Chapter 18.55
OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING REGULATIONS

Sections:

18.55.010    Specific purposes.

18.55.020    General requirements for off-street parking and loading.

18.55.030    Off-street parking and loading spaces required.

18.55.040    Shared parking facilities.

18.55.050    Reduced parking for single uses.

18.55.060    Parking spaces for the disabled.

18.55.070    Electric vehicle (EV), bicycle and motorcycle parking.

18.55.080    Parking space dimensions.

18.55.090    Application of dimensional requirements.

18.55.100    Aisle and parking space dimensions and circulation.

18.55.110    Parking access from street.

18.55.120    Driveway widths and clearance.

18.55.130    Driveways – Visibility.

18.55.140    Parking area screening, lighting and landscaping.

18.55.150    Driveways, garages and carport design and location in R districts.

18.55.160    Additional design standards for parking lots and structures.

18.55.170    Location and design of off-street loading spaces.

18.55.180    Parking reductions allowed within priority development and transit uses.

18.55.190    Minor adjustments to parking design standards.

18.55.010 Specific purposes.

In addition to the general purposes listed in PHMC § 18.05.020, the specific purposes of the off-street parking and loading regulations are to:

A. Ensure that off-street parking and loading facilities are provided for new land uses and for major alterations and enlargements of existing uses in proportion to the need for such facilities created by each use.

B. Establish parking standards for commercial uses consistent with need and with the feasibility of providing parking on specific commercial sites.

C. Ensure that off-street parking and loading facilities are designed in a manner that will ensure efficiency, protect the public safety, and, where appropriate, insulate surrounding land uses from adverse impacts. (Ord. 710 § 35-17.1, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.1)

18.55.020 General requirements for off-street parking and loading.

A. When required. At the time of initial occupancy of a site, construction of a structure, or major alteration or enlargement of a site or structure, off-street parking facilities and off-street loading facilities shall be provided in accord with the regulations prescribed in this section. For the purposes of these requirements, major alteration or enlargement means a change of use or an addition that would increase the number of parking spaces or loading berths required by 10% or more of the total number required before the alteration or enlargement. A change in occupancy is not considered a change in use unless the new occupant is in a different use classification than the former occupant (e.g., retail vs. office). For any alteration or enlargement of a parking or loading facility that does not increase the number of parking spaces or loading berths by 10%, the altered or enlarged portion of the parking or loading facility shall be required to comply with this section.

B. Nonconforming parking or loading. No existing use of land or structure shall be deemed to be nonconforming solely because of the lack of off-street parking or loading facilities required by this section; provided, that facilities being used for off-street parking and loading as of the date of adoption of this chapter shall not be reduced in number to less than that required by this section.

C. Spaces required for alteration or enlargement. The number of parking spaces or loading berths required for an alteration or enlargement of an existing use or structure, or for a change of occupancy, shall be in addition to the number of spaces or berths existing before the alteration, enlargement, or change of occupancy unless the preexisting number is greater than the number prescribed in this section. In this case, the number of spaces or berths in excess of the prescribed minimum shall be counted in determining the required number of spaces or berths.

D. Spaces required for multiple uses. If more than one use is located on a site, the number of off-street parking spaces and loading berths to be provided shall be equal to the sum of the requirements prescribed for each use, except in shopping centers where the standards in Schedule 18.55.030A apply (one space per 250 square feet).

E. Shared parking. Off-street parking and loading facilities required by this section for any use shall not be considered as providing parking spaces or loading berths for any other use except where the provisions of PHMC § 18.55.040, Shared parking facilities, apply or a joint facility exists.

F. Location and ownership. Parking required to serve a residential use shall be on the same site as the residence served. Parking required to serve a nonresidential use may be on a different site under the same or different ownership as the use served; the distance of parking from the use served shall be subject to review and approval by the planning commission.

G. Common loading facilities. The off-street loading facilities requirements of this section may be satisfied by the permanent allocation of the prescribed number of berths for each use in a common truck loading facility; provided, that the total number of berths shall not be less than the sum of the individual requirements. As a requirement of approval, a signed copy of a contract between the parties concerned setting forth an agreement to joint use of the common truck loading facility shall be filed with the application for a zoning permit. The city may record the contract. If the gross floor area of individual uses on the same site is less than that for which a loading berth would be required by Schedule 18.55.030B, but the aggregate gross floor area of all uses is greater than the minimum for which a loading berth would be required, the aggregate gross floor area shall be used in determining the required number of loading berths.

H. Computation of spaces required. If, in the application of the requirements of this section, a fractional number is obtained, one parking space or loading berth shall be required for a fraction of more than one-half, and no space or berth shall be required for a fraction of one-half or less.

I. Land banking. The planning commission may allow a portion of the required parking improvements to be deferred upon finding that all of the spaces are not needed immediately. (Ord. 890 § 30, 2015; Ord. 856 § 2 (Exh. A), 2011; Ord. 710 § 35-17.2, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.2)

18.55.030 Off-street parking and loading spaces required.

Off-street parking and loading spaces shall be provided in accord with Schedules 18.55.030A and 18.55.030B. A limit on the number of parking spaces permitted for office uses is established to encourage carpooling and vanpooling, reduce traffic congestion, conserve energy and provide air quality benefits. For off-street loading, Schedule 18.55.030B sets space requirements and standards for different groups of use classifications and sizes of buildings, which correspond with group numbers shown in the “Off-Street Loading Spaces” column in Schedule 18.55.030A. References to spaces per square foot are to be computed on the basis of gross floor area unless otherwise specified, and shall include allocations of shared restroom, halls and lobby area, but shall exclude area for vertical circulation, stairs or elevators.

Where the use is undetermined, and/or if a use requires approval of a conditional use permit, the zoning administrator shall determine the probable use and the number of parking and loading spaces required, based on the operational characteristics of the proposed use. This may result in more off-street parking spaces being required than specified in Schedule 18.55.030A. In order to make this determination, the zoning administrator may require the submission of survey data or other applicable studies from the applicant or prepared at the applicant’s expense.

SCHEDULE 18.55.030A

OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING SPACES REQUIRED 

Use Classification

Off-Street Parking Spaces

Off-Street Loading Spaces: Schedule 18.55.030B Group Number

Residential

Accessory dwelling unit

See PHMC § 18.20.100.

 

Bed and breakfast

1 per guest bedroom, plus 2 for the primary dwelling unit.

 

Care facility, small, licensed

Same as single-family residential.

 

Care facility, small, unlicensed

As specified by use permit.

 

Emergency homeless shelter

Within the LI zone district, 1 space per 750 sq. ft. of gross floor area plus 1 space for every 2 employees, and 1 additional space for every facility vehicle. Within other zone districts, parking shall be as specified by use permit.

 

Family day care home, large

1 per 6 children.

 

Family day care home, small

1 per 6 children.

 

Group residential

1 per sleeping room plus 1 per 100 sq. ft. used for assembly purposes or common sleeping areas.

 

Multifamily residential

1.5 per studio or 1-bedroom unit of which 1 must be covered or 2 spaces per 2-bedroom or larger unit of which 1 must be covered; plus 1 guest parking space for every 2 units.

 

Multifamily senior

1 for each 2.5 units.

 

Single-family residential

For new construction, 2 spaces per dwelling unit both of which must be fully enclosed.

 

Single-room occupancy

Same as group residential.

 

 

 

 

Public and Semipublic

Care facility, large, licensed or unlicensed

1 per 3 beds, plus 1 for each employee during peak hours of operation, plus 1 visitor parking space per 4 residents unless otherwise specified by use permit (see PHMC § 18.55.030).

3

Clubs and lodges

1 per 100 sq. ft. used for assembly purposes.

3

Cultural institutions

1 per 300 sq. ft. gross floor area.

3

Day care, general

1 per 6 children; maximum enrollment based on maximum occupancy load.

 

Emergency medical care

1 per 200 sq. ft.

 

Government offices

1 per 250 sq. ft.

2

Maintenance and service facilities

1 per 500 sq. ft., plus 1 per 500 sq. ft. of outdoor storage area.

1

Park and recreation facilities

As specified by zoning permit or use permit for private facilities.

 

Public safety facilities

As specified by use permit.

3

Offender rehabilitation services

As specified by use permit.

 

Religious assembly

1 per 4 fixed seats, or 1 per 50 sq. ft. of seating area if there are no fixed seats.

 

Schools, public or private

1 for each employee; plus 1 for every 100 sq. ft. of classroom.

1

Utilities, major

As specified by use permit.

1

 

 

Commercial

Adult businesses

1 per 250 sq. ft.

1

Ambulance services

1 per 500 sq. ft., plus 2 storage spaces.

1

Animal sales and services:

 

 

Animal boarding or grooming; animal hospital

1 per 400 sq. ft.

1

Animal day care

1 per 400 sq. ft. of indoor space

 

Animals, retail sales

1 per 250 sq. ft.

1

Riding academies

As specified by the zoning administrator.

 

Artists’ studios

1 per 1,000 sq. ft.

1

Automobile maintenance, limited

2 per service bay plus queue for 2 cars per bay.

 

Automobile service stations

3 per service bay plus 1 per each employee.

 

Automobile, vehicle/equipment broker

1 per 300 sq. ft., but not to exceed 1 per 250 sq. ft.

2

Automobile, vehicle/equipment repair

4 per service bay or 1 per 225 sq. ft., whichever is greater.

 

Automobile, vehicle/equipment sales and rentals

1 per 250 sq. ft. of office and ancillary meeting spaces; plus 1 per 1,000 sq. ft. of indoor product sales and display areas; plus 1 per 1,000 sq. ft. of outdoor sales and product display areas; plus 2 spaces per service bay for any accessory service, repair and maintenance facilities. Parking lot design standards (PHMC §§ 18.55.080 through 18.55.170) shall apply to employee and customer parking and loading areas only.

1

Automobile, vehicle/equipment wholesaler

1 per 400 sq. ft.

1

Automobile washing

1 per 200 sq. ft. of sales, office, or lounge area; plus queue for 5 cars per washing station.

 

Banks and savings and loans

1 per 200 sq. ft.

2

Drive-up service

Queue space for 5 cars per teller.

 

Building materials and services

1 per 400 sq. ft.; plus 1 per 500 sq. ft. of outdoor storage area.

1

Catering services

1 per 400 sq. ft.

1

SCHEDULE 18.55.030A

OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING SPACES REQUIRED 

Use Classification

Off-Street Parking Spaces

Off-Street Loading Spaces: Schedule 18.55.030B Group Number

Commercial recreation and entertainment:

 

 

Bowling alleys

6 per lane.

1

Electronic game centers

1 per 400 sq. ft.

 

Skating rinks

1 per 5 fixed seats, or 1 per 35 sq. ft. seating area if there are no fixed seats; plus 1 per 250 sq. ft. floor area not used for seating.

 

Billiards/pool tables

2 per table, 1 per employee.

 

Tennis and racquetball clubs

4 per court.

1

Other commercial recreation

As specified by the zoning administrator.

 

Communications facilities

1 per 500 sq. ft.

2

Eating and drinking

1 per 100 sq. ft. gross area; plus queue space as determined by the zoning administrator for drive-through service.

 

For uses with take-out service only

1 per 50 sq. ft. gross area; plus queue space as determined by the zoning administrator for drive-through service.

1

With outdoor seating

No additional spaces for the first 12 seats; 1 additional per 3 seats for more than 12 seats except within the Downtown Specific Plan area where parking requirements for outdoor seating shall be as specified by the zoning administrator or planning commission.

 

Equipment and appliance maintenance and repair services

1 per 400 sq. ft.; plus 1 per 500 sq. ft. of outdoor storage area.

1

Fitness studio

1 per 250 sq. ft.

 

Food and beverage sales

1 per 250 sq. ft.

1

Funeral and interment services

1 per 50 sq. ft. seating area.

1

Horticulture, limited

1 per 2 acres.

 

Hotels

1 per guest room plus 1 per 50 sq. ft. banquet seating area.

 

Laboratories (general)

1 per 500 sq. ft.

1

Laboratories (medical and dental)

1 per 200 sq. ft.

1

Live entertainment (all types except karaoke)

As specified by the zoning administrator.

 

Karaoke

1 per 4 karaoke seats, 1 per employee.

 

Maintenance services establishments

1 per 500 sq. ft.

1

Motels

1 per guest room.

 

Nurseries

1 per 500 sq. ft. of outside display lathe house area, plus 1 per 250 sq. ft. gross floor area.

 

Offices, general

1 per 300 sq. ft. but not to exceed 1 per 250 sq. ft.

2

Offices, medical and dental

1 per 200 sq. ft.

 

Pawn shops

1 per 250 sq. ft.

1

Personal improvement services

1 per 250 sq. ft.

 

Dance or music studio

1 per 600 sq. ft.

 

Personal services

1 per 250 sq. ft.

1

Pharmacy

1 per 250 sq. ft.

 

Non-retail/wholesale

1 per employee.

 

Research and development services

1 per 400 sq. ft.

 

Retail sales not listed under another use classification

1 per 250 sq. ft.

1

Furniture/appliance stores, household equipment store

1 per 400 sq. ft.

1

Shopping centers

1 per 250 sq. ft.

1

Theaters

1 per 4 fixed seats, or 1 per 40 sq. ft. seating area if there are no fixed seats.

1

Vehicle storage facilities

1 per 500 sq. ft. (in addition to parking for the vehicles stored on site as part of this use).

 

Travel services

1 per 300 sq. ft.

 

 

 

 

Industrial

Fuel storage and distribution

As specified by the use permit.

 

Industry, custom and general

1 per 1,000 sq. ft.

 

Industry, limited

1 per 750 sq. ft.

 

Industry, research and development

1 per 500 sq. ft.

 

Wholesale distribution and storage

1 per 800 sq. ft.

1

SCHEDULE 18.55.030B

OFF-STREET LOADING SPACES REQUIRED

 

Number of Spaces Required

Gross Floor Area (sq. ft.)

10' x 20' x 10'

12' x 25' x 14'

Use Classification Group 1

0 to 3,000

0

0

3,001 to 15,000

1

0

15,001 to 50,000

2

0

50,001 and over

3

0

 

 

 

Use Classification Group 2

0 to 10,000

1

0

10,001 to 20,000

1

1

20,001 and over

1

1

 

 

 

Use Classification Group 3

 

 

0 to 30,000

0

1

30,001 to 100,000

0

2

100,000 and over

0

3

 

 

 

(Ord. 915 § 12, 2017; Ord. 902 § 8, 2016; Ord. 890 § 31, 2015; Ord. 874 § 6, 2013; Ord. 867 § 7, 2012; Ord. 865 § 6, 2012; Ord. 856 § 2 (Exh. A), 2011; Ord. 710 § 35-17.4, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.4)

18.55.040 Shared parking facilities.

A. Use permit for shared parking facilities. A use permit may be approved for shared parking facilities serving more than one use on a site or serving more than one property (see PHMC Chapter 18.95). A use permit for shared off-street parking may allow a reduction of the total number of spaces required by this section if the findings in subsection B of this section are made. No use shall be continued if the on-site or off-site parking is removed unless substitute parking facilities are provided.

The maximum allowable reduction in the number of spaces to be provided shall be reviewed and approved through a use permit. An applicant for a use permit for shared parking may be required to submit survey data substantiating a request for reduced parking requirements. A use permit for shared parking shall describe the limits of any area subject to reduced parking requirements and the reduction applicable to each use.

B. Findings required. A use permit for shared off-street parking may allow a reduction of the total number of spaces required by this section if the following findings are made:

1. The spaces to be provided will be available as long as the uses requiring the spaces are in operation;

2. The peak hours of parking demand from all uses do not coincide so that peak demand is greater than the parking provided;

3. The adequacy of the quantity and efficiency of parking provided will equal or exceed the level that can be expected if collective parking is not provided; and

4. A written agreement exists between the landowner(s) and the city, in a form satisfactory to the city attorney, that includes:

a. A guarantee that there will be no substantial alteration in the uses that will create a greater demand for parking;

b. A guarantee among the landowner(s) for access to and use of the shared parking facilities in perpetuity. However, if the landowner providing the shared parking facility is a public agency, then the minimum required time period for the agreement shall be as established by mutual consent of the city and the applicable public agency;

c. A provision that the city may require parking facilities in addition to those originally approved upon a finding by the planning commission that adequate parking to serve the use(s) has not been provided;

d. A provision stating that: (i) the planning commission may for due cause and upon notice and hearing, unilaterally terminate the agreement at any time; (ii) the zoning administrator may terminate the agreement upon finding that substitute parking facilities meeting the requirements of this section are provided; and

e. A provision that the agreement will be recorded in the county recorder’s office upon issuance of the use permit. (Ord. 890 § 32, 2015; Ord. 856 § 2 (Exh. A), 2011; Ord. 710 § 35-17.6, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.6)

18.55.050 Reduced parking for single uses.

The planning commission may approve a use permit reducing the number of spaces to less than the number specified in the Schedules 18.55.030A or 18.55.030B; provided, that the following findings are made:

A. The parking demand will be less than the requirement in the schedules; and

B. The probable long-term occupancy of the building or structure, based on its design, will not generate additional parking demand.

In reaching a decision, the planning commission shall consider survey data submitted by an applicant or collected at the applicant’s request and expense. The use permit issued pursuant to this section shall be recorded in the county recorder’s office. (Ord. 710 § 35-17.8, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.8)

18.55.060 Parking spaces for the disabled.

All parking facilities shall comply with the requirements of the California Code of Regulations (Chapter 24, Part 2, Division 2-71) and with the sign requirements of California Vehicle Code section 22507.8. Parking lot modifications required to comply with these requirements shall be allowed, including reduction in required parking spaces or modification to provisions contained in this chapter, subject to review and approval of the city engineer and zoning administrator. (Ord. 890 § 33, 2015; Ord. 710 § 35-17.10, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.10)

18.55.070 Electric vehicle (EV), bicycle and motorcycle parking.

A. Electric vehicle (EV) parking – Number required.

1. Commercial use classifications. New development shall provide a minimum of one EV parking space (including charging facility) when the parking lot has 25 to 50 parking spaces, and one additional EV parking space (including charging facility) for every 50 additional spaces. Existing parking lots that are modified and subject to the provisions of PHMC § 18.55.020.A shall also be required to comply with this section.

2. All other use classifications: as specified by architectural review, use or development plan permit.

B. Bicycle parking – Where required. Bicycle parking spaces shall be provided in every nonresidential district as required by this section.

C. Bicycle parking – Number required.

1. Public and semipublic use classifications: as specified by use permit.

2. Commercial use classifications. Each development shall provide at least one bicycle space plus the equivalent of 2% of the requirement for automobile parking spaces.

D. Bicycle parking design requirements. For each bicycle parking space required, a stationary object shall be provided to which a user can secure both wheels and the frame of a bicycle with a six-foot cable and lock. The stationary object may be either a freestanding bicycle rack or a wall-mounted bracket. The following alternative facilities may be provided, subject to approval of the zoning administrator:

1. An enclosed bicycle locker; or

2. A three-point bicycle rack which secures both wheels and the frame; or

3. A fenced, covered, locked or guarded bicycle storage area. Spacing of the bicycle units shall be figured on a handle width of three feet, a distance from bottom of wheel to top of handlebar, three feet, six inches, and a maximum wheel distance of six feet.

E. Motorcycle parking spaces. A commercial, office or industrial use having more than 10,000 square feet is required to designate at least one standard parking space as motorcycle parking. The designated spaces’ entrance shall be a concrete piece at least 36 inches long and affixed to a foundation by epoxy cement. The wheel stops shall have a two-foot separation to provide access from the aisle or driveway. (Ord. 906 § 11, 2016; Ord. 710 § 35-17.12, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.12)

18.55.080 Parking space dimensions.

Required parking spaces shall have unobstructed access to the nearest driveway, thus, no tandem, mechanical lift, or other similar parking configuration is allowed to satisfy parking requirements. In addition, required parking spaces shall have the following minimum dimensions:

Use

Type of Space

Width x Length in Feet

Large Car

Small Car

Residential

Spaces in a garage or carport

See PHMC § 18.55.150

 

Uncovered

8.5 x 19

8.5 x 16

Nonresidential

Perpendicular

8.5 x 19

8.5 x 16

All

Parallel spaces

9 x 23

9 x 20

(Ord. 906 § 10, 2016; Ord. 710 § 35-17.14, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.14)

18.55.090 Application of dimensional requirements.

A. In general. For residential use, all required resident spaces and at least 50% of guest spaces shall be large-car spaces. For nonresidential use, up to 50% of the required spaces may be small-car spaces. Small-car spaces shall be clearly marked.

B. Relation to aisles.

1. Each parking space adjoining a wall, column, or other obstruction higher than 0.5 feet shall be increased by two feet on each obstructed side; provided, that the increase may be reduced by 0.25 feet for each one foot of unobstructed distance from the edge of a required aisle, measured parallel to the depth of the parking space.

2. At the end of a parking bay, an aisle providing access to a parking space perpendicular to the aisle shall extend two feet beyond the required width of the parking space.

(B) PARKING SPACES ADJOINING AN OBSTRUCTION

(The diagram is illustrative)

C. Vertical clearance. Vertical clearance for parking spaces shall be seven feet, except that an entrance may be 6.67 feet, and the front five feet of a parking space serving a residential use may be 4.5 feet.

D. Wheel stops. All spaces shall have wheel stops 2.5 feet from a fence, curb, wall, or landscaped walkway. When a parking space abuts a landscaped planter of less than six inches high, the front two feet of the required length for a parking space may extend into the planter. (Ord. 710 § 35-17.16, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.16)

18.55.100 Aisle and parking space dimensions and circulation.

A. Aisle and parking space dimensions. Aisle widths adjoining parking spaces and parking stalls shall be pursuant to Schedule 18.55.100, Minimum Parking Dimensions, below:

PARKING FACILITY DIMENSIONS DIAGRAM

SCHEDULE 18.55.100

MINIMUM PARKING DIMENSIONS

Angle of Parking

 

Parallel

20°

30°

40°

45°

50°

60°

70°

80°

90°

A.

Curb length per car

All

200′′

2210′′

162′′

12 8′′

11 6′′

10 9′′

9 7′′

8 10′′

8 7′′

8 6′′

B.

Stall depth

Small

86 ′′

12 6′′

14 6′′

16 0′′

16 8′′

17 0′′

17 7′′

17 7′′

17 1′′

16 0′′

Large

9 0′′

15 0′′

17 4′′

19 2′′

1910′′

20 5′′

210′′

21 0′′

20 5′′

19 0′′

C.

Aisle width

All

12 6′′

12 0′′

12 0′′

12 0′′

13 0′′

15 0′′

18 0′′

20 0′′

25 0′′

25 0′′

D.

Depth of two stalls

Small

18 0′′

22 6′′

264′′

28 1′′

31 3′′

31 5′′

32 8′′

32 10′′

32 0′′

Large

21 5′′

26 10′′

31 4′′

33 2′′

34 11′′

37 5′′

38 9′′

39 0′′

38 0′′

E.

Depth of two stalls plus aisle

Small

27 0′′

36 0′′

400′′

44 0′′

46 4′′

49 0′′

53 2′′

54 2′′

58 2′′

56 0′′

Large

30 0′′

42 0′′

46 8′′

50 4′′

53 8′′

55 10′′

60 0′′

62 0′′

65 8′′

63 0′′

B. Circulation.

1. Within a parking lot, circulation must be such that a car entering the parking lot need not enter the street to reach another aisle and that a car shall not enter a public street backwards. No backing into streets is permitted except for a single-family detached residence or a duplex residence where each unit is served by an individual driveway.

2. Each preschool or day care center, private educational, institutional, or public recreational land use located in an R district, or a commercial recreational facility shall include a drop-off area that may be adjacent to a primary access or aisle. Minimum widths for such areas combined with accesses are 12 feet for one-way traffic and 25 feet for two-way traffic.

3. Within a parking lot, a pedestrian walkway shall be provided for every four parking aisles. (Ord. 710 § 35-17.18, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.18)

18.55.110 Parking access from street.

A. Property with less than 200 feet of frontage on an arterial street is limited to one driveway. Property with 200 feet or more of frontage is limited to two driveways. Joint use of driveways with adjacent property may be required in all cases to reduce the total number of driveways along arterial streets, improve the flow of traffic and lower accident potential.

B. All spaces in a parking facility shall be accessible without reentering a public right-of-way unless it is physically impossible to provide for such access. An alley may be used as maneuvering space for access to off-street parking.

C. Where an area used for off-street parking does not abut a public street, there shall be provided an access drive not less than 20 feet in width for two-way traffic, connecting the off-street parking area with a public street. The access drive shall be paved in the manner required for off-street parking lots and may not traverse property in an R district unless the drive provides access to a parking area serving a use in an R district.

D. A dead-end access or service driveway with a length of 150 feet or greater shall provide a turnaround consisting of at least one specifically designated parking space, or an equivalent alternative, as determined by the zoning administrator.

E. Entrances and exits are subject to the approval of the city engineer.

F. An entrance to a parking area accommodating more than 25 automobiles shall include a landscaped median strip. The design of the strip is subject to approval by the planning commission and the architectural review commission. The strip shall be located to eliminate possible cross-traffic within the parking area within 50 feet of the public right-of-way. An applicant may request zoning administrator, architectural review commission or planning commission approval modifying this requirement based on the size of the parking area, the circulation plan, and sight and safety considerations. (Ord. 906 § 12, 2016; Ord. 710 § 35-17.20, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.20)

18.55.120 Driveway widths and clearance.

A driveway shall have the following minimum width at the gutterline, plus a minimum of one foot additional clearance on each side of a vertical obstruction exceeding 0.5 foot in height.

A. Serving a single-family or duplex use: Up to three required parking spaces – 10 feet minimum driveway.

B. Serving a multifamily or single-family residential use: four or more required parking spaces – 12 feet one-way or 20 feet two-way minimum driveway.

C. Serving a nonresidential use: 24 or fewer spaces (12 feet one-way, 20 feet two-way); 25 or more spaces (15 feet one-way, 26 feet two-way).

The zoning administrator in consultation with the city engineer may require driveways in excess of the above widths where unusual traffic, grade or site conditions prevail. The zoning administrator also may require driveways to be constructed with full curb returns and handicapped ramps as opposed to simple curb depression. Driveways serving the same parking facility shall be located at least 35 feet apart. (Ord. 710 § 35-17.22, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.22)

18.55.130 Driveways – Visibility.

The driveway visibility triangle for each side of the driveway shall be determined by measuring 15 feet (20 feet for non-single-family uses) along the front property line, away from the driveway, beginning at the intersection of the driveway with the front property line, and measuring 15 feet (20 feet for non-single-family uses) along the driveway beginning at the intersection of the driveway with the front property line. The triangular area formed by connecting the outer points of each line across the intervening property is the visibility triangle and shall not be blocked above a height of two and one-half feet or greater above the top of the curb, or three feet with no curb, to a height of seven feet.

For lots which are not flat, are irregularly shaped, or are adjacent to a collector street, arterial, or expressway, the director of public works and community development may impose a stricter standard in order to provide adequate visibility.

DRIVEWAY VISIBILITY

(The diagram is illustrative representing a single-family residential driveway)

(Ord. 906 § 14, 2016; Ord. 710 § 35-17.24, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.24)

18.55.140 Parking area screening, lighting and landscaping.

A. Screening. A parking area for five or more cars serving a nonresidential use shall be screened from an adjoining R district or a ground-floor residential use by a solid concrete, solid wood, or masonry wall eight feet in height, constructed to withstand a 15-pound-per-square-foot wind load, except that the height of a wall adjoining a required front yard in an R district shall not exceed three feet. A carport or open parking area for five or more cars serving a residential use shall be screened from an adjoining lot in an R district or a ground-floor residential use by a solid wall or fence six feet in height, except that the height of a wall or fence adjoining a required front yard in an R district shall not exceed three feet.

B. Lighting. Outdoor parking lot lighting shall be designed, installed and maintained to prevent nighttime sky light pollution and use energy efficiently by lighting only those areas or objects necessary for safety and security. All outdoor parking lot lighting shall conform to the following:

1. Exterior light fixtures shall be full cutoff fixtures designed and installed so that no emitted light will break a horizontal plane passing through the lowest point of the fixture.

LIGHTING FIXTURE DETAIL

2. Outdoor parking area lighting shall not employ a light source mounted higher than 24 feet above finished grade.

3. Outdoor parking area lighting shall be directed downward and shall not directly shine onto any adjacent street or property. Maximum illumination adjacent to any residential property line or R district boundary line shall not exceed 0.2 footcandles as measured in the vertical plane at the property line to a height equal to the height of the light source.

4. The maximum light intensity on a nonresidential site, except automobile, vehicle/equipment sales lots and automobile service stations, shall not exceed 10 footcandles, when measured at finished grade.

5. The maximum light intensity on automobile vehicle equipment sales lots and automobile service stations shall not exceed 30 footcandles, when measured at finished grade, unless a higher lighting intensity is approved through a conditional use permit. All luminaries mounted on the under surface of service station canopies shall be a full cutoff fixture.

6. Outdoor parking lot lighting for nonresidential uses shall be completely turned off or light levels dimmed to half, when the associated use is closed (post-curfew), of when the business is open (pre-curfew). If safety and security lighting is warranted, an occupancy sensing system will bring the system to sufficient brightness to meet the need, then reset to the lower level after a predetermined time. This approach is subject to approval by the zoning administrator.

C. Landscaping. Parking lots shall have perimeter planting areas as prescribed by the following schedule and, in addition, shall have 10% of the area within the perimeter planting strips devoted to planting areas distributed throughout the parking lot subject to the conditions listed below:

Parking Lot Dimension Adjoining Property

Width of Perimeter Planting Strip Adjoining Street Property Line and Interior Property Line Adjoining an R District or Other District

Up to 100 lineal feet

5 feet

More than 100 lineal feet

10 feet

1. A parking structure having at-grade parking adjoining a street shall have a 10-foot planting area adjoining the street property line.

2. Where landscaped areas are provided, they shall be a minimum of three feet in width. Landscaped areas containing trees shall be a minimum of four feet in the narrowest dimension.

3. The end of each row of parking stalls shall be separated from driveways by a landscaped planter, sidewalk, or other means.

4. A minimum of one tree for every three spaces shall be distributed evenly throughout the parking lot.

5. If an auto will extend over landscaping, the required planting area shall be increased two feet in depth by decreasing the length of the parking stall by two feet. If an auto will overhang into both sides of an interior landscaped strip or well, the minimum inside curb-to-curb interior planter dimension shall be seven feet.

6. Landscaping shall be provided on the upper levels of a parking structure where the structure is visible from a public street, pedestrian pathway, or adjacent building. (Ord. 906 § 13, 2016; Ord. 856 § 2 (Exh. A), 2011; Ord. 727 § 17, 1998; Ord. 710 § 35-17.26, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.26)

18.55.150 Driveways, garages and carport design and location in R districts.

The following provisions apply to a driveway, garage, and carport in R districts, whether it is an accessory structure or part of a principal structure:

A. Driveway. A driveway shall be paved and shall have widths and clearances prescribed subject to the visibility requirements set forth in PHMC §§ 18.50.100 and 18.55.130. A new driveway shall not be placed on an arterial street unless other alternatives are unavailable.

B. Minimum dimensions for residential enclosed garage (inside dimensions). A new garage or alteration to an existing garage shall conform to the following minimum dimensions:

1. Single-car garage: 10 feet by 22 feet (nine-foot door opening).

2. Double-car garage: 20 feet by 22 feet (16-foot door opening).

No interior door shall open into a garage space unless the door will fully open without encroaching into the above specified areas. A preexisting garage that does not meet these dimensional requirements is not deemed a nonconforming use solely because of this nonconformity (See PHMC § 18.65.020).

C. Minimum dimensions for residential carport. Each single carport car parking area shall measure nine feet by 19 feet. The width of the carport is measured from the inside face of the support to the inside face of the opposite support. The carport roof shall cover the entire 19-foot length of the space.

D. Minimum setbacks for garages. Any garage structure with the garage door or driveway facing a property line shall be set back a minimum of 20 feet from that property line and/or from a private vehicular access easement. (Ord. 856 § 2 (Exh. A), 2011; Ord. 710 § 35-17.28, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.28)

18.55.160 Additional design standards for parking lots and structures.

The zoning administrator may require a parking lot to have paving, drainage, wheel stops, lighting, space marking, directional signs, ramp grades, litter collection containers, fire equipment, and queuing space for drive-in facilities or ticket-dispensing booths or machines.

A. Sales, storage, etc. The parking area may not be used for auto sales, storage, repair work, dismantling, or outdoor open sales displays.

B. Drainage/stormwater runoff.

1. Parking lots shall comply with the city’s current national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) permit requirements for the treatment of stormwater runoff. (See PHMC Chapter 15.05.)

2. Surface water shall be discharged to natural or engineered off-site drainage facilities and may not drain off or across public or private sidewalks, pedestrian walkways, or areas not designed as drainage facilities. All industrial uses shall be required to install oil/water separators and/or grease traps on storm drain inlets.

C. Surfacing. A driveway or parking area serving any residential development shall be surfaced with concrete or two inches of asphalt concrete over six inches of aggregate base or comparable concrete. Each driveway shall be graded and drained to dispose of all surface water as described in subsection B of this section to an approved drainage facility.

D. Optional double line striping. If it is deemed necessary by the zoning administrator, each parking space shall measure 8.5 feet from center to center, with double stripes two feet apart.

(D) DOUBLE LINE STRIPING

E. Markings.

1. Each parking space and parking facility shall be identified by surface markings and shall be maintained in a manner so as to be readily visible and accessible at all times. Such markings shall be arranged to provide for orderly and safe loading, unloading, parking, and storage of vehicles. Marking required to be maintained in a highly visible condition includes striping, directional arrows, lettering and field color on signs in handicapped-designated areas.

2. One-way and two-way accesses into required parking facilities shall be identified by directional arrows. Any two-way access located at any angle other than 90 degrees to a street shall be marked with a traffic separation stripe the length of the access; this requirement does not extend to aisles.

3. Where the exit may not be clearly recognizable, directional signage must be provided. (Ord. 856 § 2 (Exh. A), 2011; Ord. 710 § 35-17.30, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.30)

18.55.170 Location and design of off-street loading spaces.

Required off-street loading spaces shall not be within a building, but shall be on the site of the use served or on an adjoining site. On a site adjoining an alley, a required loading space shall be accessible from the alley unless alternative access is approved by the planning commission. A required loading space shall be accessible without backing a truck across a street property line unless the zoning administrator determines that provision of turnaround space is infeasible and approves alternative access. An occupied loading space shall not prevent access to a required off-street parking space. A loading area shall not be located in a required front or street side yard.

Except in a C or LI district, a loading area visible from a street shall be screened on three sides by a fence, wall, or hedge at least six feet in height. (Ord. 710 § 35-17.32, 1996; 1991 code § 35-17.32)

18.55.180 Parking reductions allowed within priority development and transit areas.

A project site within a priority development area (designated by the Association of Bay Area Governments, “ABAG”) or within a quarter-mile of a regional transit hub (BART station or transit center) is allowed to have up to a 15% reduction from the number of spaces required under Schedule 18.55.030A as determined by the zoning administrator. This parking reduction does not apply to single-family residential sites. (Ord. 856 § 2 (Exh. A), 2011)

18.55.190 Minor adjustments to parking design standards.

A. Adjustments subject to zoning administrator approval. The zoning administrator may approve an adjustment of up to 20% from the parking design standards in PHMC §§ 18.55.020.F and G, 18.55.040, and 18.55.070 through 18.55.170, and/or use of an alternative driveway surface material, by approval of a zoning permit.

B. Adjustments subject to planning commission approval. The planning commission may approve a use permit for adjustments of greater than 20% from the parking standards listed in subsection A of this section.

C. Findings required. Before approval of an adjustment, the zoning administrator or planning commission shall make the following findings:

1. The adjustment is consistent with the intent of the zoning ordinance;

2. The adjustment will not adversely affect adjacent properties;

3. The adjustment is necessary due to practical difficulties involved in the strict application of zoning ordinance standards; and

4. For an adjustment of 20% or more, the planning commission shall also make use permit findings under PHMC § 18.95.040. (Ord. 902 § 9, 2016; Ord. 856 § 2 (Exh. A), 2011)