Chapter 18.20
PARKING AND LOADING

Sections:

18.20.010    Purpose.

18.20.020    Applicability.

18.20.030    General provisions.

18.20.040    Required parking spaces.

18.20.050    Parking reductions.

18.20.060    Parking in-lieu fee.

18.20.070    Location of required parking.

18.20.080    Bicycle parking.

18.20.090    On-site loading.

18.20.100    Parking area design and development standards.

18.20.010 Purpose.

The specific purposes of the on-site parking and loading regulations are to:

A.    Ensure that adequate off-street parking and loading facilities are provided for new land uses and major alterations to existing uses;

B.    Minimize the negative environmental and urban design impacts that can result from parking lots, driveways, and drive aisles within parking lots;

C.    Ensure that adequate off-street bicycle parking facilities are provided and promote parking lot designs that offer safe and attractive pedestrian routes;

D.    Establish standards and regulations for safe and well-designed parking, unloading, and vehicle circulation areas that minimize conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles within parking lots and, where appropriate, create buffers from surrounding land uses;

E.    Offer flexible means of minimizing the amount of area devoted to vehicle parking by allowing reductions in the number of required spaces in transit-served locations, shared parking facilities, and other situations expected to have lower vehicle parking demand; and

F.    Reduce urban runoff and heat island effect. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.020 Applicability.

The requirements of this chapter apply to the establishment, alteration, expansion, or change in any use or structure, as provided in this section.

A.    New Buildings and Land Uses. On-site parking shall be provided at the time any main building or structure is erected or any new land use is established.

B.    Reconstruction, Expansion and Change in Use of Existing Nonresidential Buildings. When a change in use, expansion of a use, or expansion of floor area creates an increase of ten percent or more in the number of required on-site parking or loading spaces, additional on-site parking and loading shall be provided for such addition, enlargement, or change in use and not for the entire building or site. The existing parking shall be maintained. If the number of existing parking spaces is greater than the requirements for such use, the number of spaces in excess of the prescribed minimum may be counted toward meeting the parking requirements for the addition, enlargement, or change in use. A change in occupancy is not considered a change in use unless the new occupant is in a different use classification than the former occupant. Additional parking spaces are not required for the reconstruction of an existing building when there is no increase in floor area.

C.    Alterations That Increase the Number of Dwelling Units. The creation of additional dwelling units through the alteration of an existing building or construction of an additional structure or structures requires on-site parking to serve the new dwelling units. This requirement does not apply when sufficient on-site parking exists to provide the number of spaces required for the existing and new dwelling units.

D.    When Constructed. On-site parking facilities required by this chapter shall be constructed or installed prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy for the uses that they serve. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.030 General provisions.

A.    Existing Parking and Loading to be Maintained. No existing parking and/or loading serving any use may be reduced in amount or changed in design, location or maintenance below the requirements for such use, unless equivalent substitute facilities are provided.

B.    Nonconforming Parking or Loading.

1.    An existing use of land or structure shall not be deemed to be nonconforming solely because of a lack of on-site parking and/or loading facilities required by this chapter; provided, that facilities used for on-site parking and/or loading as of the date of adoption of the ordinance codified in this title are not reduced in number to less than what this chapter requires.

2.    If an existing garage or carport legally constructed with a building permit is less than sixteen feet wide, it is considered physically unsuitable for two cars.

C.    Accessibility. Parking must be accessible for its intended purpose during all business hours.

D.    Stacked Parking. Stacked or valet parking is allowed if an attendant is present or an automated system is in place to move vehicles. If stacked parking managed by an attendant is used for required parking spaces, an acceptable form of guarantee must be filed with the Director ensuring that an attendant will always be present when the lot is in operation.

E.    Unbundling Parking from Residential Uses. For residential projects of ten units or more requesting to unbundle the parking from residential uses, a minor use permit is required and the following rules shall apply to the sale or rental of parking spaces accessory to new multifamily residential uses of ten units or more unless waived by the Director as infeasible:

1.    All off-street spaces shall be leased or sold separately from the rental or purchase fees for dwelling units for the life of the dwelling units, such that potential renters or buyers have the option of renting or buying a residential unit at a price lower than would be the case if there were a single price for both the residential unit and the parking space.

2.    In cases where there are fewer parking spaces than dwelling units, the parking spaces shall be offered first to the potential owners or renters of three-bedroom or more units, second to owners or renters of two-bedroom units, and then to owners and renters of other units. Spaces shall be offered to tenants first. Nontenants may lease with a provision for thirty days to terminate the lease.

3.    Renters or buyers of on-site inclusionary affordable units shall have an equal opportunity to rent or buy a parking space on the same terms and conditions as offered to renters or buyers of other dwelling units.

F.    Residential Garage Conversion. The conversion of single-unit residential garages into living space is allowed only if:

1.    The residence was constructed prior to 1954 (the 1954 Zoning Code was the first City zoning code to require one parking space for single-unit dwellings);

2.    One off-street parking space will be provided; and

3.    The garage dimensions are no more than ten feet wide by thirty feet deep. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1480 (Exh. C (part)), 2015; Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.040 Required parking spaces.

A.    Minimum Number of Spaces Required. Each land use shall be provided at least the number of on-site parking spaces stated in this subsection.

1.    Mixed-Use Districts. The required numbers of on-site parking spaces are stated in Table 18.20.040-A(1), Required On-Site Parking Spaces, Mixed-Use Districts. The parking requirement for any use not listed in Table 18.20.040-A(1) shall be the same as required for the land use in other districts as stated in Table 18.20.040-A(3), Required On-Site Parking Spaces, Other Districts.

TABLE 18.20.040-A(1): REQUIRED ON-SITE PARKING SPACES, MIXED-USE DISTRICTS

Land Use

Required Parking Spaces

Residential

Studio and one-bedroom units

1 space per unit

One covered space shall be provided for each unit.

One additional guest parking space shall be provided for every 4 units for projects greater than 10 units.

Two or more bedrooms

1.5 spaces per unit

Nonresidential

Office

1 space per 450 square feet

Retail

1 space per 400 square feet

Restaurant

1 space per 250 square feet

2.    Industrial Arts District. Each land use in the IA District shall provide one parking space per two thousand square feet of industrial use area plus one parking space per three hundred square feet of office or customer area.

3.    Other Districts. Each land use in all districts except for mixed-use and industrial arts districts shall be provided at least the number of on-site parking spaces stated in Table 18.20.040-A(3), Required On-Site Parking Spaces, Other Districts. The parking requirement for any use not listed in Table 18.20.040-A(3) shall be determined by the Director based upon the requirements for the most similar comparable use, the particular characteristics of the proposed use, and any other relevant data regarding parking demand.

 

TABLE 18.20.040-A(3): REQUIRED ON-SITE PARKING SPACES,
OTHER DISTRICTS 

Land Use Classification

Required Parking Spaces

Residential Use Classifications

Single-Unit Residential

2 spaces per dwelling unit.

In RS-6, both spaces must be either within a garage or carport, or 1 space within a garage or carport with the other space located within a 20-ft.-wide, 2-car driveway. For all other R districts, parking must be within a garage or carport.

Second Dwelling Unit

1 space for each. See Section 18.23.210, Second dwelling units.

Affordable Housing Developments (Moderate Income and Below)

Studio

0.75 spaces per unit.

1 additional guest parking space shall be provided for every 4 units, and overall, the number of covered spaces provided shall equal or exceed the number of units. Residential developments with 1 or more on-site below market rate units shall be allowed limited reductions in the parking requirements pursuant to Chapter 18.17, Affordable Housing Incentives.

One- or Two-Bedroom

1 space per unit.

Three or More Bedrooms

2 spaces per unit.

Multi-Unit Residential

Studio

1 space per unit.

1 covered space shall be provided for each unit.

1 additional guest parking space shall be provided for every 2 units.

One- or Two-Bedroom

1.5 spaces per unit.

Three or More Bedrooms

2 spaces per unit.

Small Family Day Care

None in addition to what is required for the residential use.

Large Family Day Care

1 per employee plus an area for loading and unloading children, on or off site. (Required spaces and the residential driveway for the primary residential use may be counted toward meeting these requirements.)

Elderly and Long-Term Care

2 spaces for the owner-manager plus 1 for every 5 beds and 1 for each nonresident employee.

Group Residential

1 per bed plus 1 for every 10 beds.

Residential Care, Limited

None in addition to what is required for the residential use.

Residential Care, General and Senior

2 spaces for the owner-manager plus 1 for every 5 beds and 1 for each nonresident employee.

Single Room Occupancy

0.5 spaces per unit.

Public and Semi-Public Use Classifications

Colleges and Trade Schools, Public or Private

1 per 3 members of the school population (including students, faculty, and staff) based on maximum enrollment.

Community Assembly

1 for each 4 permanent seats in main assembly area, or 1 for every 30 sq. ft. of assembly area for group activities or where temporary or moveable seats are provided.

Cultural Institutions

For theaters and auditoriums: 1 for each 4 permanent seats in main assembly area, or 1 for every 30 sq. ft. of assembly area where temporary or moveable seats are provided.

Galleries, libraries and museums: 1 for every 1,000 sq. ft. of floor area.

Other establishments: as determined by the Director.

Day Care Center

1 per employee plus additional parking as provided in the pick-up/drop-off plan required pursuant to Section 18.23.090, Day care.

Emergency Shelter

1 per 200 sq. ft. of floor area.

Government Offices

1 per 300 sq. ft. of floor area.

Hospitals and Clinics

1.75 per bed.

Instructional Services

1 per 200 sq. ft. of public or instruction area.

Schools, Public or Private

Elementary and middle schools: 1 per classroom, plus 1 per 250 sq. ft. of office area.

High schools: 7 per classroom.

Social Service Facilities

1 per 200 sq. ft. of floor area.

Commercial Use Classifications

Animal Care, Sales and Services

Grooming and Pet Stores

1 per 300 sq. ft. of floor area.

Kennels

1 per employee plus an area for loading and unloading animals on site.

Veterinary Services

1 per 250 sq. ft. of floor area.

Artists’ Studios

1 per 1,000 sq. ft. of floor area.

Automobile/Vehicle Sales and Services

Automobile Rentals

1 per 250 sq. ft. of office area in addition to spaces for all vehicles for rent.

Automobile/Vehicle Sales and Leasing

1 per 3,000 sq. ft. of lot area.

Any accessory auto repair: 2 per service bay.

Automobile/Vehicle Repair, Major or Minor

1 space plus 4 per service bay. 1 per 250 sq. ft. of any retail or office on site.

Automobile/Vehicle Washing

1 per 250 sq. ft. of any indoor sales, office, or lounge areas.

Service Station

4 per service bay, if service bays are included on site. 1 per 250 sq. ft. of any retail or office on site.

Banks and Financial Institutions

1 per 300 sq. ft. of floor area.

Business Services

1 per 300 sq. ft. of floor area.

Commercial Recreation

Establishments with seating: 1 for each 4 fixed seats, or 1 for every 30 sq. ft. of seating area where temporary or moveable seats are provided.

Athletic clubs: 1 per 150 sq. ft. of floor area.

Bowling alleys: 2 per lane.

Game courts (e.g., tennis): 2 per court.

Swimming pools: 1 per 200 sq. ft. of pool area plus 1 per 500 sq. ft. of area related to the pool.

Other commercial entertainment and recreation uses: as determined by the Director.

Eating and Drinking Establishments

Bars/Night Clubs/Lounges

1 per 75 sq. ft. of public area.

Full Service

1 per 75 sq. ft. of customer seating area; no parking is required for outdoor seating when seats provided equal to 50 percent or less of total indoor seating.

Convenience/Fast Food

1 per 100 sq. ft. of floor area.

Food Preparation

1 per 1,500 sq. ft. of use area plus 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office area.

Funeral Parlors and Mortuaries

1 for each 4 permanent seats in assembly areas, plus 1 per 250 sq. ft. of office area or 1 for every 30 sq. ft. of assembly area where temporary or moveable seats are provided.

Lodging

Bed and Breakfast

1 per room for rent in addition to parking required for residential use.

Hotels and Motels

1 per each sleeping unit, plus 2 spaces adjacent to registration office. Additional parking required for ancillary uses, such as restaurants, according to the parking requirements for the ancillary use.

Maintenance and Repair Services

1 per 600 sq. ft. of floor area, plus 1 space for each fleet vehicle.

Nurseries and Garden Centers

1 per 500 sq. ft. of floor area; 1 per 1,000 sq. ft. of outdoor display area.

Offices

Business and Professional

1 per 300 sq. ft. of floor area up to 100,000 sq. ft.

1 per 350 sq. ft. over 100,000 sq. ft.

Medical and Dental

1 per 275 sq. ft. of floor area.

Walk-In Clientele

1 per 300 sq. ft. of floor area.

Parking, Public or Private

1 per attendant station (in addition to the spaces that are available on the site).

Personal Services

1 per 300 sq. ft. of floor area.

Retail Sales

Building Materials and Services

1 per 500 sq. ft. of floor area; 1 per 1,000 sq. ft. of outdoor display area.

All Other Retail Sales Subclassifications

1 per 300 sq. ft. of floor area.

1 per 750 sq. ft. of floor area for appliance and furniture stores.

Industrial Use Classifications

Cannabis Microbusiness

1 per 1,000 sq. ft. of cultivation area; 1 per 1,500 sq. ft. of manufacturing area; 1 per 2,000 sq. ft. of distribution area up to 10,000 sq. ft. or 1 per 5,000 sq. ft. of distribution area over 10,000 sq. ft.; plus 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office.

Construction and Materials Yards

1 per 2,500 sq. ft. up to 10,000 sq. ft.

1 per 5,000 sq. ft. over 10,000 sq. ft.

Custom Manufacturing

1 per 2,000 sq. ft. of floor area, plus 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office.

Industry, General

1 per 1,500 sq. ft. of use area plus 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office.

Industry, Limited

1 per 1,500 sq. ft. of use area plus 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office.

Recycling Facility

Collection Facility

See Section 18.23.190, Recycling facilities.

Intermediate Processing Facility

1 for each 2 employees on the maximum work shift, or 1 per 1,000 sq. ft. of floor area, whichever is greater.

Research and Development

1 per 600 sq. ft. of manufacturing and assembly; 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office; 1 per 1,500 sq. ft. of warehousing; and 1 per 800 sq. ft. of laboratory.

Salvage and Wrecking

1 per 500 sq. ft. of building area plus 1 per 0.5 acre of gross outdoor use area.

Warehousing and Storage

Chemical, Mineral, and Explosives Storage

1 per 2 employees or 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office area, whichever is greater.

Indoor Warehousing and Storage and Outdoor Storage

1 per 2,000 sq. ft. of area up to 10,000 sq. ft., 1 per 5,000 sq. ft. over 10,000 sq. ft., plus 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office.

Personal Storage

1 space per 75 storage units, plus 1 space per 300 sq. ft. of office area. A minimum of 5 spaces shall be provided.

Wholesaling and Distribution

1 per 2,000 sq. ft. of use area up to 10,000 sq. ft., 1 per 5,000 sq. ft. over 10,000 sq. ft., plus 1 per 300 sq. ft. of office.

Transportation, Communication, and Utilities Use Classifications

Light Fleet-Based Services

1 per 300 sq. ft. of office floor area, plus 1 space for each fleet vehicle.

Utilities, Major

1 for each employee on the largest shift plus 1 for each vehicle used in connection with the use. Minimum of 2.

Utilities, Minor

None.

B.    Calculation of Required Spaces. The number of required parking spaces shall be calculated according to the following rules:

1.    Fractions. If the calculation of required parking or loading spaces results in the requirement of a fractional space, such fraction, if one-half or greater, shall be considered one additional space; if the fraction is less than one-half, it shall result in no additional spaces.

2.    Floor Area. Where an on-site parking or loading requirement is stated as a ratio of parking spaces to floor area, the floor area is assumed to be gross floor area, unless otherwise stated.

3.    Employees. Where an on-site parking or loading requirement is stated as a ratio of parking spaces to employees, the number of employees shall be based on the largest shift that occurs in a typical week.

4.    Bedrooms. Where an on-site parking requirement is stated as a ratio of parking spaces to bedrooms, any rooms having the potential of being a bedroom and meeting the standards of the California Building Code as a sleeping room shall be counted as a bedroom.

5.    Students or Clients. Where a parking or loading requirement is stated as a ratio of parking spaces to students (including children in day care), the number is assumed to be the number of students or clients at the State-certified capacity or at Building Code occupancy where no State certification is required.

6.    Seats. Where parking requirements are stated as a ratio of parking spaces to seats, each twenty-four inches of bench-type seating at maximum seating capacity is counted as one seat.

C.    Sites with Multiple Uses. If more than one use is located on a site, the number of required on-site parking spaces and loading spaces shall be equal to the sum of the requirements calculated separately for each use unless a reduction is approved pursuant to Section 18.20.050, Parking reductions.

D.    Exceptions.

1.    Small Commercial Uses Exempt. In the mixed-use and commercial districts, the following commercial uses are not required to provide on-site parking when they contain less than one thousand five hundred square feet of floor area: retail sales, personal services, eating and drinking establishments, food and beverage retail sales, offices—walk-in clientele, and banks and financial institutions. However, when more than four such establishments are located on a single lot, their floor areas shall be aggregated with all other establishments located on the lot in order to determine required parking.

2.    Industrial Arts District.

a.    On-street parking along a lot’s corresponding frontage lines shall be counted toward the parking requirement.

b.    Where a use with a legal nonconforming parking deficiency is replaced, the new use shall receive a parking credit equal to the number of required automobile parking spaces unmet by the previous use. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1525 § 2(1) (Exh. A (part)), 2017; Ord. 1480 (Exh. C (part)), 2015; Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.050 Parking reductions.

The number of on-site parking spaces required by Section 18.20.040, Required parking spaces, may be reduced as follows:

A.    Transportation Demand Management Programs. The number of required parking spaces for any project subject to Chapter 18.25, Transportation Demand Management, shall be reduced by twenty percent of the normally required number of spaces.

B.    Transit Accessibility. For any land use except residential single-unit and duplex development, if any portion of the lot is located within one-quarter mile of a transit stop with regular, scheduled service during the weekday hours of seven a.m. to nine a.m. and five p.m. to seven p.m., the number of required parking spaces may be reduced by twenty percent of the normally required number of spaces. This parking reduction does not apply in the mixed-use or the industrial arts districts because parking requirements for these districts already reflect transit accessibility.

C.    Motorcycle Parking. Motorcycle parking may substitute for up to five percent of required automobile parking. Each motorcycle space must be at least four feet wide and seven feet deep.

D.    Shared Parking. Where a shared parking facility serving more than one use will be provided, the total number of required parking spaces may be reduced up to forty percent with Planning Commission approval of a conditional use permit, if the Commission finds that:

1.    The peak hours of use will not overlap or coincide to the degree that peak demand for parking spaces from all uses will be greater than the total supply of spaces;

2.    The proposed shared parking provided will be adequate to serve each use;

3.    A parking demand study prepared by an independent traffic engineering professional approved by the City supports the proposed reduction; and

4.    In the case of a shared parking facility that serves more than one property, a parking agreement has been prepared consistent with the provisions of off-site parking facilities.

E.    Restaurant Parking. The total number of required parking spaces for restaurants with more than two thousand five hundred square feet of floor area located within the area bounded by the south side of Holly Street, the west side of El Camino Real, the north side of Brittan Avenue and the east side of Walnut Street, as shown on Figure 18.20.050-E, may be reduced with Planning Commission approval of a conditional use permit, subject to the following criteria:

1.    The restaurant is open for operation during the evenings until at least nine p.m., a minimum of five days per week including one weekend evening; and

2.    Employees are required to park in permit parking areas of public parking plazas, when such permits are available.

FIGURE 18.20.050-E: RESTAURANT PARKING REDUCTION AREA

F.    Other Parking Reductions. Required parking for any use may be reduced through Planning Commission approval of a conditional use permit.

1.    Criteria for Approval. The Commission may only approve a conditional use permit for reduced parking if it finds that:

a.    Special conditions, including, but not limited to, the nature of the proposed operation; proximity to frequent transit service; transportation characteristics of persons residing, working, or visiting the site; or because the applicant has undertaken a transportation demand management program, exist that will reduce parking demand at the site;

b.    The use will adequately be served by the proposed on-site parking; and

c.    Parking demand generated by the project will not exceed the capacity of or have a detrimental impact on the supply of on-street parking in the surrounding area.

2.    Parking Demand Study. In order to evaluate a proposed project’s compliance with the above criteria, the Director may require submittal of a parking demand study that substantiates the basis for granting a reduced number of spaces. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.060 Parking in-lieu fee.

If a parking assessment district has been established, a fee may be paid to the City in lieu of providing required parking within the district.

A.    In-Lieu Fee Amount. The amount of the in-lieu fee shall be calculated and paid as set forth in a resolution of the City Council.

B.    Use of Funds. In-lieu fees shall be used for programs to reduce parking impacts including, but not limited to, the costs of any of the following:

1.    Off-street parking facilities, including acquisition, development, and maintenance of parking facilities located in the parking assessment district;

2.    Mass transit equipment, including stock and attendant facilities serving the area in which the buildings for which the payments are made are located;

3.    Transit or paratransit passes, coupons, and tickets to be made available at a discount to employees and customers and to promote and support incentives for employee ride-sharing and transit use; or

4.    Transportation system management projects. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.070 Location of required parking.

A.    Residential Uses.

1.    Single-Unit Dwellings, Duplexes, and Second Units. Required parking for a single-unit dwelling, duplex, or second unit shall be located on the same lot as the dwelling(s) served. Parking shall not be located within required setbacks except for second units and for the required parking space in the driveway under the provisions for lots in the RS-6 zoning district.

2.    Other Residential Uses. Required parking for residential uses other than single-unit dwellings, duplexes, and second units shall be on the same lot as the dwelling or use they serve or in an off-site facility as provided in subsection C of this section. Parking shall not be located within a required front or street-facing side yard.

B.    Nonresidential Uses. Required parking spaces serving nonresidential uses shall be located on the same lot as the use they serve, or in an off-site parking facility as provided in subsection C of this section. If located in an off-site parking facility, a parking agreement shall be filed as provided in subsection C of this section.

C.    Off-Site Parking Facilities. Parking facilities for uses other than single-unit dwellings, duplexes, and second units may be provided off site with approval of a minor use permit, provided the following conditions are met:

1.    Location.

a.    Residential Uses. Any off-site parking facility must be located within one hundred feet, along a pedestrian route, of the unit or use served.

b.    Nonresidential Uses. Any off-site parking facility must be located within four hundred feet, along a pedestrian route, of the principal entrance containing the use(s) for which the parking is required.

2.    Parking Agreement. A written agreement between the landowner(s) and the City in a form satisfactory to the City Attorney shall be executed and recorded in the Office of the County Recorder. The agreement shall include:

a.    A guarantee among the landowner(s) for access to and use of the parking facility; and

b.    A guarantee that the spaces to be provided will be maintained and reserved for the uses served for as long as such uses are in operation. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1480 (Exh. C (part)), 2015; Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.080 Bicycle parking.

A.    Short-Term Bicycle Parking. Short-term bicycle parking shall be provided in order to serve shoppers, customers, messengers, guests and other visitors to a site who generally stay for a short time.

1.    Parking Spaces Required. For the following uses, the number of short-term bicycle parking spaces shall be at least ten percent of the number of required automobile parking spaces, with a minimum of four parking spaces provided per establishment:

a.    Multi-unit residential, group residential, and single room occupancy with five or more units.

b.    All uses in the public and semi-public land use classification except cemeteries and community gardens.

c.    All uses in the commercial land use classification, except animal care, sales, and services and artists’ studios.

2.    Location. Short-term bicycle parking must be located outside of the public right-of-way and pedestrian walkways and within fifty feet of a main entrance to the building it serves.

a.    Commercial Centers. In a commercial center, bicycle parking must be located within fifty feet of an entrance to each anchor store. Bicycle parking shall be visible from the street or from the main building entrance, or a sign must be posted at the main building entrance indicating the location of the parking.

b.    Mixed-Use Districts. Bicycle parking in mixed-use districts may be located in the public right-of-way with an encroachment permit, provided an unobstructed sidewalk clearance of six feet is maintained for pedestrians at all times.

3.    Anchoring and Security. For each short-term bicycle parking space required, a stationary, securely anchored object shall be provided to which a bicycle frame and one wheel can be secured with a high-security U-shaped shackle lock if both wheels are left on the bicycle. One such object may serve multiple bicycle parking spaces.

4.    Size and Accessibility. Each short-term bicycle parking space shall be a minimum of two feet in width and six feet in length and shall be accessible without moving another bicycle. Two feet of clearance shall be provided between bicycle parking spaces and adjacent walls, poles, landscaping, street furniture, drive aisles, and pedestrian ways and at least five feet from vehicle parking spaces.

FIGURE 18.20.080-A: SHORT-TERM BICYCLE PARKING

B.    Long-Term Bicycle Parking. Long-term bicycle parking shall be provided in order to serve employees, students, residents, commuters, and others who generally stay at a site for four hours or longer.

1.    Parking Spaces Required.

a.    Residential Uses. A minimum of one long-term bicycle parking space shall be provided for every five units for multi-unit residential and group residential projects.

b.    Other Uses. Any establishment with twenty-five or more full-time equivalent employees shall provide long-term bicycle parking at a minimum ratio of one space per twenty vehicle spaces.

c.    Parking Structures. Long-term bicycle parking shall be provided at a minimum ratio of one space per fifty vehicle spaces.

2.    Location. Long-term bicycle parking must be located on the same lot as the use it serves. In parking garages, long-term bicycle parking must be located near an entrance to the facility.

3.    Covered Spaces. At least fifty percent of required long-term bicycle parking must be covered. Covered parking can be provided inside buildings, under roof overhangs or awnings, in bicycle lockers, or within or under other structures.

4.    Security. Long-term bicycle parking must be in:

a.    An enclosed bicycle locker;

b.    A fenced, covered, locked or guarded bicycle storage area;

c.    A rack or stand inside a building that is within view of an attendant or security guard or visible from employee work areas; or

d.    Other secure area approved by the Director.

5.    Size and Accessibility. Each bicycle parking space shall be a minimum of two feet in width and six feet in length and shall be accessible without moving another bicycle. Two feet of clearance shall be provided between bicycle parking spaces and adjacent walls, poles, landscaping, street furniture, drive aisles, and pedestrian ways and at least five feet from vehicle parking spaces. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1480 (Exh. C (part)), 2015; Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.090 On-site loading.

A.    Loading Spaces Required. Every new building, and every building enlarged by more than five thousand square feet of gross floor area that is to be occupied by a manufacturing establishment, storage facility, warehouse facility, retail store, eating and drinking, wholesale store, market, hotel, hospital, mortuary, laundry, dry-cleaning establishment, or other use similarly requiring the receipt or distribution by vehicles or trucks of material or merchandise shall provide off-street loading and unloading areas as follows:

TABLE 18.20.090-A: REQUIRED LOADING SPACES

Gross Floor Area (sq. ft.)

Required Loading Spaces

0—6,999

0

7,000—30,000

1

30,001—90,000

2

90,001—150,000

3

150,001—230,000

4

230,001 +

1 per each additional 100,000 square feet or portion thereof.

1.    Multi-Tenant Buildings. The gross floor area of the entire building shall be used in determining spaces for multi-tenant buildings. A common loading area may be required, if each tenant space is not provided a loading area. Drive-in roll-up doors for multi-tenant industrial projects may be substituted for required loading areas.

2.    Reduction in Number of Loading Spaces Required. The loading space requirement may be waived if the Director finds that the applicant has satisfactorily demonstrated that, due to the nature of the proposed use, such loading space will not be needed.

3.    Additional Loading Spaces Required. The required number of loading spaces may be increased to ensure that trucks will not be loaded, unloaded, or stored on public streets. Such requirement shall be based on the anticipated frequency of truck pick-ups and deliveries and of the truck storage requirements of the use for which the on-site loading spaces are required.

B.    Location. All required loading berths shall be located on the same site as the use served. No loading berth for vehicles over two-ton capacity shall be closer than fifty feet to any property in a residential district unless completely enclosed by building walls, or a uniformly solid fence or wall, or any combination thereof, not less than six feet in height. No permitted or required loading berth shall be located within twenty-five feet of the nearest point of any street intersection.

C.    Minimum Size. Each on-site loading space required by this chapter shall not be less than ten feet wide, twenty-five feet long, and fourteen feet high, exclusive of driveways for ingress and egress, maneuvering areas and setbacks. The minimum size requirement may be modified if the Director finds that the applicant has satisfactorily demonstrated that, due to the nature of the proposed use, such size will not be needed.

D.    Driveways for Ingress and Egress and Maneuvering Areas. Each on-site loading space required by this section shall be provided with driveways for ingress and egress and maneuvering space of the same type and meeting the same criteria required for on-site parking spaces. Truck-maneuvering areas shall not encroach into required parking areas, travelways, or street rights-of-way. This requirement may be modified if the Director finds that sufficient space is provided so that truck-maneuvering areas will not interfere with traffic and pedestrian circulation.

E.    Surfacing. All open on-site loading berths shall be improved with a compacted base, not less than five inches thick, surfaced with not less than three inches of plant-mix asphalt, concrete, or comparable material approved by the City Engineer. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)

18.20.100 Parking area design and development standards.

All parking areas, except those used exclusively for stacked parking, shall be designed and developed consistent with the following standards. Parking areas used exclusively for stacked parking are subject only to subsections I through R of this section. Stacked parking areas which will allow parking at some times without attendants must be striped in conformance with the layout requirements of this section.

A.    Handicapped Parking. Each lot or parking structure where parking is provided for the public as clients, guests, or employees shall include parking accessible to handicapped or disabled persons as near as practical to a primary entrance.

B.    Tandem Parking. Tandem parking may be permitted to satisfy the off-street parking requirement in accordance with the following:

1.    No more than two vehicles shall be placed one behind the other.

2.    Both spaces shall be assigned to a single dwelling unit or nonresidential establishment.

3.    Tandem parking to meet required parking for nonresidential uses may be used for employee parking; the maximum number of tandem parking spaces shall not exceed fifty percent of the total number of spaces.

4.    Tandem parking to meet required parking for multi-unit development shall be located within an enclosed structure; the maximum number of tandem parking spaces shall not exceed fifty percent of the total number of spaces.

5.    Tandem parking shall not be used to meet the guest parking requirement.

C.    Carpool and Vanpool Parking. At least ten percent of the required parking spaces for offices and all uses within the industrial use classification shall be designated and reserved for carpools or vanpools. These spaces shall be located closest to the main entrance of the project (exclusive of spaces designated for handicapped).

D.    Shopping Cart Storage. When there are businesses that utilize shopping carts, adequate temporary shopping cart storage areas shall be provided throughout the parking lots. No temporary storage of shopping carts is allowed on walkways outside of buildings.

E.    Parking Access.

1.    Shared Access. Nonresidential projects are encouraged to provide shared vehicle and pedestrian access to adjacent nonresidential properties for convenience, safety, and efficient circulation. A joint access agreement guaranteeing the continued availability of the shared access between the properties approved by the Director shall be recorded in the County Recorder’s Office, in a form satisfactory to the City Attorney.

2.    Forward Entry. Parking areas of four or more spaces shall be provided with suitable maneuvering room so that all vehicles therein may enter an abutting street in a forward direction.

3.    Driveway Length. Driveways providing direct access from a public street to a garage or carport shall be at least twenty feet in depth.

4.    Driveway Width.

a.    The minimum width of a driveway serving one to two residences shall be no less than eight feet total width, with a minimum clearance of ten feet. Maximum width is twenty feet.

b.    The minimum width of a driveway serving three to six residential units is:

i.    Eight feet for a one-way driveway; or

ii.    Fourteen feet for a two-way driveway.

c.    The minimum width of a driveway serving seven or more residential or commercial uses is:

i.    Ten feet for a one-way driveway; or

ii.    Twenty feet for a two-way driveway.

d.    The maximum driveway width is twenty feet for a one-way driveway and thirty-three feet for a two-way driveway.

F.    Size of Parking Spaces and Maneuvering Aisles. Parking spaces and maneuvering aisles shall meet the minimum dimensions required by this subsection. Screening walls, roof support posts, columns, or other structural members shall not intrude into the required dimensions for parking spaces.

1.    Standard Parking Spaces and Drive Aisles. The minimum basic dimension for standard parking spaces is eight and one-half feet by eighteen feet, with a minimum vertical clearance of seven feet. Table 18.20.100-F(1) provides the dimensions of spaces (stalls) and aisles according to angle of parking spaces. The required aisle width may be modified if the City Engineer finds that sufficient space is provided, so that maneuvering areas will not interfere with traffic and pedestrian circulation.

 

TABLE 18.20.100-F(1): STANDARD PARKING SPACE AND AISLE DIMENSIONS

Angle of Parking

Stall Width (ft.)

Curb Length Per Stall (ft.)

Stall Depth (ft.)

Aisle Width (ft.)

Parallel

8.5

20

8.5

12

30°

8.5

18

19.5

11

45°

8.5

13

20

13

60°

8.5

10.5

21

18

90°

8.5

8.5

18

24

FIGURE 18.20.100-F(1): STANDARD PARKING SPACES

2.    Parking Spaces Abutting Wall or Fence. Each parking space adjoining a wall, fence, column, or other obstruction higher than one-half of one foot in the vicinity of where a vehicle door may be located shall be increased to accommodate access to the vehicle through the door.

3.    Minimum Dimensions for Residential Garages and Carports. Garages and carports serving residential uses shall be constructed to meet the following minimum inside dimensions and related requirements:

a.    A single-car garage or carport: ten feet in width by twenty feet in length.

b.    A two-car garage or carport: twenty feet in width by twenty feet in length for a standard garage, and ten feet in width by forty feet in length for a tandem garage.

c.    A garage or carport containing three or more spaces: nine feet in width by nineteen feet in length per space.

d.    The vertical clearance for garage or carport parking spaces shall not be less than seven feet.

Stairs may encroach into the parking area of a garage; provided, that the front end of a standard size automobile can fit under the stair projection. The bottom of the stairwell (including exterior finish) shall be a minimum of five feet above the garage floor.

G.    Parking Lot Striping. All parking stalls shall be clearly outlined with striping, and all aisles, approach lanes, and turning areas shall be clearly marked with directional arrows and lines as necessary to provide for safe traffic movement.

H.    Wheel Stops. Concrete bumper guards or wheel stops shall be provided for all unenclosed parking spaces on a site with ten or more unenclosed parking spaces. A six-inch-high concrete curb surrounding a landscape area at least six feet wide may be used as a wheel stop; provided, that the overhang will not damage or interfere with plant growth or its irrigation. A concrete sidewalk may be used as a wheel stop if the overhang will not reduce the minimum required walkway width.

FIGURE 18.20.100-H: WHEEL STOPS

I.    Surfacing. All parking areas shall be paved and improved, and all sites shall be properly drained, consistent with California Regional Water Quality Control Board San Francisco Bay Region Municipal Regional Stormwater NPDES permit and subject to the approval of the City Engineer. No unpaved area shall be used for parking.

1.    Cross-Grades. Cross-grades shall be designed for slower stormwater flow and to direct stormwater toward landscaping, bio-retention areas, or other water collection/treatment areas.

2.    Landscaping Alternative. Up to two feet of the front of a parking space as measured from a line parallel to the direction of the bumper of a vehicle using the space may be landscaped with ground cover plants instead of paving.

3.    Permeable Paving. Permeable paving shall be used in all overflow parking areas and installed in accordance with manufacturer recommended specifications.

4.    Turf Grids/Grassy Pavers. Turf grids/grassy pavers shall be installed in areas of low traffic or infrequent use wherever feasible.

J.    Perimeter Curbing. A six-inch-wide and six-inch-high concrete curb shall be provided along the outer edge of the parking facility pavement, except where said pavement abuts a fence or wall. Curbs separating landscaped areas from parking areas shall be designed to allow stormwater runoff to pass through.

K.    Heat Island Reduction. A heat island is the increase in ambient temperature that occurs over large paved areas compared to natural landscape. In order to reduce ambient surface temperatures in parking areas, at least fifty percent of the areas not landscaped shall be shaded, of light colored materials with a solar reflectance index of at least twenty-nine, or a combination of shading and light colored materials.

1.    Shade may be provided by canopies, shade structures, trees, or other equivalent mechanism. If shade is provided by trees, the amount of required shading is to be reached within fifteen years.

2.    Trees shall be selected from a list maintained by the Planning Division.

L.    Lighting. Public parking areas designed to accommodate ten or more vehicles shall be provided with a minimum of one-half foot-candle and a maximum of three foot-candles of light over the parking surface during the hours of use from one-half hour before dusk until one-half hour after dawn.

1.    Lighting design shall be coordinated with the landscape plan to ensure that vegetation growth will not substantially impair the intended illumination.

2.    Parking lot lighting shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be designed and installed so that light and glare is not directed onto residential use areas or adjacent public rights-of-way, consistent with Chapter 18.21, Performance Standards.

M.    Separation from On-Site Buildings. Parking areas must be separated from the front and side exterior walls of on-site buildings by walkways a minimum of four feet in width. Commercial buildings with twenty-five thousand square feet or more of gross floor area must be separated from on-site parking on all sides by a walkway a minimum of five feet in width, as well as a planter area at least three feet in width. These requirements do not apply to parking areas containing five or fewer spaces.

FIGURE 18.20.100-M: SEPARATION FROM ON-SITE BUILDINGS

N.    Landscaping. Landscaping of parking areas shall be provided and maintained according to the general standards of Chapter 18.18, Landscaping, as well as the standards of this subsection for all uses except single-unit dwellings and duplexes.

1.    Landscape Area Required. A minimum of ten percent of any parking lot area shall be landscaped.

2.    Minimum Planter Dimension. No landscape planter that is to be counted toward the required landscape area shall be smaller than twenty-five square feet in area, or four feet in any horizontal dimension, excluding curbing.

3.    Layout. Landscaped areas shall be well-distributed throughout the parking lot area. Parking lot landscaping may be provided in any combination of:

a.    Landscaped planting strips at least four feet wide between rows of parking stalls;

b.    Landscaped planting strips between parking areas and adjacent buildings or internal pedestrian walkways;

c.    Landscaped islands located between parking stalls or at the ends of rows of parking stalls; and

d.    On-site landscaping at the parking lot perimeter.

4.    Required Landscaped Islands. A landscaped island at least six feet in all interior dimensions and containing at least one fifteen-gallon-size tree shall be provided at each end of each interior row of parking stalls and between every six consecutive parking stalls.

5.    Landscaped Buffer for Open Parking Adjacent to Right-of-Way. A landscaped area at least five feet wide shall be provided between any surface parking area and any property line adjacent to a public street, unless a different dimension is specified in the base district standards applicable to a site.

6.    Landscaped Buffer for Open Parking Abutting Interior Lot Line. A landscaped area at least three feet wide shall be provided between any surface parking area and any adjacent lot for the length of the parking area.

7.    Landscaped Buffer for Parking Garages. A parking garage that does not incorporate ground-floor nonresidential or residential use or is not otherwise screened or concealed at street frontages on the ground level must provide a landscaped area at least ten feet wide between the parking garage and public street.

8.    Parking Garage Rooftop Planting. Uncovered parking on the top level of a parking structure shall have rooftop planters with a minimum dimension of twenty-four inches around the entire perimeter of the top floor.

9.    Trees.

a.    Number Required. One for each five parking spaces.

b.    Distribution. Trees shall be distributed relatively evenly throughout the parking area.

c.    Species. Tree species shall be selected from a list maintained by the Planning Division.

d.    Size. All trees shall be a minimum fifteen-gallon size with a one-inch diameter at forty-eight inches above natural grade.

e.    Minimum Planter Size. Any planting area for a tree must have a minimum interior horizontal dimension of five feet. Additional space may be required for some tree species.

FIGURE 18.20.100-N: PARKING LOT LANDSCAPING

10.    Protection of Vegetation.

a.    Clearance from Vehicles. All required landscaped areas shall be designed so that plant materials, at maturity, are protected from vehicle damage by providing a minimum two-foot clearance of low-growing plants where a vehicle overhang is permitted, or by wheel stops set a minimum of two feet from the back of the curb.

b.    Planters. All required parking lot landscaping shall be within planters bounded by a concrete curb at least six inches wide and six inches high. Curbs separating landscaped areas from parking areas shall be designed to allow stormwater runoff to pass through.

FIGURE 18.20.100-N(10): PROTECTION OF VEGETATION

11.    Visibility and Clearance. Landscaping in planters at the end of parking aisles shall not obstruct driver’s vision of vehicular and pedestrian cross-traffic. Mature trees shall have a foliage clearance maintained at eight feet from the surface of the parking area. Other plant materials located in the interior of a parking lot shall not exceed thirty inches in height.

O.    Screening. Parking areas shall be screened from view from public streets and adjacent lots in a more restrictive district, according to the following standards:

1.    Height. Screening of parking lots from adjacent public streets shall be three feet in height. Screening of parking lots along interior lot lines that abut residential districts shall be six feet in height, except within the required front setback of the applicable zoning district, where screening shall be three feet in height.

2.    Materials. Screening may consist of one or any combination of the methods listed below:

a.    Walls. Low-profile walls consisting of brick, stone, stucco, or other quality durable material approved by the Director, and including a decorative cap or top finish as well as edge detail at wall ends. Plain concrete blocks are not allowed as a screening wall material unless capped and finished with stucco or other material approved by the Director.

b.    Fences. An open fence of wrought iron or similar material combined with plant materials to form an opaque screen. Use of chain-link or vinyl fencing for screening purposes is prohibited.

c.    Planting. Plant materials consisting of compact evergreen plants that form an opaque screen. Such plant materials must achieve a minimum height of two feet within eighteen months after initial installation.

d.    Berms. Berms planted with grass, ground cover, or other low-growing plant materials.

P.    Circulation and Safety.

1.    Visibility shall be assured for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists entering individual parking spaces, circulating within a parking facility, and entering or leaving a parking facility.

2.    Off-street parking areas of four or more spaces shall be provided with sufficient maneuvering room so that all vehicles can enter and exit from a public street by forward motion only.

3.    Parking lots shall be designed so that sanitation, emergency, and other public service vehicles can provide service without backing unreasonable distances or making other dangerous or hazardous turning movements.

4.    Separate vehicular and pedestrian circulation systems shall be provided where possible. Multi-unit residential developments of five or more units must provide pedestrian access that is separate and distinct from driveways. Parking areas for commercial and mixed-use developments that are eighty feet or more in depth and/or include twenty-five or more parking spaces must have distinct and dedicated pedestrian access from the commercial use to parking areas and public sidewalks, according to the following standards:

a.    Connection to Public Sidewalk. An on-site walkway shall connect the main building entry to a public sidewalk on each street frontage. Such walkway shall be the shortest practical distance between the main building entry and sidewalk, generally no more than one hundred twenty-five percent of the straight-line distance.

b.    Materials and Width. Walkways shall provide at least five feet of unobstructed width and be hard-surfaced.

c.    Identification. Pedestrian walkways shall be clearly differentiated from driveways, parking aisles, and parking and loading spaces through the use of elevation changes, a different paving material, or similar method.

d.    Separation. Where a pedestrian walkway is parallel and adjacent to an auto travel lane, it must be raised and separated from the auto travel lane by a raised curb at least four inches high, bollards, or other physical barrier.

Q.    Alternative Parking Area Designs. Where an applicant can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Director that variations in the dimensions otherwise required by this section are warranted in order to achieve environmental design and green building objectives, including but not limited to achieving certification under the LEEDTM Green Building Rating System or equivalent, an alternative parking area design may be approved.

R.    Maintenance. Parking lots, including landscaped areas, driveways, and loading areas, shall be maintained free of refuse, debris, or other accumulated matter and shall be kept in good repair at all times. (Ord. 1537 (Exh. C (part)), 2018: Ord. 1480 (Exh. C (part)), 2015; Ord. 1438 § 4 (Exh. A (part)), 2011)