection conditions, traffic volumes, accident history, community concerns, and other pertinent factors relating to traffic impacts attributable to the development. A TIA will be required if any of the following conditions are met:

1. The development generates 20 or more trips in either the a.m. or p.m. peak hours. This would include site-generated traffic for all turning movements for the peak hours at all affected intersections.

2. The development lies within an area that contains an existing or proposed local improvement district (LID), local/State transportation improvement areas programmed for development reimbursements or at locations that have latecomer agreements.

3. If a TIA exists but is more than two years old, the Director may require a new or revised TIA prior to permit issuance.

C. Qualifications for Preparing TIA. The TIA shall be prepared by an engineer licensed to practice in the State of Washington with special training and experience in traffic engineering.

D. Submittal Requirements. The TIA shall at a minimum include the following sections: Introduction, Existing Conditions, Development Traffic, Future Traffic, Traffic Operations, and Mitigation. The sections shall at a minimum incorporate the information identified below.

1. Introduction.

a. Provide a statement of the scope of the analysis and identify the limits of the study area. The study area shall include all pertinent intersections and streets impacted by development traffic. This shall include, but not be limited to, any signalized intersection within the City within one mile of the development at which the development-generated traffic equals 10 or more vehicle trips at any peak hour, or any signalized intersection in the City at which the development-generated traffic is 10 percent or more of the volume of existing traffic through the intersection at any peak hour. The Director may also require that the study area include any intersection that currently operates at a LOS of “D” or lower and at which the development-generated traffic is 10 or more vehicle trips at any peak hour. The study area may be expanded outside the City limits if determined necessary by the Director under any environmental review required under the State Environmental Policy Act.

b. Provide a copy of the site plan showing the type of development, street system, rights-of-way limits, access points, and other features of significance in the development. The site plan shall also include pertinent off-site information such as locations of adjacent intersections and driveways, land use descriptions, street right-of-way limits for the existing roadways and other features of significance.

c. Provide a vicinity map of the project area showing the transportation system to be impacted by the development.

d. Address specific development characteristics such as type of development proposed (single-family, multifamily, retail, industrial, etc.), internal street network, proposed access locations, parking requirements, zoning, and other pertinent characteristics of the development.

e. Indicate project completion and occupancy schedule for the development. Identify horizon years for traffic analysis purposes.

2. Existing Conditions.

a. Identify street characteristics including functional classification, number of traveled lanes, lane width, shoulder treatment, bicycle path corridors and traffic control at study intersections.

b. Identify safety and access issues including discussions on accident history, sight distance restrictions, traffic control, and pedestrian conflicts.

c. Provide all necessary traffic data including any current data available from the City of University Place and surrounding jurisdictions if applicable. If data is unavailable or outdated, the individual or firm preparing the TIA shall collect the necessary data.

d. Provide a diagram showing existing average daily traffic (ADT) and a.m. and p.m. peak-hour traffic volumes on the adjacent streets and intersections and illustrating complete turning movement volumes within the study area. This diagram shall represent the baseline traffic volumes for analysis purposes.

3. Development Traffic.

a. Trip Generation. Site-generated traffic of developments shall be estimated using the latest edition of the ITE Trip Generation Manual. Variations of trip rates will require the approval of the Director. Trip rate equations will be utilized for estimating site-generated traffic. Average trip rates shall be used for all land use categories where applicable or required by the Director. Site traffic shall be generated for a.m. and p.m. peak-hour periods. Adjustments made for passer-by and mixed-use traffic volumes shall follow the methodology outlined in the latest edition of the ITE Trip Generation Manual. For multi-use or phased projects, a trip generation table shall be prepared showing proposed land use, trip rates, and vehicle trips for daily and peak-hour periods and appropriate traffic volume discounts if applicable. The TIA shall contain a table illustrating the trip generation.

b. Trip Distribution. The TIA shall contain a diagram illustrating the proposed trip distribution for the development. The methodology shall be clearly defined and discussed in detail in the TIA. A regional trip distribution map may be required by the Director for large-scale development projects. The TIA shall identify other transportation modes that may be applicable, such as transit use, bicycle and pedestrian facilities.

4. Future Traffic.

a. Future Traffic Conditions Without Project. Future traffic volumes shall be estimated using information from transportation models for applying an annual growth rate based on reports of the Puget Sound Regional Council to baseline traffic volumes. The future traffic volumes shall be representative of the horizon year for project development. Proposed development projects approved, under review, or otherwise reasonably foreseeable shall be taken into consideration when forecasting future traffic volumes.

b. Future Traffic Conditions with Project. The site-generated traffic shall be assigned to the street network in the study area based on the approved trip distribution model. The site traffic shall be combined with the forecasted traffic volume to show the total traffic conditions estimated at the horizon year. A diagram will be required showing daily and a.m. and p.m. peak-hour turning movement volumes for each intersection in the study area.

5. Traffic Operations. The LOS and capacity analysis shall be conducted for each intersection in the study area. The methodology and procedures for conducting the capacity analysis shall follow the guidelines specified in the Highway Capacity Manual. The TIA shall include calculations for the intersection LOS for each of the following conditions:

a. Existing peak-hour traffic volumes (diagram required);

b. Existing peak-hour traffic volumes including site-generated traffic (diagram required);

c. Future traffic volumes not including site traffic (diagram required);

d. Future traffic volumes including site traffic (diagram required);

e. The LOS analysis results for each traffic volume scenario (table required). The LOS table shall include LOS results for a.m. and p.m. peak periods. The table shall show LOS conditions with corresponding vehicle delays for signalized intersections and LOS conditions for the critical movements at unsignalized intersections. For signalized intersections, the LOS conditions and average vehicle delay shall be provided for each approach and the intersection as a whole. The capacity analyses for existing signalized intersections shall include existing phasing, timing, splits and cycle lengths in the analysis as observed and measured during the peak-hour traffic periods. If the development is scheduled to be completed in phases, the TIA shall conduct a LOS analysis for each separate development phase. The incremental increases in site traffic from each phase shall be included in the LOS analysis for each proceeding year of development completion. A figure will be required for each horizon year of phased development. If the development impacts a traffic signal coordination system currently in operation, the Director may require the TIA to include operational analysis of the system. Timing plans and proposed modifications to the coordination system may be required. The capacity analysis shall be conducted using a City-approved software package. The computer worksheets, along with an electronic copy of each capacity analysis, shall be submitted with the TIA document. For unsignalized intersections, the Highway Capacity Manual methodology shall be used. A copy of the capacity analyses worksheets shall be submitted with the TIA document.

6. Mitigation. The TIA shall include a proposed mitigation plan. Mitigating measures shall ensure the transportation facilities operate at a LOS “D” or better upon completion of the development. The following guidelines shall be used to determine appropriate mitigating measures of traffic impacts generated by new developments.

a. On transportation facilities where the TIA demonstrates a need to construct improvements, the cost for the mitigation will be entirely borne by the applicant. However, if the Director identifies more than one development under simultaneous review, cumulative impacts and distribution of mitigation costs may be considered. A latecomer’s agreement could be formulated by the applicant for reimbursement for mitigation costs.

b. On transportation facilities programmed for improvements and funded as part of a City project, the adverse traffic impacts of the development may be considered mitigated by providing a proportionate share contribution of the costs for the proposed improvements. The proportionate share of local costs for the improvements shall be based on the percentage of development traffic generated through the intersection. The percentage shall be based on the total projected peak hour traffic volumes for the horizon year of the transportation facility. For the purposes of this section, transportation facilities included on the traffic impact fee project list will be considered programmed and funded. For these facilities, payment of the traffic impact fee will satisfy the requirement for providing a proportionate share contribution of the costs for the improvements. If the transportation facility currently operates less than LOS “D,” and the Director determines that the impacts of the development will create a safety hazard, the applicant shall be required to make facility improvements to improve the level of service to LOS “D” or better. The cost of the interim improvements will be deducted from the development’s proportionate share of costs for the programmed facility improvements only if the cost of the interim improvements is less than the ultimate proportionate share. If the interim improvements cannot be incorporated into the ultimate improvements programmed for the transportation facility, there will be no reimbursement for interim costs incurred.

c. On transportation facilities where the existing LOS is less than “D” and where no improvements are programmed to improve capacity and traffic operations, the development shall provide mitigation that ensures the intersection operates at LOS “D” or better or wait until the improvements are constructed by the City or others.

d. Intersections where the projected level of service condition is at “D,” but where one or more of the LOS on the approaches falls below “D,” the development shall provide mitigation that ensures each approach operates at LOS “D” or better.

e. To mitigate the effects of the traffic generated by the development and the effects of that traffic on existing vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle traffic, the applicant shall provide sufficient right-of-way for and construct paved shoulders/bicycle lanes on abutting streets that are arterial streets or designated bicycle routes.

f. To mitigate the effects of the traffic generated by the development and the effects of that traffic on existing vehicular and pedestrian traffic, planter strips and concrete curbs, gutters, and sidewalks shall be constructed along abutting streets. Planter strips, concrete curbs, gutters, and sidewalks are required along each side of all interior plat roads in formal subdivisions to provide for the safety of pedestrians. To mitigate pedestrian impacts, a bus stop shelter on a concrete pad shall be constructed where Pierce Transit and/or the school district has identified a need for a bus stop to serve the development and the citizens of the City. Design standards for the bus shelter shall be provided by Pierce Transit or the school district.

(Ord. 531 § 1 (Exh. A), 2008; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 505 § 1, 2007; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.140 Developments on substandard streets.

A. The applicant shall be required to construct improvements to bring substandard streets up to current City standards prior to final approval for any development that obtains access from substandard public or private streets. Such improvements shall be made from the point of access to the closest intersection of an arterial street. Street improvements may include but are not limited to curb and gutter, sidewalk, street lighting, traffic signal modification, relocation or installation, utility relocation, street widening, and resurfacing.

B. Exceptions.

1. Any development that does not generate additional vehicular traffic is exempt from the requirements of this section.

2. The construction of or modification to a single-family or duplex residential unit will require the access to be improved up to emergency vehicle access standards in Article III of this chapter.

3. The development of short subdivisions that accommodate no more than four dwelling units will require the substandard street to be improved up to 20 feet of paved driving surface and five-foot gravel shoulders on each side of the street, provided any new dwelling units are equipped with residential fire suppression sprinkler systems.

(Ord. 679 § 1 (Exh. A), 2016; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.150 Street frontage improvements.

A. Street frontage improvements shall be required in conjunction with subdivisions and short subdivisions of land, small lot and innovative housing developments, planned development districts, conditional use permits, binding site plans, and the modification or construction of buildings. Frontage improvements shall consist of half-street improvements in conformance with the standard street section and the City street standards in Article II of this chapter and the Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements adopted by reference. Such improvements may include curbs, gutters, bike lanes, planter strips, medians, sidewalks, bus stops, bus shelters, bus pads, bus pullouts, street storm drainage, street lighting systems, traffic signal installation, modification, or relocation, utility relocation, landscaping, irrigation, and street widening.

B. Plans shall be stamped by a civil engineer licensed to practice in the State of Washington.

C. Where the existing right-of-way is of insufficient width to accommodate the required improvements, right-of-way dedication will be required. The dedications shall comply with the provisions of UPMC 13.10.030. For plats, the right-of-way may be dedicated at the time of recording.

D. All frontage improvements shall be completed in a manner acceptable to the City prior to occupancy, final plat approval, final short plat approval, final development plan approval, or binding site plan approval.

E. Exceptions.

1. When the Director determines based on good reasons shown that any or all of the required improvements should not be accomplished at the time specified in subsection (D) of this section, a recorded agreement or financial guarantee shall be completed on forms provided by the City. The agreement shall require the applicant to install the improvements at a later date.

2. The construction, remodeling or enlargement of an individual Group R3 or Group U occupancy (as defined in the building code) shall be exempt from this section.

3. Alterations or repairs not constituting a major improvement are exempt from this section. See UPMC 13.05.220 for the definition of “major improvement.”

4. Major improvements that add less than 10 percent floor area and which value does not exceed 50 percent of the assessed value of the existing structure shall be exempt from the requirements of this section. Alterations or repairs completed within the 12-month period immediately preceding the date of permit application shall be considered as part of the current proposal and their costs shall be included in considering the applicability of this exemption.

5. Two- or three-lot short plats accessing local streets and two-lot short plats accessing arterial streets may elect to defer the construction of the required frontage improvements by completing and recording the City of University Place LID Covenant. By recording this covenant the property owner agrees to participate in and not protest the formation of a local improvement district on the abutting streets. Nothing in the covenant will in any way absolve the property owner from the obligation to improve the frontage of the property. If it becomes necessary to mitigate the effects of the development prior to the formation of an LID, the property owner will have 120 days from receipt of the written notice from the City to complete the required improvements. If right-of-way dedication will be necessary to construct the standard street section, the right-of-way shall be dedicated upon recording of the short plat.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

Article II. Streets

13.20.205 General.

Street design must provide for the maximum loading conditions anticipated. The width and grade of the pavement must conform to specific standards set forth herein for safety and uniformity.

As feasible, University Place shall incorporate complete streets infrastructure into existing public and private streets to create a comprehensive, integrated, connected transportation network for the City that balances access, mobility, health and safety needs of pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users, motorists, emergency responders, freight and users of all ages and abilities, ensuring a fully connected, integrated network that provides transportation options. “Complete streets infrastructure” means design features that contribute to a safe, convenient, or comfortable travel experience for users, including but not limited to features such as: sidewalks; shared use paths; bicycle lanes; automobile lanes; paved shoulders; street trees and landscaping; planting strips; curbs; accessible curb ramps; bulb outs; crosswalks; refuge islands; pedestrian and traffic signals, including countdown and accessible signals; signage; street furniture; bicycle parking facilities; public transportation stops and facilities; transit priority signalization; traffic calming devices such as rotary circles, traffic bumps, and surface treatments such as paving blocks, textured asphalt, and concrete; narrow vehicle lanes; raised medians; and dedicated transit lanes.

(Ord. 675 § 2, 2016; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.210 Design.

A. The design of streets shall depend upon their type and usage. Standard roadway sections for each street classification are provided at the end of this chapter.

B. The layout of streets shall provide for the continuation of existing principal streets in adjoining subdivisions or of their proper projection when adjoining property is not subdivided. Local streets shall be designed to accommodate through connections for non-motorized traffic (pedestrians and bicycles).

1. Alignment. Alignment of major arterials and collectors shall conform, as nearly as possible, with that shown in the City’s Comprehensive Plan.

2. Grade. Street grade should conform closely to the natural contour of the land. In some cases, a different grade may be required by the Director. The minimum allowable grade shall be 0.7 percent. The maximum allowable grade shall be 15 percent, depending upon the street classification.

3. Width. The pavement and right-of-way width depend upon street classification. Table I, Street Design Standards, shows the minimum widths allowed in subsection (D) of this section.

4. Sight Obstruction. The design and construction of all streets shall provide the sight distances indicated in this article.

5. Parking and fire lanes shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of zoning and fire codes.

6. Bus stops, pullouts, and other bus transit amenities shall be in accordance with the requirements of Pierce Transit and/or the school district.

C. Nothing in this chapter shall prevent the City from making interim transportation improvements to existing facilities. The City may make interim transportation improvements that may not fully conform to the standards set forth in this chapter. Such improvements are necessary in order to protect and improve the public health, safety and welfare.

D. Specific street design standards are provided in Table I, below.

 

Table I. Street Design Standards

Design Standard

Major Arterial

Secondary Arterial

Collector Arterial

Neighborhood Collector

Local Feeder Street

Neighbor- hood Street

Access Lane

Private Street

Alley

Right-of-Way Width

85'-89'

63'-67'

60'-67'

60'

60'

53'

40'

26'

1020'-24'

1Parking Lanes

2None

2None

2None

2None

Both sides: 7' wide parallel

One side: 7' parallel

Not permitted

Optional one side: 8' parallel

Not permitted

Grade (min./max.)

0.7%/8%

0.7%/8%

0.7%/15%

0.7%/15%

0.7%/15%

0.7%/15%

0.7%/15%

0.7%/15%

0.7%/15%

Cement Concrete Curb and Gutter

Both sides

Both sides

Both sides

Both sides

Both sides

Both sides

Per storm system design

Per storm system design

Per storm system design

Sidewalks

3Both sides: 6'

3Both sides: 6'

3Both sides: 6'

Both sides: 6'

Both sides: 5'

Both sides: 5'

One side/ variable walkway

4One side: 5'

N/A

Planter Strip Width (including curb)

Both sides: 4'-5.5'

Both sides: 4'-5.5'

Both sides: 5.5'

Both sides: 5.5'-8'

Both sides: 5.5'-8'

Both sides: 5.5'-8'

10' (includes pedestrian walkway)

N/A

10Both sides: 2'-4'

Bike Facilities/Shoulders

Both sides: 5'

Both sides: 5'

Both sides: 5'

5On-street, striped: 5' to 6'

5On-street, shared use

On-street, shared use

On-street, shared use

N/A

N/A

Intersection Curb Radius (inside)

35'

35'

30'

610'-20'

610'-20'

20'

20'

20'

N/A

Centerline Radius7 (minimum)

600'

600'

150'

150'

150'

As approved

As approved

As approved

As approved

Raised Landscape Median

8'-12'

8'-12'

88'-12'

None

None

None

None

None

None

Through Travel Lanes

Variable

Variable

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

Travel Lane Width

11'

11'

11'

11'

10'

10'

10'

910'

16'

1. Parking bays are required when parking is provided on one side of a street and may be required when parking is provided on both sides of a street.

2. Parking lanes on arterials may be allowed with approval from the Director. Parking bays may be required on arterial streets.

3. Sidewalks in commercial areas shall be 10 feet wide when required by the Director.

4. Not required for two or less dwelling units.

5. A paved shoulder/bike lane shall be required if the neighborhood collector or local feeder street has been designated as a bike route.

6. A typical minimum curb return radius of 10 to 15 feet should be used where:

• high pedestrian volumes are present or reasonably anticipated;

• volumes of turning vehicles are low;

• the width of the receiving intersection approach can accommodate a turning passenger vehicle without encroachment into the opposing lane;

• passenger vehicles constitute the majority of turning vehicles; bicycle and parking lanes create additional space to accommodate the effective turning radius of vehicles;

• low turning speeds are required or desired; and

• occasional encroachment of a turning school bus, moving van, fire truck or oversized delivery truck into an opposing lane is acceptable.

Curb radii will need to be larger than 15 feet where:

• occasional encroachment of a turning school bus, moving van, fire truck or oversized delivery truck into an opposing lane is not acceptable;

• curb extensions are proposed or might be added in the future; and

• receiving street does not have parking or bicycle lanes and the receiving lane is less than 12 feet in width.

In such cases where a minimum curb return radius larger than 15 feet is proposed, it should be demonstrated that pedestrian safety will not be compromised beyond that which is necessary to accommodate other transportation facility requirements.

7. This radius may be reduced with superelevation in conformance with AASHTO if approved by the Director. Maximum equals six percent.

8. May be reduced or eliminated if approved by the Director.

9. Pavement width and tract width shall increase eight feet for each parking lane desired.

10. Alley right-of-way, tract or width may vary depending on type of development being served and be reduced to the minimum dimension shown; provided, that at least 24 feet of separation will be maintained between garages with garage doors facing each other from opposite sides of the alley.

(Ord. 679 § 1 (Exh. A), 2016; Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.215 Functional classification.

A. General.

1. Functional Classification Elements. Streets are most effectively classified by their function, according to the character of the service they are intended to provide. The functional classification system creates a hierarchy of classified streets. The classification system can be used for planning new routes, improvements to existing streets, and planning for area development in concert with the transportation network and providing minimum design standards or criteria to encourage the use of the street as intended.

2. City definitions for each functional classification are presented below. The City functional classification system directly addresses all streets that are under the jurisdiction of the City. City streets are divided into major (or principal) arterials, secondary arterials, collector arterials, neighborhood collector arterials, and local access streets in accordance with regional transportation needs and the functional use each serves. Function is the controlling element for classification and shall govern rights-of-way, road width, and road geometrics. The function classification definitions in subsection (B) of this section are provided to assist the applicant in determining the classification of a particular street. New streets will be classified by the Director. If a street or portion of a street is not listed, the applicant is responsible for making inquiries to the Director to determine the correct street classification.

B. Function Classification Definitions.

1. Major Arterials.

a. Major arterials provide service for major traffic movements within the City. They serve major centers of activity, intra-area travel between University Place and other suburban centers, between larger communities, and between major trip generators. Major arterials serve the longest trips and carry the major portion of trips entering and leaving the overall area. Typically they are one of the highest traffic volume corridors in the City. The design year ADT is approximately 5,000 to 30,000 vehicles per day or more. They frequently carry important intra-urban and inter-city bus routes.

b. The spacing of major arterials usually varies from about one mile in highly developed business areas to five miles or more in rural areas. Service to abutting land is subordinate to the provision of routes for major traffic movements. It is desirable to place arterials on community and neighborhood boundaries or adjacent to, but not through, major shopping centers, parks, and other homogeneous areas.

2. Secondary Arterials.

a. Secondary arterials interconnect with and augment the major arterial system. Secondary arterials connect major arterials to collector arterials and small generators. They provide service to medium-size trip generators, such as less intensive commercial development, high schools and some junior high/grade schools, warehousing areas, active parks and ball fields, and other land uses with similar trip generation potential. They distribute travel to smaller geographic areas and communities than those identified with the major arterial system. They provide routes for trips of moderate length and somewhat lower level of travel mobility than major arterials. The design year ADT is approximately 2,500 to 15,000.

b. Spacing of secondary arterials is usually less than one mile in fully developed areas. They provide intra-community continuity and are typically a continuous street with a direct rather than a meandering alignment. They may carry local bus routes. Secondary arterials allow for more emphasis on land access than the major arterial system. They usually do not penetrate identifiable neighborhoods.

3. Collector Arterials. Collector arterials distribute trips from major and secondary arterials to the ultimate destination, or may collect traffic from local streets and channel it into the major and secondary arterial systems. They carry a low proportion of traffic traveling through the entire subarea; they carry a high proportion of local traffic with an origin or destination within that area. Design year ADT is approximately 2,500 to 15,000. They may be on a somewhat meandering alignment and need not be particularly long or continuous. Spacing is typically about one-quarter mile in developed areas. Collector arterials provide both land access service and traffic circulation within residential neighborhoods, commercial, and industrial areas. They may penetrate identifiable residential neighborhoods.

4. Neighborhood Collector Arterials.

a. Neighborhood collector arterials distribute traffic between more principal traffic routes and local service streets within neighborhoods. All of them serve as fire response routes, some may be transit streets, and some may be designated as bike routes. Because neighborhood collector arterials serve multiple purposes, their use must strike a balance between efficiently moving traffic and preserving neighborhood livability.

b. Neighborhood collector arterials are found only in residential neighborhoods and provide a high degree of access to individual properties. This classification is not applied to streets in commercial and industrial areas. Both right-of-way and paving widths are typically narrower than on other arterials. Left-turn lanes are only infrequently used on neighborhood collector arterials, and then only at intersections having higher volumes. A great deal of flexibility exists for on-street parking on this street type. On most neighborhood collectors, bicycles share the travel lane with other motor vehicles, eliminating the need for striped bicycle lanes. Exceptions to this can occur in situations where traffic volumes or speeds, roadway geometry, or other factors suggest that striped lanes will provide a safer design. Design year ADT is approximately 800 to 3,000.

5. Local Street System.

a. The local street system provides circulation and access for residential neighborhoods away from the arterial system. The local street system consists of local feeder streets, neighborhood streets, access lanes, private streets, and alleys. Local streets should be designed for a relatively uniform, low volume of traffic upon full development. The system should be designed to discourage excessive vehicle speeds, maximize pedestrian connectivity and safety, and minimize the necessity for traffic control devices.

b. For developments or neighborhoods of moderate size or larger, the streets serving as primary access to and from the bordering arterial system should be considered for collector arterial classification. Traffic generators, such as schools or churches, within residential areas should be considered within the local circulation pattern, not only from within the subdivision, but from adjacent neighborhoods as well. There should be a limited number of access points with the arterial streets that border the subdivision.

c. Local feeder streets serve as primary access to the development from the adjacent street system. They distribute traffic from local streets in residential neighborhoods and channel it to the arterial system. There are usually no bus routes, with the possible exception of school bus routes. They directly serve any major traffic generators within the neighborhood, such as an elementary school or a church. They usually serve one moderate-size neighborhood or a combination of a few small developments, rather than interconnecting two or more larger neighborhoods. They serve little, if any, through traffic generated outside the neighborhood. Typical ADT may reach up to 1,500.

d. Neighborhood streets provide direct access from abutting land to the local street system. There are usually no bus routes on neighborhood streets. They are typically internal subdivision streets providing circulation within the subdivision or between subdivisions. Service to through traffic is deliberately discouraged. Cul-de-sacs are prohibited on neighborhood streets in small lot developments and discouraged in other locations. Such cul-de-sacs must include a central green court consistent with the city’s low impact development goals and objectives.Typical ADT may reach up to 1,000.

e. Access lanes are designed to accommodate traffic between clusters of dwelling units, most commonly within small lot developments. They are the smallest street sections that serve emergency vehicles. Access lanes with a hammerhead, central green court or auto courtyard are allowed in lieu of cul-de-sacs, which are prohibited.

f. Private streets are streets privately owned and maintained by the owners of the parcels accessing the street.

g. Alleys are public or private streets providing access to the rear boundary of two or more residential properties that front a public street or a common open space area that fronts a public street. Alleys are not intended for general traffic circulation.

C. Functional classifications for arterial streets are provided in Table II, below.

Table II. Street Classifications

Street Name

From

To

 

Major Arterials

27 St. W.

Regents Blvd. W.

Bridgeport Way W.

Bridgeport Way W.

200' S. of 19 St. W.

South City Limits

Cirque Dr. W.

Orchard St. W.

Bridgeport Way W.

Lakewood Dr. W.

Hannah-Pierce/Orchard

66 St. W.

Regents Blvd. W.

67 Ave. W.

27 St. W.

 

Secondary Arterials

27 St. W.

Bridgeport Way W.

Grandview Dr. W.

40 St. W.

67 Ave. W.

Olympic Blvd. W.

64 St. W.

Chambers Creek Rd. W.

Grandview Dr. W.

67 Ave. W.

19 St. W.

Bridgeport Way W.

Chambers Creek Rd. W.

Steilacoom City Limits

Bridgeport Way W.

Chambers Ln. W.

Bridgeport Way W.

Chambers Creek. Rd. W.

Cirque Dr. W.

Bridgeport Way W.

Grandview Dr. W.

Mildred St. W.

19 St. W.

Regents Blvd. W.

Olympic Blvd. W.

40 St. W.

Grandview Dr. W.

 

Collector Arterials

35 St. W.

67 Ave. W.

Grandview Dr. W.

Alameda Ave. W.

67 Ave. W.

40 St. W.

Grandview Dr. W.

19 St. W.

64 St. W.

Sunset Dr. W.

19 St. W.

Cirque Dr. W.

 

Neighborhood Collector Arterials

27 St. W.

Grandview Dr. W.

E. Day Island Blvd. W.

31 St. W.

Vista Pl. W.

Lemons Beach Rd. W.

44 St. W.

67 Ave. W.

Elwood Dr. W.

54 St. W.

Bridgeport Way W.

79 Ave. W.

Beckonridge Dr. W.

Grandview Dr. W.

Cirque Dr. W.

Elwood Dr. W.

40 St. W.

Cirque Dr. W.

Elwood Dr. W.

27 St. W.

Parkway W.

Lemons Beach Rd. W.

27 St. W.

31 St. W.

79 Ave. W.

54 St. W.

Cirque Dr. W.

Parkway W.

Vista Pl. W.

Elwood Dr. W.

70 Ave. W.

19 St. W.

27 St. W.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.220 Right-of-way.

Right-of-way width is determined by the functional classification of a street. See Table I, Street Design Standards, in UPMC 13.20.210 for specific information. Additional roadside easements may be required to facilitate roadway maintenance. Easements shall be on a form approved by the City and meet the provisions of UPMC 13.10.030. Right-of-way width requirements shall be increased to accommodate any additional lanes, pockets, bus loading zones, paved shoulders/bike lanes, utilities, street trees or other features or facilities required by the City. Right-of-way shall be conveyed to the City on a recorded plat or by a right-of-way dedication deed. All costs shall be borne by the applicant.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.225 Private streets.

A. The following are the standards for new private streets. Existing private streets that are not in conformance with any of the following are considered substandard streets.

1. Construction and inspection standards for public streets apply to private streets.

2. The design shall conform to Table I, Street Design Standards, in UPMC 13.20.210.

3. Private streets shall be permanently established by commonly owned tract or easement.

4. No more than four dwelling units or businesses may access a private street unless the following conditions apply: (a) the businesses are situated on one parcel under single ownership; or (b) the dwelling units are part of a multifamily development on one parcel under single ownership. The dwelling units and/or businesses may be owned by persons or entities other than the owner of the underlying property.

5. Private streets shall be accessible at all times for emergency vehicle use.

6. Prior to permit issuance, the applicant shall be required to record a private street maintenance agreement and restrictive covenant with the Pierce County Auditor, on a form provided by the City for this purpose.

7. All street signs for private streets shall include the text “Private Street.” This text shall be at least one-half the height of the street name text.

8. The private street shall be signed “No Parking” when parking lanes are not provided.

9. Maintenance and operation of all private streets are the responsibility of the individual property owners.

B. Alleys shall conform to the criteria for private streets in addition to the criteria below.

1. Alleys are allowed only when lots served have frontage on a public street or a common open space area that fronts a public street and are provided direct pedestrian and emergency vehicle access from the public street.

2. Alleys may provide access to an unlimited number of units; provided, that the alley has a maximum length of 400 feet and no dead end if serving more than four lots. When a dead-end alley is used, it should be less than 150 feet in length.

3. Minimum alley tract or easement shall have a width of 20 feet with a pavement surface of 16 feet, provided any structure is set back four feet or more from property line or edge of tract or easement. For small lot and other innovative housing developments that may require a structure setback from alleys of less than four feet, the required alley width may be increased a corresponding amount to provide for safe turning access to properties.

4. Alley entry shall be provided with a driveway approach.

C. Acceptance as Public Streets. The City will consider acceptance of private streets as public streets only if the street(s) meet all applicable public street standards, including right-of-way widths.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 531 § 1 (Exh. A), 2008; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 489 § 1, 2007; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.230 Dead-end streets.

A. Dead-end streets shall be permitted only if the Director determines there is no feasible connection with adjacent streets. All dead-end streets must incorporate a turn-around facility at the closed end. The turn-around shall conform to the cul-de-sac, hammerhead or auto courtyard standards identified below.

B. Cul-de-Sac. Streets designed to have one end permanently closed shall be no longer than 600 feet measured from centerline of street intersection to the center of the bulb section. Proposed exceptions to this rule will be considered by the Director based on pertinent traffic planning factors such as topography, sensitive areas and existing development. At the closed end, there shall be a widened “bulb” having a minimum paved traveled radius in accordance with the details in the University Place Standard Notes and Details. Within the area of the public easement or dedication, applicant shall install five-foot-wide concrete sidewalk(s) from the end of the cul-de-sac to the nearest public road in accordance with the details in the University Place Standard Notes and Details. Cul-de-sacs must include a central green court consistent with the city’s low impact development goals and objectives.

C. Hammerhead Turnaround. Hammerheads are permitted on access lanes, or on private streets that serve four or fewer lots, in accordance with the requirements of the City Fire Code Official. See standard hammerhead detail in the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

D. Central green courts or auto courtyards are permitted on access lanes in lieu of hammerheads, or in lieu of prohibited cul-de-sacs, in accordance with the requirements of the City Fire Code Official.

(Ord. 662 § 1 (Exh. A), 2015; Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.235 Medians.

Raised, landscaped medians shall be provided along all arterial streets except for neighborhood arterial streets. The Director may eliminate the requirement for a median on collector arterial streets based on the size of the street and safety considerations. Medians will include pedestrian landing/refuge areas to make it safer for pedestrians to cross, where appropriate. Medians shall be designed so as not to limit turning radius or sight distance at intersections. The median shall be landscaped in accordance with Article VIII of this chapter.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.240 Intersections.

A. Traffic control will be as specified in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) or as modified by the Director as a result of appropriate traffic engineering studies.

B. Street intersection shall be laid out so as to intersect as nearly as possible at right angles. For reasons of traffic safety, a “T” intersection (three leg) is preferable to the crossroad (four leg) intersection for local access streets. For safe design, the following types of intersection features should be avoided:

1. Intersections with more than four legs;

2. “Y” type intersections where streets meet at acute angles;

3. Intersections adjacent to bridges and other sight obstructions;

4. “Y” intersections greater than 15 degrees off perpendicular are prohibited.

C. Spacing between adjacent intersecting streets, whether crossing or “T,” should be as follows:

When highest classification involved is:

Minimum/maximum centerline offset should be:

Major Arterial

350 feet/600 feet

Secondary Arterial

300 feet/600 feet

Collector Arterial

200 feet/600 feet

Local Feeder Street

150 feet/600 feet

Local Minor Street

150 feet/600 feet

Blocks shall not be longer than 600 feet.

When different class streets intersect, the higher standard shall apply on curb radii.

On sloping approaches at an intersection, landings shall be provided with the grade not to exceed one foot difference in elevation for a distance of 30 feet approaching any arterial or for a distance of 20 feet approaching a collector or local access street. The distance is measured from nearest right-of-way line (extended) of intersecting street.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.245 Driveways.

A. General.

1. Driveways and driveway approaches shall be constructed in accordance with the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

2. All abandoned driveway approaches on the same frontage shall be removed and the curbing and sidewalk or shoulder and ditch section shall be properly restored.

3. All driveway approaches at locations with curb and gutter shall be constructed of Portland cement concrete and shall be subject to the same testing and inspection requirements as curb, gutter, and sidewalk construction.

4. All driveway approaches at locations without curb, gutter or sidewalk may be constructed with either Portland cement concrete, asphalt concrete, or pervious pavement. Approach grade at these locations shall not exceed two percent within the right-of-way in order to accommodate future sidewalk construction.

5. Shared driveways are permitted upon formal written agreement by both property owners and approval of the Director. The agreement shall be a recorded easement for both parcels of land specifying joint usage. Shared driveways shall be a minimum of 15 feet wide and paved along that portion which serves both parcels. Shared driveway width may be reduced within small lot and innovative housing developments to achieve design goals and reduce impervious surface consistent with the City’s low impact development goals and objectives.

6. Grade Breaks. The maximum change in driveway grade shall be eight percent within any 10 feet of distance on a crest and 12 percent within any 10 feet of distance in a sag vertical curve. These grades may be exceeded with proper use of smooth vertical curbs in accordance with AASHTO guidelines.

7. No commercial driveway shall be allowed where backing onto a sidewalk or street will occur.

8. Driveway locations shall be unified whenever possible to create the fewest number of accesses onto a street.

9. Driveways that serve only one lot shall be located a minimum of seven and one-half feet from the property line where the driveway enters the right-of-way.

B. Arterial Streets.

1. No driveway may access an arterial street within 75 feet (measured along the arterial) of any other driveway access on either side of the street unless aligned directly opposite another driveway. This distance may be reduced to 35 feet for neighborhood collector arterial streets, provided adequate sight distance is provided.

2. No driveway may access an arterial street within 150 feet of the nearest right-of-way line of an intersecting street. This distance may be reduced to 75 feet along neighborhood collector arterial streets, provided adequate sight distance is provided.

3. Access to arterial streets may be limited to one driveway for each tract of property separately owned. Properties contiguous to each other and owned by the same person are considered to be one tract.

4. Driveways giving direct access onto arterials may be denied if alternate access is available.

5. Wherever a potential access exists to any property from both a public road and a private easement, the City may refuse access to the public road.

6. The Director and Pierce Transit will determine the minimum separation that will be allowed between an existing bus stop and a proposed driveway based on sight obstruction and vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

7. Residential driveways accessing arterial streets shall provide a turn-around for residential vehicles so these vehicles will not have to back out into the arterial. This may be waived along neighborhood collector arterial streets, provided adequate sight distance is provided.

C. Local Streets.

1. Residential driveways shall be constructed a minimum of 35 feet from a side street or intersection. The distance is measured from the street right-of-way line to the nearest edge of the driveway.

2. Wherever a potential access exists to any property from both a public road and a private easement, the City may refuse access to the public road.

D. Width.

1. The maximum driveway width for two-way access onto an arterial or collector shall be 24 feet for residential, 30 feet for commercial uses, and 35 feet for industrial uses. Maximum driveway widths for one-way access onto an arterial or collector shall be 20 feet for residential, 20 feet for commercial, and 25 feet for industrial uses. A road approach or wider driveway width may be approved by the Director where a substantial percentage of over-sized vehicle traffic exists, where divisional islands are desired, or where multiple exit or entrance lanes are needed.

2. The maximum two-way driveway width onto a local access street shall be 24 feet for residential uses and 26 feet for commercial uses.

3. The maximum one-way driveway width shall be 15 feet for residential and 22 feet for commercial driveways.

4. The minimum residential driveway width shall be 10 feet.

5. The Director may require intersection geometry in lieu of a driveway approach and/or ingress and egress tapers in industrial and commercially zoned areas.

6. Commercial drive aisles shall conform to UPMC Title 19.

(Ord. 679 § 1 (Exh. A), 2016; Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.250 Sight obstruction.

A. The following sight clearance requirements take into account the proportional relationship between speed and stopping distance. Table III presents the minimum stopping and entering sight distance requirements.

B. A clear-view triangle is the area formed at all intersections by extending two lines of specified length from the center of the intersecting streets or driveways, along the centerlines of both accesses and connecting those endpoints to form the hypotenuse of the triangle. See sight distance triangle detail in the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

C. The vertical clearance area within the clear-view triangle shall be free from obstructions to a motor vehicle operator’s view between a height of three feet and 10 feet above the existing surface of the street.

D. Sight obstructions that may be excluded from these requirements include utility poles, regulatory signs, and trees trimmed from the base to a height of 10 feet above the street.

Table III. Sight Distance1

Design Speed

Stopping Sight Distance2

Entering Sight Distance3

Uncontrolled4

Yield Controlled5

Stop Controlled5,6

25 mph

155 ft

115 ft

295 ft

280 ft

30 mph

200 ft

140 ft

355 ft

335 ft

35 mph

250 ft

165 ft

415 ft

390 ft

40 mph

305 ft

195 ft

475 ft

445 ft

45 mph

360 ft

220 ft

530 ft

500 ft

1 Refer to AASHTO for any situation not addressed in this table.

2 Is based on an eye height of 3.5 feet, an object height of 2.0 feet, level terrain and wet pavement.

3 Applies to intersection and driveway approaches with approach grades of three percent or less.

4 This distance corresponds to the legs of the sight distance triangle along both streets.

5 This distance accommodates a passenger car making a left turn maneuver and is based on an entering vehicle eye height of 3.5 feet, measured 14.5 feet back from edge of traveled way, and an approaching vehicle height of 4.25 feet.

6 For intersections where there is stop control for the minor approaches only. The distance is measured along the uncontrolled approach.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.255 Surfacing requirements.

A. All streets will be paved with either asphalt concrete or Portland cement concrete unless the Director authorizes the use of pervious pavement to achieve the City’s low impact development goals and objectives.

B. The pavement design shall meet the requirements in the latest publication of the AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures. The pavement section shall be designed and stamped by an engineer currently licensed to practice in the state of Washington.

C. Construction of streets paved with asphalt concrete shall conform to Section 5-04 of the Standard Specifications. Fine and coarse aggregate shall be in accordance with Section 9-03.8 of the Standard Specifications.

D. Asphalt concrete shall be placed on the prepared surface by an approved paving machine and shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 5-04 of the Standard Specifications, except that longitudinal joints between successive layers of asphalt concrete shall be displaced laterally a minimum of 12 inches unless otherwise approved by the Director. Pavement material will be HMA Class one-half-inch asphalt concrete and be constructed at least two inches thick (minimum compacted thickness) over the prepared crushed surfacing top course, or asphalt-treated base. Asphalt concrete over two inches thick shall be placed in equal lifts not to exceed two inches each.

E. Portland cement concrete streets will be constructed as specified in Section 5-05 of the Standard Specifications.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.260 Excavation and backfill.

The following requirements shall apply to any excavation and backfill within any public right-of-way, easement, or private street.

A. No pavement cuts shall be made on any street or driveway constructed of asphalt cement concrete or Portland cement concrete or City-approved pervious pavement, unless approval has been granted by the Director. Pavement cuts shall be made by sawcuts. Pavement cuts for road maintenance activities and small utility windows may be made by alternate methods if approved by the Director.

B. Trenching operations shall not proceed more than 100 feet in advance of pipe laying. Backfilling and surface restoration shall closely follow installation of pipe so that not more than 100 feet of trench is left exposed at any time.

C. Excavation operations shall be in conformance with the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Administration (WISHA) and the Office of Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Safety Standards.

D. Trenches shall be restored and open to traffic during nonworking hours.

E. Pipe cover, measured from the finished grade elevation to the top of the outside surface of the pipe, shall be three feet minimum unless approved by the Director.

F. Gravel backfill for pipe bedding shall be installed in conformance with Section 2-09 of the Standard Specifications (WSDOT). Native material shall not be used for bedding, unless approved by the Director.

G. Bedding and backfill material shall be placed and compacted around and under the utility pipe by hand tools. Special precautions shall be provided to protect the pipe to a point 12 inches above the crown of the pipe.

H. All excavations shall be backfilled with crushed surfacing top course (five-eighths-inch minus), controlled density fill, or gravel backfill in conformance to Section 9-03.12(3) of the Standard Specifications. All backfill material shall be placed and compacted in maximum six-inch lifts to 95 percent of standard density except controlled density fill, which has no compaction requirement. Native material shall not be used for backfill unless approved by the Director. Utility windows (potholes) shall be backfilled with either crushed surfacing top course (five-eighths-inch minus) or controlled density fill.

I. All excess material shall be hauled off site. It is the applicant’s responsibility to dispose of this material at a proper facility.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.265 Street patching and restoration.

A. Temporary restoration of trenches shall be accomplished by using HMA Class one-half-inch asphalt concrete pavement, medium-curing (MC-250) liquid asphalt (cold mix), or asphalt treated base (ATB). After compacting, the trench must be filled flush with the existing pavement surface to provide a smooth riding surface. Steel plates may be used as temporary restoration if approved by the Director.

B. All temporary patches shall be maintained by the applicant until such time as the permanent pavement patch is in place.

C. If the applicant fails to maintain a patch, the City may repair the patch and charge the applicant any costs incurred.

D. The depth of asphalt pavement restoration shall be a minimum of three inches (compacted thickness) asphalt concrete HMA Class one-half-inch. When existing asphalt thickness is found to be greater than two inches, asphalt pavement restoration shall be a minimum of four inches (compacted thickness), placed in maximum two-inch lifts.

E. The depth of Portland cement concrete pavement restoration shall be a minimum of six inches or the existing pavement thickness, whichever is greater.

F. The pavement restoration shall extend a minimum of 24 inches (each side) from the outer limits of the disturbed soil. At no time will a longitudinal patch edge fall on the wheel path of a traveled way. All longitudinal patch edges shall fall on either the edge of pavement or the center or edge of a travel lane. All transverse patch edges shall be perpendicular to the roadway.

G. The applicant must restore any damage resulting from his activity. The City may impose additional restoration requirements in order to mitigate any damages.

H. Tack shall be applied to the existing asphalt pavement edge of cut and shall be emulsified asphalt grade CSS-1 as specified in Section 9-02.1(4)A of the Standard Specifications. Tack coat shall be applied as specified in Section 5-04 of the Standard Specifications.

I. All street surfaces, walks or driveways within the excavation areas affected by the pavement cuts shall provide a smooth riding connection and drainage flow for the newly paved surface.

J. The surface smoothness requirements of Section 5-04.3(13) of the Standards Specifications shall apply to the transition between the new and existing pavement. Any restoration failing to conform to the surface smoothness requirements shall be corrected by removal and replacement.

K. All joints shall be sealed using liquid asphalt in accordance with WSDOT Standard Specifications.

L. When excavating within the roadway shoulder(s), the shoulder shall be restored to its original or better condition. Gravel shoulders shall at a minimum be restored with two inches of crushed surfacing compacted to 95 percent maximum density.

M. The final patch shall be completed within 30 days after first opening the trench. Additional time may be granted by the Director in the event of inclement paving weather or other adverse conditions.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

Article III. Emergency Vehicle Access

13.20.310 General.

Emergency vehicle access (EV access) shall be provided from a public or private street to a parcel(s) of land that has a facility on it. EV access shall be required for every facility hereafter constructed, altered or installed and shall extend to within 150 feet to any portion of the facility as measured by an approved route around the exterior. Emergency vehicle access shall be provided and maintained in accordance with this article. The provisions of this article shall be enforced in conformance with UPMC Title 14.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.320 Modifications.

A. When buildings are protected with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system, the provisions of this article may be modified.

B. When a site is constrained due to topography, waterways, nonnegotiable grades, or other similar conditions, the Director, after conferring with the Fire Code Official, may modify the requirements of this article to provide an equivalent means of fire protection and EV access.

(Ord. 662 § 1 (Exh. A), 2015; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.330 Exceptions.

The provisions of this article do not apply to the following:

A. All common residential accessory buildings similar to Group U occupancies (private garages, carports, sheds, some agricultural buildings, tanks, towers and fences over six feet tall) as defined by the most current edition of the building code as adopted by the City;

B. A remodel, or alteration of existing uses or structures if the proposed change is not classified as a “major improvement”;

C. Accessory dwelling units (ADUs) provided they are fully protected with an NFPA 13D residential sprinkler system.

(Ord. 724 § 1, 2020; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.340 Additional access.

More than one EV access may be required when the access is impaired by vehicle congestion, adverse terrain or climatic conditions, or other factors that could limit access.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.350 EV access specifications.

A. Width. EV access serving one or two dwelling units shall be 15 feet or more. EV access for all other projects shall be not less than 20 feet with no parking allowed, 27 feet with parking on one side, and 34 feet with parking on both sides.

B. Vertical Clearance. EV access shall have an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 13 feet six inches.

C. Surface. EV access shall be paved and shall be designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire apparatus. Alternate all-weather surfacing may be considered. Individual single-family or duplex EV access surface treatment may be compacted crushed rock surfacing.

D. Turning Radius. A minimum outside turning radius of 45 feet and a minimum 20-foot inside turning radius shall be provided for all EV access.

E. Turnarounds. A dead-end EV access in excess of 150 feet in length shall be provided with a turnaround conforming to the cul-de-sac, hammerhead or central green court/auto courtyard requirements set forth in Article II of this chapter.

F. Grade. The maximum street grade (profile) of an EV access shall be 15 percent. All sections of EV access with grades of over 12 percent shall be paved with a minimum of two inches, compacted depth, of asphalt concrete, or equivalent.

G. Bridges and Elevated Structures. All bridges and elevated structures, including drainage structures, on an EV access shall be constructed in accordance with AASHTO Standards Specified for Highway Bridges. Bridges and elevated structures shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed loads of fire apparatus.

H. Gates. If not otherwise prohibited, a gate may be installed in compliance with the following provisions:

1. Locked gates shall have rapid entry capabilities compatible with the local fire district requirements.

2. Electric gates will have an Opticom activation system and Knox key switch.

3. All electrically activated gates will have default capabilities to the unlocked position and swing or move freely in the event of power loss.

4. The minimum EV access width of a gate shall be 12 feet for one-way access and 20 feet for two-way access.

5. Gates shall be constructed in a manner that does not permit obstruction from the accumulation of snow.

6. Gates shall be set back a minimum 35 feet from the edge of the right-of-way. The Director may reduce this setback for single-family and duplex dwellings when site-specific circumstances warrant a reduction. A turnaround immediately outside the gate may be required if determined necessary by the Director.

I. Obstruction. The required width of an EV access shall not be obstructed in any manner, including parked vehicles. Minimum required widths and clearances established under these standards shall be maintained at all times.

J. Signs. When required by the Director, approved signs or other approved notices shall be provided and maintained for EV access to identify such streets and prohibit the obstruction thereof, or both. “No Parking – Fire Lane” signs shall be installed in conformance with the MUTCD and the fire code as adopted in UPMC Title 14.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.360 EV access approval.

EV accesses shall be constructed and approved prior to issuance of the building permit for which access is required.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

Article IV. Sidewalks, Curbs and Gutters

13.20.405 General.

Sidewalks, curbs, and gutters shall be constructed in conformance with this article.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.410 Purpose.

A. To provide a safe walking area for pedestrians.

B. To mitigate the impacts of development-generated traffic on existing pedestrian traffic.

C. To provide a vertical separation between the vehicular traveled way and the pedestrians and roadside features.

D. To provide for the conveyance of roadway storm water.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.415 Sidewalks.

Sidewalks shall be constructed of Portland cement concrete conforming to the Standard Specifications and be a minimum of four inches thick except in driveway approaches where the minimum thickness shall be six inches. When the sidewalk, curb and gutter are contiguous, the width of the sidewalk shall be measured from back of curb to back of sidewalk.

A. Arterial Streets. Sidewalks, curbs and gutters are required on both sides of all arterial streets interior to the development. Sidewalks, curbs and gutters are also required on the side of streets abutting the exterior of the development. Arterial streets for purposes of this subsection shall include major arterials, secondary arterials, collector arterials, and neighborhood collector arterials.

B. Local Access Streets. Sidewalks are required on both sides of local access streets which are interior to the development and on the side of local feeder and neighborhood streets abutting the exterior of the development including cul-de-sacs.

C. The design and construction of all sidewalks, curbs, and gutters shall conform to the street design standards at Article II of this chapter, Table I in UPMC 13.20.210 and the University Place Standard Notes and Details. The design of all sidewalks shall provide for a gradual rather than an abrupt transition between sidewalks of different widths or alignments.

D. Form and subgrade inspections by the City are required before sidewalk is poured. The applicant shall request the inspection a minimum of 24 hours in advance.

E. Monolithic pour of curb, gutter and sidewalk will not be allowed.

F. Driveways shall be constructed in conformance with Article II of this chapter.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.420 Pedestrian guardrails.

Pedestrian guardrails are required where the walking surface is 30 inches or more above an adjacent grade. The top of guardrails shall be not less than 42 inches in height above the walking surface. Open guardrails shall have balusters or an ornamental pattern such that a four-inch sphere cannot pass through, and shall be constructed so as to not create a readily climbable ladder effect. Top rails shall be designed to resist a force of 50 pounds per lineal foot applied horizontally at a right angle to the rail. Intermediate rails, fillers and connections shall be capable of resisting a force of 25 pounds per square foot applied horizontally at a right angle over the entire tributary area. Reactions due to loading of top rail and intermediate loads need not be combined.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.425 Joint-use facilities.

Joint pedestrian and bicycle facilities shall be a minimum 10-foot-wide travel way with necessary drainage and illumination. The joint bicycle/pedestrian facility shall be concrete.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.430 Accessibility.

All sidewalks must be constructed to provide for accessibility in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and WSDOT Standard Specifications.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.435 Curb and gutter.

Cement concrete curb and gutter shall be used for all street edges unless otherwise approved by the Director.

A. All curbs and gutters shall be constructed of Portland cement concrete in conformance with Section 8-04 of the Standard Specifications.

B. Form and subgrade inspections are required before curb and gutter are poured. The applicant shall request the inspection 24 hours in advance.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.440 Bus pads.

Bus stop pads shall be installed in conformance with Pierce Transit specifications.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.445 Pedestrian protection during construction.

Pedestrian protection during construction shall be provided in accordance with the International Building Code adopted by reference in Chapter 14.05 UPMC.

(Ord. 679 § 1 (Exh. A), 2016).

Article V. Paved Shoulders/Bicycle Lanes

13.20.510 General.

Paved shoulders/bicycle lanes are required along all major, secondary, collector and neighborhood collector arterial streets and any designated bicycle route on streets otherwise classified and shall be constructed in accordance with this chapter.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.520 Purpose.

A. To enhance the safety of pedestrians by providing a horizontal buffer from vehicular traffic.

B. To enhance the safety of all modes of travel by providing for the discharge of storm water away from the vehicular traveled way thereby reducing side splash, spray to following traffic, and hydroplaning.

C. To enhance the safety of bicyclists by providing a travel path separate from motorists and pedestrians.

D. To increase the mobility and safety at driveways and intersections by providing increased sight distance and greater effective turning radii.

E. To increase the mobility of emergency vehicles by providing additional area for maneuvering around traffic.

F. To provide additional area for motorists to make evasive maneuvers.

G. To provide for the uniform development of the City arterial street system.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.530 Design standards.

The design and construction of paved shoulders/bicycle lanes must meet the following requirements:

A. Frontage improvements along arterial streets or designated bike routes must include paved shoulders/bicycle lanes as part of the improvements in order to accommodate the traffic generated by the development and to mitigate the effects of the traffic generated by the development on existing vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle traffic.

B. The pavement section for paved shoulders/bicycle lanes shall be designed to accommodate the traffic loading of the street. The construction standards of streets shall also apply to the paved shoulders/bicycle lanes.

C. Pavement markings for paved shoulders/bicycle lanes shall conform to the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

D. Paved shoulders/bicycle lanes shall be a minimum of five feet wide.

E. The Director may allow the construction of a joint pedestrian bicycle facility along major arterials in lieu of the construction of a paved shoulder/bicycle lane. This will be based on topographic constraints and traffic conditions. Joint use facilities shall be constructed in conformance with Article IV of this chapter.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

Article VI. Illumination

13.20.610 General.

Any applicant required to construct or improve arterial streets shall install street lights in accordance with this article. Any applicant required to construct or improve local streets shall install street lights in accordance with the applicable lighting requirements set forth in the Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements adopted by reference and Guidelines for Small Lot and Multifamily Development adopted by reference in Chapter 19.53 UPMC. Street lighting located on private properties shall be under a recorded maintenance agreement and maintained by the homeowners’ association or property owner.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.620 Purpose.

To increase the safety to motor vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists along arterial and local streets.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.630 Design standards.

A street lighting plan submitted by the applicant and approved by the Director shall be required for all street light installations. All public street light designs shall be prepared by an engineer licensed to practice in the state of Washington.

A. Street Lights. Street lights shall meet the following requirements:

1. Streetside lighting shall consist of 16-foot-high, round tapered pole with decorative base and luminaire, in accordance with the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

2. Median lighting shall consist of 35-foot-high, round tapered pole with decorative base, luminaire, and decorative mast arms in accordance with the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

3. Poles shall be positioned to provide a minimum 24-inch clearance between the edge of the pole base and the vertical face of the curb.

B. Spacing. Spacing will be determined using the following criteria:

Average Maintained Horizontal
Illumination (Foot-Candles)

Road Class

Neighborhood Collector Arterial

0.6

 

Collector Arterial

0.6

 

Secondary Arterial

0.8

 

Major Arterial

0.8

 

 

Uniformity Ratio:

6:1

average: minimum for local

 

 

4:1

average: minimum for
collector

 

 

3:1

average: minimum for secondary and major arterial

 

Dirt Factor = 0.85, lamp lumen depreciation factor – 0.073

 

Minimum Weak Point Light = 0.2 fc except residential local street

Average Illumination at Intersections = 1.5 times the
illumination required on the more highly illuminated street

400 watt initial lamp lumens

=

50,000

200 watt initial lamp lumens

=

22,000

150 watt initial lamp lumens

=

16,000

100 watt initial lamp lumens

=

9,500

Line loss calculations shall show that no more than a five percent voltage drop occurs in any circuit. Lamp load factor shall equal 1.2.

All street light electrical installations including wiring conduit and power connections shall be located underground.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.640 Warranty and testing.

All street light systems shall be subject to an electrical inspection. Lamp, photocell and fixture shall be under warranty for a period of two years.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

Article VII. Traffic Control Devices

13.20.710 Signing.

The applicant is responsible for furnishing and installing all required signage. All signage shall conform to the MUTCD. Street designation signs shall be approved by the Director prior to installation.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.720 Signals.

Signals shall be installed in accordance with this article. This work shall consist of furnishing and installing a complete and functional traffic control system of controllers, signals, 3M Opticom systems and appurtenances as required by the Director.

A. Design Standards.

1. Signal system shall be designed in accordance with the specifications as set forth in the WSDOT Design Manual and WSDOT/APWA Standard Specifications.

2. All signal designs shall be prepared by an engineer licensed by the State of Washington.

B. Induction Loops. Induction loops shall be constructed per Standard Specification 8-20.3(14)C and the following:

1. Loops shall not be cut into final lift of new asphalt.

2. Loops cut into existing asphalt shall be sealed with 3M 3000 sealant or current WSDOT Standard Specification.

C. Warranty and Testing.

1. All signals shall be subject to any necessary electrical inspections as well as requirements as set forth in the WSDOT Design Manual and the WSDOT/APWA Standard Specifications.

2. A signal system shall not be approved or accepted by the City until the signal has performed correctly to the City’s satisfaction for a 30-day “check-out” period as outlined below.

3. Controller and cabinet testing may be required by WSDOT District 3 laboratory and/or the City. All specifications and materials samples shall be submitted to the City for review and approval prior to installation.

4. Signal equipment shall be under warranty for a period of two years.

D. Check-Out Procedure.

1. The contractor shall call for an intersection “check-out” after completing the controller cabinet installation along with all other signal equipment complete with wiring connections.

2. New signals shall operate without any type of failure for a period of 30 days. The contractor shall have a representative available to respond to system failure within one hour during the 30-day “check-out” period.

3. Failure of any control equipment or hardware within the “check-out” period shall restart the 30-day period.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.730 Roundabouts.

The Federal Highway Administration document Roundabouts: An Informational Guide shall be utilized in the design of roundabouts. Signage and pavement markings shall be in conformance with the MUTCD. Central islands shall be landscaped in accordance with Article VIII of this chapter.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

Article VIII. Roadside Features

13.20.810 General.

Roadside features shall be designed and placed in accordance with the requirements below and the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.820 Survey monuments.

A. Survey monuments installed in major arterials, secondary arterials, bus routes and truck routes shall be precast concrete monuments with cast iron monument cases and covers installed per the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

B. Survey monuments installed in collector arterials, neighborhood collector arterials, local feeder streets and local minor streets shall be poured-in-place concrete surface monuments per the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

C. Monument Locations. Monuments shall be placed as follows:

1. At all street intersections;

2. At the points of curvature (PCs) and points of tangency (PTs) of all horizontal curves or at the point of intersection (PI) if it lies in the traveled roadway.

D. The monument case shall be installed after the final course of surfacing has been placed.

E. All existing survey control monuments which will be disturbed or destroyed during construction shall be referenced prior to construction and replaced after construction by a professional land surveyor licensed to practice in the State of Washington. The monuments shall be replaced with the proper type as outlined in subsection (A) or (B) of this section at the expense of the applicant.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.830 Bus stops, shelters, and amenities.

A. Bus stops, pullouts, shelters and other associated amenities are required improvements for new developments where determined necessary by Pierce Transit, the appropriate school district, or the Director and shall be constructed in accordance with the University Place Standard Notes and Details, the Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements adopted by reference, or the specific requirements of these agencies.

B. Pierce Transit shelters shall be maintained by Pierce Transit. School bus stop shelters shall be maintained by the subdivision’s homeowners’ association or apartment owner, whichever is appropriate.

C. Concrete walkways shall be constructed linking subdivisions and developments to streets with bus stops. Developments enclosed by walls or fences shall provide openings or gates for walkways to provide direct access between developments and bus facilities.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.840 Mailboxes.

A. Mailboxes shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Postal Service.

B. During construction, existing mailboxes shall be accessible for the delivery of mail or, if necessary, moved to a temporary location. Temporary relocation shall be coordinated with the U.S. Postal Service. The mailboxes shall be reinstalled at the original location or, if construction has made it impossible, to a location as outlined below and approved by the U.S. Postal Service.

C. Mailboxes shall be positioned to provide a minimum clearance of 18 inches between the back of curb and front edge of the mailbox and a clearance equal to the width of the sidewalk between the back edge of the mailbox and the back of the walk. See the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

D. Clustered mailboxes may be required for developments. Contact the U.S. Postal Service for details.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.850 Guardrails.

For purposes of design and location, all guardrails along roadways shall conform to the criteria of the current edition of the Washington State Department of Transportation Design Manual and the Standard Specifications.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.860 Walls.

Any wall constructed in a right-of-way over 30 inches high in a fill section, or subject to a surcharge must be designed by a geotechnical engineer. An engineered design may also be required if site specific conditions exist that would compromise the integrity of the wall. The geotechnical engineer shall continuously inspect the installation of the wall as it progresses and shall submit to the Director inspection reports, including compaction test results and photographs taken during the construction, documenting the techniques used and the degree of conformance to the geotechnical engineer’s design.

(Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.870 Right-of-way landscaping and irrigation.

A. Applicants required to construct medians or planter strips within the City right-of-way shall install landscaping and irrigation systems in accordance with this section and the Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements adopted by reference.

B. Purpose.

1. To enhance the safety and comfort of pedestrians and motorists by providing a physical barrier and horizontal separation between vehicular traffic streams and between vehicular traffic and pedestrians and by reducing vehicular speeds.

2. To enhance the appearance of City streetscapes, provide shade and cooling effects, provide a sense of enclosure, definition and scale to the street, and provide protection from the wind and a reduction of airborne dust and pollutants.

C. General Landscaping Requirements.

1. All plant material shall meet or exceed ANSI Z60.1-2004, American Standards for Nursery Stock.

2. All ground areas not planted with trees shall be planted with shrubs and groundcover in the medians and with groundcover in the planter strips.

3. Shrubs may be comprised of a mixture of sizes but shall be not less than a two-gallon container size at time of planting. Shrubs shall be planted at a minimum density of five shrubs per 100 square feet.

4. Groundcover shall be planted to achieve a minimum planting area coverage of 80 percent within three years of installation and shall achieve 100 percent coverage within five years of installation.

5. Fully composted organic material (compost) shall be installed around all trees, shrubs, and groundcover to a depth of three inches. The City may require installation of bark mulch as a top dressing over the compost.

D. Street Tree Requirements. Street trees are required on both sides of all newly created, widened, or substantially improved public and private streets to provide shade and to calm traffic, subject to the considerations provided in the Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements and the following requirements:

1. Trees shall have a minimum caliper of two inches within a development at time of planting unless the City determines that a particular species or cultivar, which is available only in a smaller size, is the preferred selection for a specific location;

2. Spacing of street trees, on average, shall be 30 feet on center. Wider spacing may be approved for trees having exceptionally broad canopies and narrower spacing may be required for trees having narrow canopy forms;

3. Street trees shall be high-branching with a canopy that starts at least six to eight feet above finished grade, depending on species or cultivar, and have roots that will not break up sidewalks or roadbeds or invade utility lines. For areas without overhead power lines, tree types shall be planted that will achieve a minimum height of 35 feet at maturity;

4. Street trees shall be placed so as not to block sight distance or create a safety concern. Generally, trees should be planted at least 10 feet from utility or light poles or fire hydrants, 20 feet from street intersections, and 10 feet from driveways and alleys. The City may authorize irregular spacing to accommodate sight distance requirements for driveways or intersections or to avoid public infrastructure such as street lighting, utility poles or fire hydrants;

5. The use of a variety of street trees within a development is encouraged to increase visual interest and minimize exposure to diseases that could target specific species and cause widespread damage if these species are heavily planted within an area;

6. For access lanes, street trees may be planted on the abutting private lot if the City determines that insufficient space exists within the public right-of-way to accommodate the trees;

7. Trees shall be centered in the planter strip or median; and

8. Root barriers shall be provided for all trees located within five feet of sidewalks, curbs or pavement and shall be a minimum of 24 inches in depth and 14 feet in length, installed per the manufacturer’s recommendations. The City may approve the use of engineered soil to accommodate tree roots in restricted planting areas.

E. Median Landscaping Requirements. Landscaping shall be subject to the following guidelines:

1. Where medians are narrowed near intersections, landscaping should be graduated and include the use of small accent trees and ground cover;

2. The use of groundcover or xeriscape concepts at intersections is favored over the extensive use of hardscape;

3. Hardscape should only be used in medians where planting is not feasible due to site-specific constraints such as narrow median width or preservation of a significant view corridor.

F. Planting Strip Landscaping Requirements. Landscaping shall be designed subject to the following guidelines:

1. Landscaping shall take into account visibility at intersections and a safe passage for pedestrian movement;

2. To provide a landscape separation between street and sidewalk, planting strips should be installed between the back of the curb and the sidewalk;

3. Planting strips shall be designed to the extent practicable to be wide enough to accommodate medium to large street trees that have a high, broad-branching canopy; a continuous streetscape planting strip, exclusive of easements, shall be located in areas adjacent to an existing or proposed public road. The City shall decide on the width of the planting strip in order to balance median and sidewalk widths;

4. The planting strip shall be located generally parallel to the existing or proposed road and shall not be located in areas identified for road widening, road projects, drainage areas, or other public improvement projects. Minor encroachments in the planting strip by drainage easements may be approved by the City;

5. Street trees shall be required to be planted within the planting strip with an even, linear spacing. If minor shifts to the linear spacing are required due to the location of existing infrastructure, development or required sight distance, these shifts may be approved by the City;

6. The use of groundcover or xeriscaping concepts adjacent to intersections is favored over the extensive use of hardscape; and

7. Hardscape should only be used in areas where planting is not feasible due to site-specific constraints such as a narrow median width or preservation of a significant view corridor.

G. Approved Right-of-Way Landscaping Species.

1. Street trees shall be approved by the City in accordance with the Approved Street Tree Palette in Table 3-1 of the Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements. The City may approve trees not on the Approved Street Tree Palette if a registered landscape architect or certified arborist demonstrates to the satisfaction of the City that the proposed tree species or cultivar will not cause damage to infrastructure or create nuisance conditions.

2. Shrubs.

a. Photinia – Photinia fraseri;

b. Viburnum – Viburnum spp.;

c. Japanese Privet – Ligustrum japonicum;

d. Smooth Sumac – Rhus glabra;

e. Dogwood – Cornus spp.;

f. English Laurel – Prunus laurocerasus;

g. Rock Rose – Cistus spp.;

h. Mock Orange – Philadelphus lewisii;

i. Evergreen Huckleberry – Vaccinium ovatum;

j. Heather – Calluna spp.;

k. Heath – Erica spp.;

l. Pieris – Pieris japonica.

3. Groundcover.

a. Wintercreeper – Euonymus fortunei;

b. Cotoneaster – Cotoneaster spp.;

c. Japanese Spurge – Pachysandra terminalis;

d. Kinnikinnick – Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

H. Exceptions to the planting theme may be made by the Director. Exceptions include but are not limited to screening industrial areas, planting around historical sites, planting native or drought-resistant species, maintaining natural vegetation that better serves as street landscaping or beautification.

I. An irrigation plan is required to ensure that the planting will be watered at a level sufficient to ensure plant survival and healthy growth. All landscaped areas must provide a permanent underground irrigation system with an automatic controller plus an overriding rain switch. Battery-powered systems are not allowed. Irrigation systems shall be designed by a certified irrigation designer. The irrigation plan shall be submitted for approval as part of the landscaping plan. All pipe used in irrigation systems shall be schedule 40 PVC.

J. The applicant is required to pay all water system fees and charges associated with installation of an irrigation system.

K. Landscape plans shall be prepared by a Washington State registered landscape architect, a Washington State certified nurseryperson, or a Washington State certified landscaper. The landscape plans must be approved prior to permit issuance. Right-of-way landscaping may be incorporated into the landscaping plans for the entire development. Landscaping plans shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 19.65 UPMC and the Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements adopted by reference.

L. Landscaping and irrigation installed as a condition of development shall be maintained and all utility fees and charges paid in perpetuity by the development property owner(s). A maintenance covenant shall be recorded prior to permit issuance. Any installed plant material located within required landscape areas that dies shall be replaced during the spring or fall growing season following plant loss but not later than 180 days from time of loss.

M. Following the installation of the landscaping and irrigation system, the person or persons who prepared the planting and irrigation plans shall submit, within 30 days, a signed affidavit that the landscaping and irrigation system has been installed per the approved plans and shall submit a signed set of as-built plans. The City will conduct an inspection prior to final approval of the landscaping.

(Ord. 565 § 1 (Exh. A), 2010; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.880 Temporary right-of-way signs, street banners and decorations.

A. Signs, street banners, or decorations may be permitted in City right-of-way only to promote bona fide community events. A bona fide community event is a carnival, circus exhibition, fair, farmers’ market, festival, fiesta, parade, holiday celebration, or other community or regional celebration or event that may be of interest to the entire City or a substantial portion thereof.

B. Any temporary right-of-way sign permit shall be subject to the following conditions:

1. Signs, street banners, or decorations shall not promote or advertise the sale of any product, service, or commodity except that 10 percent of a sign may contain sponsor information. The remaining 90 percent will contain information promoting the community event or celebration.

2. Signs, street banners, or decorations shall not advertise or promote any religious or political message, except that political signs are regulated under Chapter 19.75 UPMC.

3. The City may remove any sign, street banner, or decoration if it obstructs any traffic sign, interferes with the safe movement of traffic, or otherwise interferes with the public health, safety or welfare.

C. Additional Conditions for Signs. Additional conditions for temporary signs placed in the City right-of-way are as follows:

1. Signs in the right-of-way shall be located as close as possible to the outside edge of the right-of-way.

2. The size of temporary right-of-way signs shall be as set forth for temporary signs as provided in Chapter 19.75 UPMC, except for street banners which are regulated below.

3. No sign shall obstruct safe visibility for vehicular or pedestrian traffic, or obstruct the clear-view triangle as described in Article II of this chapter.

4. All temporary right-of-way signs must be removed within three working days after the expiration of the permit. If the applicant fails to remove the sign in the time required, the City may remove the sign and the applicant will not be eligible for another temporary right-of-way sign permit for 12 months.

5. Signs subject to temporary sign permits shall not be placed in medians or roundabouts.

D. Additional Conditions for Street Banners and Decorations. Additional conditions for temporary street banners or decorations placed in the City right-of-way are as follows:

1. Street banners and decorations shall be mounted and removed only by authorized City personnel on City-owned street light poles or other City-owned facilities approved by the Director for that purpose.

2. No more than 10 City street light poles shall be affixed with street banners at any one time unless the banners are owned by the City.

3. No street banner or decoration shall obstruct safe visibility for vehicular or pedestrian traffic, or obstruct the clear-view triangle as described in Article II of this chapter.

4. Street banner or decoration shall not interfere with any planned City street banner or decoration.

5. No street banner or decoration may be hung across the traveled portion of any public right-of-way.

6. Street banners and decorations shall be constructed in accordance with the University Place Standard Notes and Details.

7. Banners shall be no greater than 30 square feet.

8. Banners subject to temporary sign permits shall not be placed in medians or roundabouts.

(Ord. 679 § 1 (Exh. A), 2016; Ord. 518 § 1, 2008; Ord. 395 § 3, 2003).

13.20.885 Temporary “open during construction” right-of-way signs.

A. The Director may allow temporary “open during construction” signs placed in front of businesses affected by a City capital facility project, provided:

1. The sign(s) shall be no larger than 12 square feet.

2. The sign(s) may include limited promotional messaging for the associated business, provided the primary message is “Business Open During Construction.”

3. The signs must be removed immediately following the construction activity that affects that business.

(Ord. 679 § 1 (Exh. A), 2016).

Article IX. Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements

Article IX-A. General Provisions

13.20.910 Introduction.

Streetscape design addresses elements that create pleasant, desirable street scenes that define a community’s character. The most easily identified streetscape features include street trees and other landscaping in sidewalk cut outs, planter strips (the narrow areas between the curb and sidewalk), right-of-way easements (the often wider areas between the back of sidewalks and private property lines), medians, City gateways and entries into the City from major streets. However, neighborhood places such as plazas, mini-parks along City streets, and trails where amenities such as “street furniture” (benches, trashcans, etc.) or public art are located are also a part of the City streetscape. Less obvious streetscape features include bus stops and their associated amenities such as shelters, benches and informational signs. Functional elements such as sound walls and planting associated with right-of-way walls or fences, as well as the irrigation systems and drainage systems used to maintain the streetscape areas, are all considered a part of the streetscape.

Streetscape improvements can have positive benefits to the natural environment. The reduction of paved areas with landscape treatments can increase groundwater recharge, as well as reduce the amounts of grease and oil transported to streams. They can help slow surface runoff from storms and reduce soil erosion and sedimentation of streams. Select tree species can help create habitat and food for birds and animals. Improvements may also be designed to create special conditions to protect threatened plants that would not otherwise exist in an urban setting.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 1)).

13.20.920 Organization.

The Design Standards and Guidelines for Streetscape Elements document is organized into the following articles:

A. Article IX-B, Streetscape Design for Vehicular Zone.

B. Article IX-C, Streetscape Design for Pedestrian Zone.

The vehicular zone includes the area of the public right-of-way within the curb-to-curb cross-section of the street that is occupied by travel lanes, parking lanes, and any medians, traffic circles, etc., that occur between the curbs. The pedestrian zone includes the outer portions of the right-of-way that flank the street, including sidewalks and any adjoining plazas and parks. While the character and function of these two zones are closely connected, the guidelines in this chapter have been organized by zone to facilitate their use.

The standards and guidelines in this chapter apply to neighborhood collector streets and local streets associated with new development within the City as well as qualifying modifications to existing development. These streetscape concepts are intended to provide design professionals, property owners, residents, staff, and decision-makers with a clear and common understanding of the City’s expectations for the planning, design and review of development proposals in University Place. If a conflict exists between these standards and guidelines and any streetscape designs adopted pursuant to a specific area plan, the specific area plan standards and guidelines shall prevail. The standards and guidelines in this section are also intended to supplement the street design standards and specifications in this chapter.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 1)).

13.20.930 Definitions.

Bulb-outs: Bulb-outs extend the sidewalk or curb line out into the parking lane of a street to effectively reduce the street width. These measures greatly improve pedestrian crossings by reducing the crossing distance and improving the ability for pedestrians and motorists to see each other. Curb extensions also can help reduce turning speeds at an intersection and provide additional space for curb ramps and/or level sidewalk landings where space is limited. Bulb-outs are only appropriate where on-street parking exists; curb extensions should never reach into travel lanes, bicycle lanes, or shoulders.

Design guidelines: These minimum guidelines or recommendations are intended to guide the design of streets. Where conditions are not specifically addressed in the guidelines, it is the responsibility of the proponent to show that the proposed design solution meets the intent of the most closely related guidelines.

Median: The area of raised paving or planting running down the center of a street, separating the directions of traffic.

Multi-modal circulation: Refers to the circulation systems that involve multiple systems including: pedestrians, bicycles, automobiles, buses and other various forms of transportation found in University Place.

Multi-use paths: An off-road hard-surfaced path, that may be separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier, which has been designated, or designed and designated by the City for public use for human-powered travel or movement.

Paseos: Are private or public pathways that are designated for pedestrian use, and where appropriate can serve as an outdoor space for outdoor dining, public art, retail space and other activities deemed suitable by the City.

Pedestrian refuge: Pedestrian refuges are raised islands with minimum dimensions of four to six feet wide and eight to 12 feet long, which are placed in the center of the roadway separating opposing lanes of traffic. Pedestrian refuge islands are particularly suitable for wide two-way streets with four or more lanes of moving traffic traveling at higher speeds. They are particularly useful to persons with mobility disabilities, very old or very young pedestrians who walk at slower speeds, and persons who are in wheelchairs.

Pedestrian scale: The proportional relationship between an individual and his or her environment.

Right-of-way: The boundary of public ownership of the street. The area between private property lines is generally referred to as the public right-of-way.

Standards: Minimum/maximum requirements based on quantifiable criteria.

Streetscape: The visual character of a street as determined by elements such as structures, access, greenery, open space, view, etc. The scene as may be observed along a public street composed of natural and manmade components, including buildings, paving, planting, street hardware, and miscellaneous structures.

Traffic calming: Refers to various design features and strategies intended to reduce vehicle traffic speeds and volumes on a particular roadway.

Xeriscape: A landscaping method that employs drought-resistant plants native to the region in an effort to conserve resources.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 4)).

Article IX-B. Streetscape Design for Vehicular Zone

13.20.940 Purpose.

A. Design Objective. To create a circulation system that provides for the safe and efficient movement of vehicles and reduces conflict with pedestrians and bicyclists and to provide roadway standards that will help create streets that are inviting, multi-modal public places for vehicular traffic, bicyclists, and pedestrians.

B. The streetscape types and standards are intended to implement desirable and safe neighborhoods and to provide the pedestrian with a sense of safety and accessibility in University Place.

C. UPMC 13.20.950 describes the characteristics of streetscape types allowed in residential neighborhoods in University Place and UPMC 13.20.960 provides standards for the streetscape types.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 2)).

13.20.950 Streetscape types.

The following streetscape types are specific to the applicable street types as defined below:

A. Neighborhood Collector Arterial. Neighborhood collector arterials are two-lane streets that distribute traffic between principal traffic routes and local service streets within neighborhoods. They are capable of a medium to high amount of vehicular traffic while still maintaining a high quality pedestrian environment.

Wherever a neighborhood collector arterial intersects with another street, the intersection should be designed to provide pedestrians with safe passage. Features may include pedestrian bulb-outs, differentiated accent paving or striped paint within the intersection, and pedestrian refuge areas within the medians of arterials.

This streetscape type can be adapted to accommodate bus stops in accordance with City requirements and the specifications of Pierce Transit.

1. Neighborhood collector arterial streets should be paved, with a six-inch vertical cement concrete curb and gutter, a five-and-one-half-foot to eight-foot planted buffer strip, and five-foot cement concrete sidewalk on both sides of the street.

2. The pavement section width may vary depending on whether bicycle lanes or parallel parking are included.

3. Cul-de-sacs are prohibited.

4. The road right-of-way should be a minimum of 60 feet in width. The City may require additional right-of-way width within the pavement section, the buffer strip or beyond the sidewalk when determined necessary by the City Engineer to accommodate parking, traffic signage, larger street trees or other facilities intended to serve the public.

5. A neighborhood collector arterial street shall be a public road.

Figure 13.20.950-1

Neighborhood Collector Arterial

B. Local Feeder Street. Local feeder streets serve as primary access to residential developments from the adjacent street system. They distribute traffic from neighborhood streets and access lanes and channel it to the arterial system. These streets promote multi-modal transportation and create a leisurely pedestrian environment within new and existing neighborhoods in University Place.

Landscape strips and parallel parking provide buffers between the pedestrian environment and vehicular traffic. Local feeder streets are intended to have a more intimate nature than higher level arterial and collector streets in the City. Wherever a local feeder street intersects with another street the intersection should be designed to provide pedestrians with a safe passage. Features may include pedestrian bulb-outs and striped or differentiated accent paving within the intersection.

1. Local feeder streets should be paved, 34 feet wide from inside of curb to inside of curb, with a six-inch vertical cement concrete curb and gutter, an eight-foot planted buffer strip, and five-foot cement concrete sidewalk on both sides of the street.

2. Seven-foot-wide, parallel parking shall be included on both sides of the street.

3. Cul-de-sacs are prohibited.

4. The road right-of-way should be 60 feet in width. The City may require additional right-of-way width within either the buffer strip or beyond the sidewalk when determined necessary by the City Engineer to accommodate traffic signage, larger street trees or other facilities intended to serve the public.

5. A local feeder street shall be a public road.

Figure 13.20.950-2

Local Feeder Street

Figure 13.20.950-2A:

Undesirable: This street does not provide a safe or engaging environment for the pedestrian.

Figure 13.20.950-2B:

Desirable: This street creates an environment that is better suited for the pedestrian creating a landscaped buffer and parallel parking buffer.

Figure 13.20.950-3

Local Feeder Street

C. Neighborhood Street. Neighborhood streets are typically internal subdivision streets providing circulation within the subdivision or between subdivisions. Travel lanes and the overall road section are narrower than the typical local road, contributing to the residential character of the streetscape.

1. Neighborhood streets should be paved, 27 feet wide from inside of curb to inside of curb, with a six-inch vertical cement concrete curb and gutter, an eight-foot planted buffer strip, and five-foot cement concrete sidewalk on both sides of the street.

2. Seven-foot-wide, parallel parking shall be included on one side of the street.

3. Neighborhood streets should not exceed 150 feet in length without an emergency vehicle turn-around or through connection to another road. All portions of the exterior of the first floor of the dwelling units shall not exceed 150 feet from emergency vehicle access.

4. Cul-de-sacs are prohibited on neighborhood streets in small lot developments and discouraged in other locations. A cul-de-sac may be approved in a conventional plat when connectivity with the surrounding neighborhood is achieved. Such cul-de-sacs must include a central green court consistent with the City’s low impact development goals and objectives.

5. The road right-of-way should be 53 feet in width. The City may require additional right-of-way width within either the buffer strip or beyond the sidewalk when determined necessary by the City Engineer to accommodate traffic signage, larger street trees or other facilities intended to serve the public.

6. A neighborhood street shall be a public road.

Figure 13.20.950-4

Neighborhood Street Section

D. Access Lane. Access lanes are designed to accommodate traffic between clusters of dwelling units, most commonly within small lot developments. They are the smallest street sections that serve emergency vehicles. Access lanes with a central green court and auto courtyards are allowed in lieu of cul-de-sacs, which are prohibited.

1. The access lane should be paved, 20 feet wide, with six-inch vertical cement concrete curbs and gutter, and shall not be longer than 150 feet without an emergency vehicle turn-around or through connection to another road.

2. All portions of the exterior of the first floor of the dwelling units shall not exceed 150 feet from emergency vehicle access.

3. The road right-of-way should be a minimum of 40 feet in width. A sidewalk or path may be placed within the 10 feet of right-of-way on either side of the paved roadway.

4. An access lane should be a public road.

5. Parallel parking should not be permitted within an access lane’s constructed roadway. The right-of-way may accommodate perpendicular parking associated with private driveways.

6. An access lane should only intersect with another access lane, neighborhood street or alleyway.

7. At the City’s discretion, pedestrian walkways may be constructed with pervious pavement in order to achieve low impact development goals and objectives.

Figure 13.20.950-5

Access Lane Section

E. Alleys.

1. Alleys are desirable facilities that eliminate the impact of the garage door and driveway apron on the streetscape and eliminate driveway access conflicts on streets with higher traffic volumes or speeds. They enhance the pedestrian orientation of the streetscape, reduce clutter associated with utility facilities and refuse collection, and provide additional flexibility for emergency response providers.

2. The purpose is to promote alleys at appropriate locations, with design quality consistent with existing neighborhood streetscapes and to improve the connectivity of future development in University Place.

Figure 13.20.950-6

Desirable: Front yard without garage or parking apron. Alleys are desirable to eliminate the impact of the garage door and driveway on the streetscape and eliminate access conflict to the street.

3. Alley Design Principles.

a. Alleys may have a straight layout and an unobstructed view from one end to the other when the goal is to provide the easiest access for utilities and services and the most open invitation to pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

b. Alley alignments may be adjusted to create more visual privacy through the use of jogs in the travel lane, doglegs or neck-downs at entrances, and building placement; provided, that utility designs and emergency or service vehicle access are not rendered impractical.

c. Dead-end alleys should not be used except when there are no practical alternatives due to topography or other site constraints.

d. When dead-end alleys are used, they should be less than 150 feet in length.

e. An alley should be a private road. Emergency response vehicles must have access through alleys.

f. Each lot shall provide lighting from either an attached building light fixture or a pedestal lighting fixture that is directed downward or employs control features to avoid spillover into adjacent rear yards and homes.

g. Parking shall not be permitted on either side of the alleyway.

h. Where an alleyway intersects an adjacent right-of-way, the alleyway shall be designed as a residential driveway with continuous curb, gutter, and sidewalk along the neighborhood street or access lane.

i. Pervious pavement is encouraged, and may be required, in order to achieve the City’s low impact development goals and objectives.

Figure 13.20.950-7

Alley

Figure 13.20.950-8

Alley

F. Paseos. Paseos are pedestrian pathways that add a dimension and improve the pedestrian circulation network. Paseos may also provide limited service access during specified periods of the day and to emergency service vehicles. In addition portions of the Paseo may be used for outdoor dining, retail space, patios, art gardens, and related uses. Paseos should have a minimum unobstructed horizontal pedestrian clearance of 12 feet. The total width of the paseo should take into account intended uses and furnishings (such as tables, benches, planter pots, etc.) and provide for 12 feet clear in addition to the space required for the desired uses and furnishings. If a paseo provides more than one pedestrian passageway (such as tables in the middle and pedestrian passage on each side), then one pedestrian passage shall be at least 12 feet clear, and any additional passageways must be a minimum of 10 feet clear.

These types of “streets” are not shown in current land use designations, but would be appropriate to connect uses and activities in a pedestrian orientation without additional public rights-of-way. Paseos can also be incorporated into development areas where unique site constraints or opportunities are present, such as connecting front (street) and rear (alley) activity areas of the commercial block. Paseo street lighting and landscaping should be designed at a pedestrian scale.

Figure 13.20.950-9

Desired: This paseo provide ample landscaping, benches and lampposts, creating a preferable pedestrian environment.

Figure 13.20.950-10

Paseo

G. Multi-Use Paths. Multi-use paths provide low-stress environments for bicycling and walking that are separate from motor vehicle traffic. They can be great places for novice and child bicyclists to try out their bicycling skills prior to taking trips on urban streets. Multi-use paths are frequently in high demand among bicyclists, joggers, in-line skaters, people walking dogs, people with disabilities, and a variety of other users. Systems of multi-use paths in urban and suburban neighborhoods serve as the arterials of the bicycle and pedestrian transportation system. They serve as a complement to and extension of on-street facilities and offer the protection from motor vehicle traffic that many citizens seek when looking to leave their vehicle behind in favor of walking, or using a bike or a skateboard, or other form of non-motorized transportation.

1. Accessible Path Design. Because multi-use paths provide a transportation function, all newly constructed shared-use paths should be built to provide access for people with disabilities. In addition, existing shared-use paths should be improved to enhance access whenever possible. Key issues for accessibility include trail access points, grade, cross-slope, street crossings, curb ramp design, railings, and signage. A single source of access guidance for shared-use trails has not been compiled; however, taken together, the sources above address the essential topics.

a. Surfaces can be paved (asphalt or concrete) or unpaved (crushed stone or aggregate), but should be firm, stable, and slip-resistant.

b. Grades should generally be less than five percent, but can be up to eight percent for short distances, such as 10 feet. Level landings or rest areas should be provided at appropriate intervals on grades steeper than five percent.

c. Cross-slopes for drainage or super elevated curves should be no greater than two percent.

2. Trail Width. Under some conditions, the City may require a dedicated bicycle path and pedestrian path to be separated by a landscaping strip. In such cases, signage shall be provided to illustrate the dedicated bicycle and pedestrian lanes. Where space may be limited or bike and pedestrian traffic is moderate, however, a shared pathway may be acceptable. The recommended paved width for shared two-directional trails is 10 feet; however 12 to 14 feet widths are preferred where heavy traffic is expected.

Figure 13.20.950-11

Multi-Use Path

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 2.1)).

13.20.960 Streetscape type standards.

The following table displays associated standards for each street type.

Table 13.20.960

Streetscape Type Standards 

 

Neighborhood Collector Arterial

Local Feeder Street

Neighborhood Street

Access Lane

Alley

Paseo

Multi-Use Path

Functional Classification:

Collector

Local

Local

Local

Local

Pathway

Pathway

Right-of-Way Width:

60’

60’

53’

40’

20’ – 24’

N/A

N/A

Through Traffic Lanes:

2 Lanes

2 Lanes

2 Lanes

2 Lanes

1 Lane

Emergency Only

Emergency Only

Traffic Lane Width

11’

10’

10’

10’

16’

N/A

N/A

Parking Lanes:

N/A

7' Wide, Parallel (Both sides of street)

7’ Wide. Parallel (One side of street)

Not permitted

Not permitted

N/A

N/A

Sidewalks

6’ (Both sides of street)

5’ (Both sides of street)

5’ (Both sides of street)

Variable walkway requirement

N/A

N/A

N/A

Landscaping/Planter Strip Width (Including Curb)

5.5’ – 8’

8’

8’

10’ (Includes pedestrian walkway)

4’

N/A

N/A

Curb Radius (inside):

10’ – 20’

10’ – 20’

20’

20’

N/A

N/A

N/A

Bike Facilities:

On-street, striped

5’ – 6’ wide

On-street, shared use

On-street, shared use

On-street, shared use

On-street, shared use

N/A

Designated or shared bicycle lane(s)

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 2.2)).

13.20.970 Intersection improvements.

One of the objectives of the streetscape guidelines is to create a pedestrian friendly environment. The following guidelines for the treatment of the intersection will help to integrate the future built form, create a functional and aesthetic neighborhood pedestrian corridor and provide a safe environment.

A. Pedestrian crossings should be striped with a painted crosswalk to provide high visibility for both motorists and pedestrians.

B. Curb extensions or bulb-outs should be provided at the four corners of the intersection as a means of reducing pedestrian travel distance across the intersection, providing additional sidewalk space, providing additional opportunities for streetscape treatments and to slow traffic.

C. Street trees and raised planters should be considered where they will not interfere with pedestrian movement or obstruct sightlines for both motorists and pedestrians.

D. Pedestrian crossings should be integrally designed with the rest of the intersection.

Figure 13.20.970-1

Intersection

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 2.3)).

Article IX-C. Streetscape Design for Pedestrian Zone

13.20.980 Introduction.

A. Design Objective: To provide a higher level of design detail and to promote walkability by improving pedestrian safety, convenience, and comfort. The guidelines focus on improving the attractiveness and effectiveness of the pedestrian network in order to encourage walking as a realistic mode of transportation. They provide design strategies for enhancing the physical safety, comfort, and convenience of the pedestrian environment as well as the aesthetic character and quality of the pedestrian experience.

B. This pedestrian zone article covers the following subcategories:

1. Sidewalks;

2. Curb return radii;

3. Street widths;

4. Street furniture;

5. Bus shelters;

6. Utilities;

7. Medians;

8. Planting strips.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3)).

13.20.990 Sidewalks.

A. The sidewalk is the unifying element that knits University Place together, from the City’s core areas to the adjacent residential neighborhoods that surround it. Providing pedestrian linkages is vital to achieving character and a sense of community. Nicely designed sidewalks that are inviting are principal factors in creating and increasing pedestrian activity. Sidewalks can also aid in decreasing the amount of traffic throughout University Place and providing safe routes for multiple users. Sidewalks can be designed to create a sense of community and social engagement.

B. Guidelines.

1. Dedicate adequate space within the public street right-of-way to support a safe, comfortable, attractive, and robust pedestrian environment.

2. Public sidewalks should provide a direct and continuous pedestrian network that connects neighborhoods to each other with a clear, unobstructed pedestrian pathway that is designed to accommodate the needs of a broad range of users, including the elderly, those with disabilities, and young children.

3. Landscaping of the public sidewalk is encouraged as a means of adding color and visual interest, softening the urban edges, providing shade, and improving air quality. Landscaping generally should be located in the amenity and frontage zones and should not obstruct through pedestrian traffic or access to the street.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3.1)).

13.20.1000 Curb return radii.

A. Curb returns are the curved connection of curbs formed by the intersection of two streets. A curb return’s purpose is to guide vehicles in turning corners and separate vehicular traffic from pedestrian areas at intersection corners. The radius of the curve varies with longer radii used to facilitate the turning of large trucks and buses. Larger radius corners increase the length of pedestrian crosswalks. Special care must be taken in specifying curb return radii so that transportation facilities will be designed to be safe for all users regardless of the mode of travel they chose.

B. Generally, intersections should be designed as compact as practical. This is especially true for small lot developments, which are intended to be pedestrian-oriented in all facets of design while still accommodating the automobile. To help achieve this goal, the smallest practical curb return radii are used to shorten the length of the pedestrian crossing distance, crossing time, exposure to traffic, encourage pedestrian travel and increase safety.

C. According to Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities, issued as a Proposed Recommended Practice by the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) in 2006, a typical minimum curb return radius of 10 to 15 feet should be used where:

1. High pedestrian volumes are present or reasonably anticipated;

2. Volumes of turning vehicles are low;

3. The width of the receiving intersection approach can accommodate a turning passenger vehicle without encroachment into the opposing lane;

4. Passenger vehicles constitute the majority of turning vehicles;

5. Bicycles and parking lanes create additional space to accommodate the “effective” turning radius of vehicles;

6. Low turning speeds are required or desired; and

7. Occasional encroachment of a turning school bus, moving van, fire truck or oversized delivery truck into an opposing lane is acceptable.

D. Per the ITE recommendations, curb radii will need to be larger than 15 feet where:

1. Occasional encroachment of a turning school bus, moving van, fire truck or oversized delivery truck into an opposing lane is not acceptable;

2. Curb extensions are proposed or might be added in the future; and

3. Receiving street does not have parking or bicycle lanes and the receiving lane is less than 12 feet in width.

E. In such cases where a minimum curb return radius larger than 15 feet is proposed, it should be demonstrated that pedestrian safety will not be compromised beyond that which is necessary to accommodate other transportation facility requirements.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3.1)).

13.20.1010 Street widths.

A. Pavement widths on many existing streets adversely affect the visual and neighborhood design character of the area being served. Wide streets are generally at odds with preserving the pedestrian scale and intimate character that contribute to successful residential neighborhoods.

B. Guidelines.

1. Design elements are encouraged to be used to reduce perceived street widths. These elements can include landscaping, street tree placement, medians and street furniture.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3.2)).

13.20.1020 Street furniture.

A. In order to transform the public streetscape from mere transportation facility to vibrant public open space it is important to add facilities and amenities that: allow people to stop and linger, provide services and information, and engage and delight the senses.

B. Providing comfort and convenience for pedestrians is vital to creating vibrant and walkable neighborhoods. The placement and selection of street furniture are keys to ensuring a comfortable environment for pedestrian and visual unity for all areas of University Place. Street furnishings should be chosen in a manner to adapt to the context of the streetscape.

C. Guidelines.

1. Street furniture shall be consistent with established City standards and requirements. It should contribute to the character of development and should not impact adjacent development.

2. Street furniture should be clustered to provide amenity nodes for pedestrians; however placement shall not obstruct the flow of pedestrian traffic. These clusters shall be provided adjacent to neighborhood streets where they may intersect pocket parks, trails, paseos or other off-street amenities.

3. Adequate space should be allocated to accommodate the various types of street furniture and anticipated volumes of users.

4. Graffiti-proof surfaces should be used where feasible.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3.3)).

13.20.1030 Bus shelters.

A. Bus shelters shall be in keeping with the street furniture palette and shall be approved by the providing local transit agency.

B. Guidelines.

1. Bus shelters should be provided at appropriate locations to facilitate transit use by providing places of refuge, especially during periods of rain.

2. Shelter design should also be compatible with the architectural design of the surrounding neighborhood.

3. Transit shelters should be designed to provide protection from sun, wind, and rain; additional amenities, such as real-time arrival information, nighttime lighting, and trash receptacles, should be provided.

4. Transit shelters should be designed to promote transit and energy efficiency by incorporating features such as solar panels, LED lights, etc.

5. Graffiti-proof surfaces should be used where feasible.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3.4)).

13.20.1040 Utilities.

A. Above ground utilities are a common element found within the context of the streetscape. These utilities include power poles and lines, transformers, telecommunication pedestals, traffic signal control panels, etc. Often these utilities are located with little or no regard for the overall aesthetic appearance of the street. While access and maintenance issues are important and not to be overlooked, special design considerations must be taken into account in order to minimize their cumulative negative visual impact on the street.

B. Guidelines.

1. Whenever possible, utilities should be located underground. Where this is not possible utilities shall be located to the side or back of a building where they will be out of view from the street.

2. Utilities shall be screened from view through the use of planting, fencing or architectural screening. The design of the screen or fence should be complementary to the building material and existing fences or screens if located elsewhere on the property.

Figure 13.20.1040-1

Left: Utility box enhanced with landscaping. Above: Utility box hidden by landscaping.

 

3. Ensure that maintenance personnel can access the utility without obstructing the movement of pedestrians or vehicles to other parts of the street or site.

4. The City should explore a combination of options to address the visibility and attractiveness of utility boxes.

5. Landscaping shall not block, impede or hide fire hydrants or fire sprinkler hose connections. Fire hydrants may be aesthetically enhanced provided their accessibility and use is not impeded or compromised.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3.5)).

13.20.1050 Medians.

A. Medians provide many functions for a streetscape. Properly landscaped medians can help to beautify roadways of the City while providing pedestrians a safe refuge during street crossings. Special considerations must be taken when designing and landscaping medians to take into account pedestrian crossings and intersection visibility. Landscape planting shall also take into account the widths and placement of trees to accommodate safe traffic flow on these corridors.

B. Guidelines.

1. Landscaped medians should be implemented on arterial streets consistent with this title to create visual interest, a more intimate roadway scale, and a place for pedestrians to take refuge while crossing wide streets.

2. Where medians are narrowed near intersections, landscaping should be graduated and include the use of small accent trees and groundcover.

3. The use of groundcover or xeriscape concepts at intersections is favored over the extensive use of hardscape.

4. Hardscape should only be used in medians where planting is not feasible due to site-specific constraints such as narrow median width or preservation of a significant view corridor.

5. All landscaping requiring irrigation should be served by an automatic irrigation system, consistent with City Standard Details and Specifications in this title.

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3.6)).

13.20.1060 Streetscape landscaping.

A. Street trees and other landscaping treatments are essential for creating beauty and improving the quality of life in a neighborhood setting. The benefits include: providing shade and cooling effects, providing a sense of enclosure, providing definition and scale to the street, protection from wind, separation from vehicular traffic, and reducing airborne dust and pollutants.

B. Many opportunities exist for street tree planting and other landscaping treatments in the existing neighborhoods of University Place. The most favorable locations are within sidewalks and planting strips to enhance the streetscape environment and within traffic medians to reinforce traffic calming measures.

C. Guidelines. Existing trees within the public right-of-way should be examined for growth characteristics, the health of the tree and suitability of the location. Every effort should be made to protect mature and suitable trees. Considerations for the selection and location of street trees include:

1. The ultimate growth, height and spread of the tree canopy in order to allow for unrestricted growth;

2. The density of the canopy, ultimate shape and branching pattern. Trees will provide varying degrees of shade due to branching habits and size and type of leaf;

3. Access to adequate sunlight and rain water. Considerations of other microclimatic limitations such as reflected light sources from surface pavements and buildings and increased wind load caused by building design should be considered when locating trees either on the street or as part of a site plan development;

4. The location of existing and proposed utilities to allow uninhibited growth without disturbance to the tree crown or root zone;

5. Maintenance requirements of street trees including watering, fertilizing, pruning and repair of damage caused naturally and unnaturally; and

6. Height of the tree canopy to protect sightlines along the street for both motorists and pedestrians.

D. Standards and Guidelines.

1. Planting Strips. Planting strips aid in separating the pedestrian environment from the vehicular environment via street trees and other native plants and flowers. In addition, planting strips also aid in providing shade for pedestrians, help to filter air from adjacent roadways, and can facilitate a social streetscape environment. Landscaping of planting strips shall always take into account visibility at intersections and a safe passage for pedestrian movement.

a. Guidelines.

(1) Landscaping in planting strips shall be adequately maintained and include the installation of an automatic irrigation system consistent with City Standard Details and Specifications in this title.

(2) To provide a landscape separation between street and sidewalk, planting strips should be installed between the back of the curb and the sidewalk.

(3) Planting strips shall be designed to the extent practicable to be wide enough to accommodate medium to large street trees that have a high, broad branching canopy; a continuous streetscape planting strip, exclusive of easements, shall be located in areas adjacent to an existing or proposed public road. The City shall decide on the width of the planting strip in order to balance median and sidewalk widths.

(4) The planting strip shall be located generally parallel to the existing or proposed road and shall not be located in areas identified for road widening, road projects, drainage areas, or other public improvement projects. Minor encroachments in the planting strip by drainage easements may be approved by the City.

(5) Street trees shall be required to be planted within the planting strip with an even, linear spacing. If minor shifts to the linear spacing are required due to the location of existing infrastructure, development or required sight distance, these shifts may be approved by the City.

(6) The use of groundcover or xeriscaping concepts adjacent to intersections is favored over the extensive use of hardscape.

(7) Hardscape should only be used in areas where planting is not feasible due to site-specific constraints such as a narrow median width or preservation of a significant view corridor.

2. Street Trees. Street trees are required on both sides of all newly created, widened, or substantially improved public and private streets to provide shade and to calm traffic.

a. Guidelines.

(1) Trees shall have a minimum caliper of two inches within a development at time of planting unless the City determines that a particular species or cultivar, which is available only in a smaller size, is the preferred selection for a specific location.

(2) Spacing of street trees, on average, shall be 30 feet on center. Wider spacing may be approved for trees having exceptionally broad canopies and narrower spacing may be required for trees having narrow canopy forms.

(3) Street trees shall be high-branching with a canopy that starts at least six to eight feet above finished grade, depending on species or cultivar, and have roots that will not break up sidewalks or roadbeds or invade utility lines. For areas without overhead power lines, tree types shall be planted that will achieve a minimum height of 35 feet at maturity.

(4) Street trees shall be placed so as not to block sight distance or create a safety concern. Generally, trees should be planted at least 10 feet from utility or light poles or fire hydrants, 20 feet from street intersections, and 10 feet from driveways and alleys. The City may authorize irregular spacing to accommodate sight distance requirements for driveways or intersections or to avoid public infrastructure such as street lighting, utility poles or fire hydrants.

(5) Street tree species shall be approved by the City in accordance with the Approved Street Tree Palette in Table 13.20.1060. The use of a variety of street trees within a development is encouraged to increase visual interest and minimize exposure to diseases that could target specific species and cause widespread damage if these species are heavily planted within an area. The City may approve trees not on the Approved Street Tree Palette if a registered landscape architect or certified arborist demonstrates to the satisfaction of the City that the proposed tree species or cultivar will not cause damage to infrastructure or create nuisance conditions.

(6) For access lanes, street trees may be planted on the abutting private lot if the City determines that insufficient space exists within the public right-of-way to accommodate the trees.

3. Approved Street Tree Palette. The street tree palette for street tree selection includes trees selected for their survivability, drought tolerance, native habitat, ease of maintenance, and appearance. The following table is arranged by planting strip width; selections should consider planting strip width and other site characteristics.

DT – Drought tolerant

WWN – Western Washington native

HF – Hard to find

 

T – May need training, multi-stemmed

WCN – West Coast native

Highlighted – Utility Friendly

 

Table 13.20.1060

Approved Street Tree Palette

Tree Name

Size (HxW)

Notable Features

Attributes

Image

For planting strips 4' wide and up:

Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana): WWN, DT

10'x4'

Bluish needles

Not for use on corners

Swamp Magnolia (Magnolia virginiana)

15'x15'

Fragrant flowers

Will take damp soils

Skyrocket Juniper (Juniperus scopulorum 'Skyrocket,' or other upright cultivars): DT

15'x5'

Narrow bluish needles

Evergreen

Vine Maple (Acer circinatum): WWN, T

15'x6'

Yellow-red fall color

Prefers part sun/shade

Amur Maple (Acer ginnala): T

18'x20'

Yellow-red fall color

Easy to transplant

Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica): DT, T

20'x10'

Variety of flower and leaf colors

Prefers hot, sunny and dry

Sentinel Crabapple (Malus ‘Sentinel’)

20’x20’

White fragrant flower

Bright red fruit

Witchhazel (Hamamelis virginiana, H. mollis): T

20’x15’

Fragrant late winter flower

Open airy growth

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Star Magnolia (Magnolia stellata): T

20'x15'

White spring flowers

Slow growth

Butterfly Magnolia (Magnolia ‘butterfly’)

20’x20’

Yellow flowers

Aromatic blooms

Red Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana ‘Canada Red’)

25’x20’

Red foliage

Edible fruit, wildlife attractant

Golden Desert Ash

20’x18’

Golden foliage

Seasonal interest

Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum): DT, HF

25'x20'

Red fall color

White summer flowers

Seasonal interest

Stewartia: (S. koreana, pseudocamellia, monadelpha)

25'x20'

White summer flowers

Winter interest

Amur Maackia (Maackia amurensis)

25’x25’

White summer flower

Peeling bark with maturity

Japanese Tree Lilac (Syringa reticulata)

25'x20'

White fragrant flowers

Winter fruit

Dogwoods: (Cornus 'Milky Way,' 'Stellar Pink,' 'Cherokee Brave,' and 'Celestial,' 'C. kousa')

25'x25'

White spring flowers

Choose disease resistant varieties

Japanese Snowbell (Styrax japonicus)

25'x25'

White summer flowers

Winter interest

Redbuds (Cercis canadensis, C. siliquastrum)

25'x30'

Dark pink spring flowers

Airy form

Rounded shape

Trident Maple (Acer buergeranum)

28'x28'

Yellow-red fall color

Bronze-purple new leaves

Rounded shape

Kobus Magnolia (Magnolia kobus): DT

35'x15'

White spring flowers

Often multi-stemmed

Incense Cedar (Calocedrus decurrens): WCN, DT

40’x15’

Dense foliage with cones

Evergreen

Slow-medium growth

Honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos 'Inermis'): DT

50’x40’

Open form

Fast growth

Can have disease issues

Zelkova (Zelkova serrata): DT

65’x40’

Red fall color

Urban tolerant

Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara): DT

70’x30’

Graceful, pendulous branches

Evergreen

Tough tree

For planting strips 6' wide and up:

Japanese Maple (Acer palmatum)

20'x20'

Variable fall color

Slow-medium growth

Paperbark Maple (Acer griseum)

25'x14'

Red fall color

Exfoliating bark

American Smoke Tree (Cotinus obovatus): DT, HF

25'x20'

Variable fall color

Airy-textured flowers

Rounded shape

Umbrella Pine (Sciadopitys verticillata)

25'x20'

Handsome conifer

Evergreen

Dove Tree (Davidia involucrata, aka Handkerchief Tree)

20’x20’

Large white flowers

Bracts (flowers) hang like handkerchiefs

Katsura (Cercidyphyllum japonicum)

50'x30'

Red-purple/blue green leaves

Apricot fall color

Dense foliage

Alaska Yellow Cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis): WCN

35'x12'

Weeping cultivars exist

Evergreen

Japanese White Pine (Pinus parviflora)

40’x30’

Bluish needles

Nice form

Evergreen

Carolina Silverbell (Halesia tetraptera): HF

35'x30'

White spring flowers

Can take semi-shade

Golden Rain Tree (Koelrueteria paniculata)

35'x30'

Yellow summer flower

New growth pink

Ornamental seed pods

Evergreen Magnolia (Magnolia grandifolia)

40'x35'

White summer flowers

Evergreen

Black Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica): HF

40'x35'

Yellow-red fall color

Best for residential areas

Hinoki Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa)

50'x15'

Fern-like branches

Excellent foliage

Evergreen

Can be wind sensitive

Sawara False Cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera)

50'x15'

Wide range of foliage colors and textures

Evergreen

Many cultivars available

Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum): DT

50’x15’

Deciduous conifer

Adaptable to many soils

Cork Oak (Quercus suber)

60'x25'

Great rugged bark

Evergreen

Oaks: Pin, Red, Scarlet, and Willow (Quercus rubra, Q. coccinea, Q. phellos)

70’x40’

Yellow-red fall color

Great street trees

Athena elm (Ulmus parvifolia)

30'x35'

Yellow fall color

Outstanding bark

Disease resistant

For planting strips 8' wide and up:

Carriere Hawthorn (Crataegus x lavallei)

20'x15'

White spring flowers

Wildlife attractant

Thornless Cockspur Hawthorn (Crataegus crusgalli var. inermis)

25'x25'

Red-purple fall color

Wildlife attractant – red fruit

Can have disease issues

Winter King Hawthorn (Crataegus viridis 'Winter King')

25'x25'

Yellow fall color

Sharp thorns

Blue Ice Smooth Arizona Cypress (Cupressus arizonica var. glabra 'Blue Ice'): DT

30'x15'

Blue foliage

Evergreen

Prefers hot, sunny and dry

Shore Pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta): WCN, DT

30'x15'

Irregular shape

Evergreen

Native to shore areas

Pacific/Norwegian Sunset Maples (Acer 'Pacific Sunset' / 'Norwegian Sunset')

30'x15'

Red-yellow fall colors

Moderate to fast growth

Persian Ironwood (Parrotia persica): DT

30'x15'

Yellow fall colors

Flaky bark with age

Silk Tree (Albizzia julibrissin)

30'x30'

Pink fragrant flowers

Seeds easily

Saucer Magnolia (Magnolia x soulangiana)

30'x30'

Pink spring flowers

Multi-stemmed

Pillar Crabapple (Malus tschonoskii)

35'x30'

Great fall color

Wildlife attractant – berries

Jacquemont Birch (Betula utilis var. jacquemontii)

35’x30’

Yellow fall color

Winter interest

Italian Alder (Alnus cordata): DT

40'x30'

Yellow-brown fall color

Pyramidal shape

Golden Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia'): DT

40'x30'

Golden foliage

Fast growth

Swedish Whitebeam (Sorbus aria)

40'x30'

White spring flowers

Wildlife attractant – red fruit

Fruitless Mulberry (Morus - Fruitless Cultivars)

40'x40'

Yellow-green to dark green foliage

Fast growth

Antarctic Beech (Nothofagus antartica): DT, HF

45'x25'

Yellow fall color

Attractive bark

Swamp White Oak (Quercus bicolor)

45’x25’

 

Well adapted to wet soils

Serbian Spruce (Picea omorika)

50'x25'

Light green to blue-green foliage

Evergreen

Graceful form

Great street tre

Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis): HF

50'x25'

Short needles – fine texture

Evergreen

Oregon Myrtle (Umbellularia californica): DT, WCN

50'x25'

Aromatic leaves

Evergreen native to OR and CA

Lawson Cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana): DT, WCN

50'x35'

Yellow fall color

Great winter interest

Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis): DT

50'x40'

Purple berries

Wildlife attractant

Chinese Paper Birch (Albo-sinensis)

50’x40’

Yellow fall color

Great winter interest

Paper-Bark Birch (Betula papyrifera)

60’x30’

Yellow fall color

Great winter interest

River Birch (Betula nigra):

55'x50'

Yellow fall color

Great winter interest

Spanish Fir (Abies pinsapo): DT, HF

60’x30’

Pale blue-green foliage

Evergreen

Pagoda Tree (Sophora japonica): HF

60'x40'

White summer flower

Great street tree

Ginkgo/Maidenhair Tree (Gingko biloba)

70'x40'

Yellow fall color

Urban tolerant

For planting strips 10' wide and up:

Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo): DT, WCN

20'x20'

Tannenbaum is single-stem variety

Evergreen

Growth size is extremely variable

Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas): T

25'x20'

Fragrant yellow flower

Suckering may occur

Hedge Maple (Acer campestre)

28'x28'

Yellow fall color

Slow growth

Japanese Plume Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica 'Elegans')

30'x10'

Green foliage changes to bronze in winter

Evergreen

Fluffy and airy foliage

Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus)

45'x45'

Green spring flowers

Flaky bark

Shade tree

Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)

50'x40'

Yellow fall color

Shade tree

Red Maple (Acer rubrum)

50'x40'

Yellow-red fall color

Silvery underside leaves

Adaptable to variety of conditions

Shingle Oak (Quercus imbricaria): HF

55'x50'

Yellow-red fall color

Slow-medium growth

Norway Spruce (Picea abies)

60'x30'

Dark green needles

Evergreen

Can have insect problems

Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana): WWN

60’x40’

Abundant acorns

Native to Western WA

Wildlife attractant

Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)

60'x40'

Yellow fall color

Shade tree

Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata): WWN, DT

70’x20’

Beautiful form and foliage

Evergreen

Prefers moist soils

Dawn Redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides)

70'x25'

Deciduous conifer

Needs little pruning

(Ord. 559 § 7 (Exh. B § 3.7)).