Chapter 17.120
OFF-STREET PARKING AND LOADING

Sections:

17.120.010    Spaces required.

17.120.020    Parking of equipment restricted.

17.120.030    Surfacing.

17.120.040    Screening.

17.120.050    Offset.

17.120.060    Setbacks.

17.120.070    Commercial illumination.

17.120.075    Residential illumination.

17.120.080    Off-street loading and unloading.

17.120.010 Spaces required.

A.    Required Spaces. Any building hereafter erected, expanded or structurally altered shall be provided with off-street vehicle parking spaces to be used by the residents, patrons, visitors or employees of the building, according to the following schedule. When the application of this schedule results in the requirement of a fractional parking space, any fraction up to one-half may be disregarded and any fraction equaling one-half or more shall be construed as requiring one full parking space. Building square feet shown in the attached schedule is considered gross square feet unless otherwise specified. When required parking computations are based on gross floor area, building floor area devoted exclusively to parking shall not have off-street parking space requirements. Parking spaces located in garages or other building areas may be included in computing spaces otherwise required.

Uses

Spaces Required
Square Feet is Gross Unless Otherwise Specified

Commercial/ Retail:

Auto agency (sales)

1.0 per 500 sq. ft. plus 3.0 per service bay and additional space for public display as required if outside display is permitted

Auto fuel station #1 (w/o service)

2.0 minimum plus 4.75 per 1,000 retail sq. ft.

Auto fuel station #2 (w/service)

3.0 minimum plus 3.0 per service bay

Auto fuel station (w/car wash)

station #1 or #2 requirements plus line-up parking equal to 3 times car wash capacity

Auto parts (tire/battery/accessory)

4.75 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Auto service station

3.0 minimum plus 3.0 per service bay

Barber/beauty salon

5.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Building materials/home improvement center

4.75 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Car wash (full service)

line-up parking equal to 8 times car wash capacity plus 1.0 per employee on largest shift

Car wash (self-service)

line-up parking for 4 cars per wash stall

Car wash (accessory)

line-up parking equal to 3 times car wash capacity

Commercial or retail sales uses (except as herein noted)

4.75 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Commercial vegetable and flower gardening, plant nurseries and greenhouses

2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored plus 5.0 per 1,000 sq. ft. retail floor area

Equipment sales, service, rental and repair

1.0 per 250 sq. ft.

Furniture store

2.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

General merchandise and department store > 5,000 sq. ft.

4.75 per 1,000 sq. ft.

General merchandise and convenience store < 5,000 sq. ft.

5.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Hardware store

4.75 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Laundry and dry cleaning (drop off/ pickup)

4.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Laundry (self-service)

1.0 per 2.5 washers

Limited food service

1.0 per 3 seats plus 2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift; 10.0 minimum

Paint store

3.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Plumbing, air conditioning and heating equipment (sales, service, warehousing)

3.33 per 1,000 sq. ft. sales and office area plus 2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored

Restaurant, dining with outdoor seating (quality, gourmet, family)

1.0 per 3 seats plus 2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift; 10.0 minimum

Restaurant, dine-in, fast food (w/o drive-thru)

1.0 per 2 seats plus 2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift

Restaurant, fast food with drive-thru

1.0 per 2 seats plus 2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 12 stacking spaces per drive-up window with 5 spaces minimum at ordering station

Shopping center (regional) > 1,000,000 sq. ft.

4.75 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Shopping center (w/supermarket)

5.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Shopping center (w/o supermarket)

5.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Specialty retail center (e.g., Stonewood Village) (average tenant space < 2,500 sq. ft.)

4.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Specialty store

4.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Supermarket

5.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Tavern, bar, cocktail lounge

1.0 per 2.5 seats plus 2.0 per employee on maximum shift

Truck service center and repair facility

1.0 per employee plus 2.0 truck spaces per each stall

Video tape rental/sales

5.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Residential:

Apartment (low/mid rise)

1.0 per bedroom of which 1 must be enclosed plus .5 per unit for visitors

Apartment (high rise)

1.0 per bedroom of which 1 must be enclosed plus .5 per unit for visitors

Caretaker’s residence

1.0 per bedroom

Condominium (low rise)

1.0 per bedroom of which 1 must be enclosed plus .5 per unit for visitors

Condominium (high rise)

1.0 per bedroom of which 1 must be enclosed plus .5 per unit for visitors

Dormitories or group living facilities

0.5 per bedroom

Dwellings (single-family detached)

1.0 per dwelling

Dwellings (two-family/duplex)

1.0 per bedroom of which 1 must be enclosed plus .5 per unit for visitors

Group homes

0.25 per bed plus 1.0 per employee on maximum shift

Rectory

1.0 per bedroom

Residential units in nonresidential structures

1.0 per bedroom

Senior citizen multiple-family/retirement community

0.5 per unit-consider 1.0 per unit reserved for future conversion to conventional multiple-family

Transportation/Communication/Utilities:

Airports/heliports/landing strips

2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored plus 1.0 per 200 sq. ft. lobby area

Radio, TV and other communication facilities

2.0 per employee on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored

Railroad switching yards

2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored

Terminal (bus/railroad)

2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored plus 1.0 per 200 sq. ft. lobby area

Institutional:

Child care centers/day nurseries

1.0 per employee plus 1.0 per 15 children

Churches/chapels

1.0 per 3 seats (8-foot bench length) plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored on premises

Clubs and lodges

1.0 per 4 seats or 1.0 per 3 members

Hospitals

0.75 spaces per bed

Kennels

2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored

Museums/galleries

2.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. gross floor area

Nursing homes

0.75 per bed

Postal stations

4.0 per customer service station plus 2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift

Schools (preschools)

1.0 per employee plus 1.0 per 15 children

Schools (elementary schools)

1.0 per classroom and 4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. office

Schools (middle schools)

1.0 per classroom and 4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. office

Schools (high schools)

1.0 per classroom and 4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. office plus 1.0 per 4 students over age 16

Schools (special education)

1.0 per classroom and 4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. office

Schools (vocational)

1.0 per classroom and 4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. office plus 1.0 per 4 students over age 16

Schools (college, university)

1.0 per employee plus 1.0 per 3 students

Cultural/Entertainment/Recreational:

Arcades/amusement places

5.0 per 1,000 sq. ft. plus 1.0 per 2 games

Athletic fields

60 per 1 facility (field, diamond); 100 per 2 facilities

Auditoriums/meeting rooms/places for public assembly (except as noted herein)

1.0 per 3 seats or 1.0 per 50 sq. ft. floor area of assembly area where there is no fixed seating

Bowling alleys

5.0 per alley

Clubs/lodges, open to public

1.0 per 2.5 seats plus 2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift

Community centers and private, nonprofit recreation centers (except as noted)

4.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Dance studio, martial arts studio

5.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Golf/country clubs

to be determined by plan commission based upon report prepared by applicant

Golf courses

3.0 per hole plus spaces equal to 30% total licensed seating capacity of buildings

Golf driving ranges

2.0 per tee

Golf, miniature

1.0 per 5,000 sq. ft. lot area

Gymnasiums

3.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Handball/racquetball courts

3.0 per court

Ice and roller rinks

5.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Parks (city/county/state), playgrounds and picnic grounds

to be determined by park and recreation commission

Sports club/health spa

7 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Swimming pools

3.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Tennis clubs

1.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. plus 1.0 per 4 spectator seats

Tennis courts, outdoor

1.5 per court plus 1.0 per 4 spectator seats

Theater, live

1.0 per 50 sq. ft.

Theater, music

1.0 per 50 sq. ft.

Theater, movie

0.50 per seat

Open Space:

Cemeteries

2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 garage space per vehicle used or stored

Industrial:

Light industry

2.0 per 1,000 sq. ft. office/customer use plus 1.0 per 750 sq. ft. other or per vehicle used/stored

Manufacturing and fabrication

2.0 per 1,000 sq. ft. office/customer use plus 1.0 per 750 sq. ft. other or per vehicle used/stored

Plumbing, air conditioning and heating equipment (sales, service, warehousing)

2.0 per 1,000 sq. ft. office/retail use plus 1.0 per 750 sq. ft. other or per vehicle used/stored

Warehousing and wholesaling

2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used/stored but no less than 1/2,000 sq. ft.

Office:

Dental offices and clinics

4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Medical office building or clinic

6.0 per 1,000 sq. ft. floor area or 4.0 per doctor and 1.0 per each additional employee-the greater

Office building, general

maximum 4.5 per 1,000 gross sq. ft. to minimum 4.0 per 1,000 net sq. ft. based upon floor plan utilization report approved by plan commission with maximum of 20% of gross sq. ft. to be considered unleasable space under a net square foot analysis

Research center (nonleasable space)

3.33 per 1,000 sq. ft. up to 50,00 sq. ft. plus 2.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. over 50,000 sq. ft.

Services:

Financial: bank (walk in only)

4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Financial: bank (drive up and walk in)

4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft. plus line up spaces equal to 5 times drive up capacity

Financial: lending agency, stockbroker

4.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Hotels, motels

1.0 per sleeping unit plus 2.0 per 3 employees on maximum shift plus 1.0 per vehicle used or stored

Insurance agents/brokers

4.0 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Mortuaries/funeral homes

1.0 per 5 seats; 10 minimum

Real estate agents/brokers

4.5 per 1,000 sq. ft.

Veterinary clinics and hospitals

6.0 minimum plus 4.0 per each exam room over 1 room

B.    Modifications to Required Spaces. The plan commission recognizes that due to the particularities of any given land use or development, the inflexible application of the parking supply requirements set forth in subsection A of this section may result in a land use or development either with inadequate parking supply or parking supply far in excess of its needs. Therefore, the plan commission may permit or require deviations from the requirements of subsection A of this section and may require more parking or allow less parking whenever it finds that such deviations are more likely to satisfy the standards set out in subsection (B)(1) and (2) of this section. Whenever the plan commission permits or requires a modification to the prescribed parking supply requirements, it may also request the recording of the same under the provisions of subsection H of this section.

1.    Additional parking spaces can be required if it is determined that the prescribed requirement for a particular development will lead to traffic congestion or parking violations in adjacent streets or unauthorized parking in nearby private parking lots.

2.    A reduction in parking spaces can be required if it is determined that the prescribed requirement for a particular development would result in the wasteful use of property that could more desirably be used for additional building development, in the case of a land use or development which would produce less parking demand, or for environmentally useful or aesthetically pleasing open space.

C.    Parking Location. All required off-street parking spaces shall be located on the same lot as the use for which it is required except that required spaces may be permitted at other locations when and as authorized under subsection D of this section. The requirements of this section shall be considered satisfied if the outer limits of the required parking is provided within five hundred (500) feet of the building entrances being served, such distance being measured along the shortest available route of pedestrian access.

D.    Alternatives to On-Site Parking: Shared or Off-Site Parking

1.    The petitioner shall submit written documentation to the satisfaction of the plan commission that shared parking spaces are available to satisfy the parking requirements.

a.    Shared parking agreements shall provide evidence that either parking lots are large enough to accommodate multiple users or that parking spaces will be shared at certain times of the day (i.e., one activity uses the spaces during daytime hours and another activity uses the spaces during evening hours.)

b.    Off-site parking lots shall be located not more than five hundred (500) feet from the principal building entrance that it is intended to serve.

2.    When a reduction of parking spaces attributable to shared parking or off-site parking is requested, the petitioner shall submit written verification that such parking is available for the life of the applicant’s use or reoccupancy thereof and shall include copies of any contracts, joint lease agreements, easements, and other such documentation to show that such shared parking can be accomplished. The method by which the required shared parking will be provided is subject to the approval of the city attorney and may be requested to be recorded under the provisions of subsection H of this section. Off-site parking spaces shall be clearly posted for the joint use of employees, tenants and/or customers of each respective use sharing those spaces.

E.    Use of Alternative Transportation. Upon demonstration to the plan commission that effective alternative transportation to the single occupant will occur, the plan commission may reduce requirements as follows:

1.    Commercial retail uses located within five hundred (500) feet of a public transit station may reduce parking requirements ten percent.

2.    Industrial and office uses located within one thousand (1,000) feet of a public transit station may reduce parking requirements fifteen (15) percent.

3.    Businesses with employer established rideshare programs may reduce parking requirements for each carpooled or bused employee not to exceed twenty (20) percent of required parking.

4.    One required parking space may be eliminated up to ten percent of the required spaces for priority spaces provided near building entrances for carpool vehicles.

F.    Unclassified and Multiple Uses. In the case of uses not specified herein, the number of spaces specified as the general standard for that class of use or the number of spaces specified for similar use shall apply as determined by the director of community development. In developments involving the establishment or addition of two or more uses on one lot or parcel, the cumulative number of spaces required for each use shall determine the total number of spaces required.

G.    Phased Installation of Required Spaces. The plan commission recognizes that due to the particularities of any given development, a situation may arise where the total number of parking spaces required by this section for a particular development may not need to be installed initially and could be installed in phases. If authorized by the plan commission, the parking supply requirement of subsection A of this section can be installed in phases under the following provisions:

1.    The development’s building or occupancy permit shall state the amount of total parking required under subsection A of this section and the amount of parking to be installed under the initial building or occupancy permit.

2.    A declaration of restrictions or development agreement shall be recorded upon the subject property under the provision of subsection H of this section indicating the conditions which the remainder of the required parking will be installed.

3.    A site plan for the development shall be designed to provide sufficient open space, landscaped to plan commission specifications, on the subject site to accommodate the additional parking spaces otherwise required by this section. Such open space will be in addition to required yards, setbacks, driveways, private streets, and loading and service areas. The open space shall be provided which, if converted to parking spaces, would provide off-street parking to meet the full requirements of this section on the date specified under the conditions recorded in the declaration of restrictions or development agreement.

H.    Recording of Restrictions. The director of community development may require that a declaration of land use restriction be recorded upon the subject property at the Waukesha County register of deeds to ensure that future owners are informed of use restrictions resulting from the administration of this section. (Ord. 2134-08 § 4, 2008; Ord. 1912-03 § 1 (part), 2003; Ord. 1616 § 1, 1997)

17.120.020 Parking of equipment restricted.

No trucks or any other vehicle equipment used in business, commerce or industry shall be parked on a lot or in a garage in a residential district, except, this prohibition shall not apply to one panel or pickup trucks one ton or less in capacity nor to equipment of tradesmen or repairmen performing work on the lot or home; provided, that unless within the forgoing exception, the parking of dump trucks, semitrucks, bulldozers and front end loaders are included in the prohibition established by this chapter. This enumeration is not inclusive and other vehicles of similar nature are also prohibited; provided, further, that the building inspection department may issue an annual parking permit of ten dollars ($10.00) for the parking of commercial vehicles, as follows:

A.    In residentially zoned areas that have not been subdivided and are still primarily agricultural in character;

B.    In sparsely developed areas where homes average more than three hundred (300) feet apart in any area in excess of one thousand eight hundred (1,800) feet as measured at the road right-of-way;

C.    Where a prohibited vehicle or vehicles have been parked for years among trees, behind homes or garages or otherwise generally out of sight, have not been a problem, and the neighborhood has accepted the situation. Such permit may be issued when, in the opinion of the building inspector, such permit will not affect the values of property, the general character and aesthetics and the peace and well-being of the neighborhood, and is not contrary to the intent of this section. Prohibited vehicles may, in any unforeseen emergency, park overnight on a residential lot owned or occupied by the owner or operator of the vehicle with the permission of the police department. Requests that are deemed by the granting authority to be repetitive and contrary to the intent of this section shall be denied. (Prior code § 17.14(2))

17.120.030 Surfacing.

Any off-street parking area other than that provided for a residence, having a capacity for more than four vehicles, shall be surfaced and maintained with a minimum of two inches of bituminous concrete pavement or equivalent hard-surfaced material approved by the building inspector. Adequate base course gravel shall be placed before paving. The pavement shall be maintained in good and serviceable condition. The property owner shall be responsible for the construction and maintenance of such off-street parking area. The plan commission may require extra base and surface where subsoil, drainage or similar conditions make them necessary. (Prior code § 17.14(3))

17.120.040 Screening.

Any off-street parking area other than that provided for a residence which abuts or faces a residence district or which is abutting a street shall provide a planting screen, landscape fence or wall at least four feet in height along the side abutting or fronting on a residence district or abutting a street the width of which has been established as sixty (60) feet or less and said street is abutted on its opposite side by a residence district. (Prior code § 17.14(4))

17.120.050 Offset.

In any off-street parking area located in a nonresidential district, no parking, driveways, loading spaces, paving or vehicle storage shall be permitted within twenty-five (25) feet of an abutting residential district, except where the specific regulations of the district in which the use is located require a greater offset or permit a different offset or where the intensive use regulations of Section 17.108.090 apply. (Prior code § 17.14(5))

17.120.060 Setbacks.

A minimum twenty-five (25) foot setback is required for parking areas, to be measured from the base setback line, unless a greater setback is required within the district the parking area is located. (Prior code § 17.14(6))

17.120.070 Commercial illumination.

All exterior illumination of parking lots, commercial buildings, multifamily buildings of more than four units, institutional and mixed-use developments are intended to be covered by this section.

A.    Illumination of off-street parking areas shall be arranged so as not to reflect direct rays of light onto adjacent streets or properties. Lighting shall be considered as restricted to the parking lot if such lighting is so oriented or aimed as to direct no more than one-half of each fixtures maximum luminous intensity, measured in footcandles, outside the exterior limits of the property, unless the illumination level, in footcandles at such exterior limits measured at any plane, is less than .5 footcandles. The total illumination level produced on the property shall not exceed an average of five footcandles in any plane.

B.    No individual light shall exceed four hundred (400) watts.

C.    The total height of light fixtures, including bases, shall not exceed the roofline of the building or twenty (20) feet, whichever is less.

D.    All pole heights and light fixtures shall be brought into conformity with this section when fifty (50) percent or more of the poles or light fixtures are changed or replaced on a premises.

E.    Parking lots shall be illuminated by full cutoff fixtures.

F.    Non-cutoff decorative or pedestrian lighting fixtures shall be allowed only to light public sidewalks adjacent to public right-of-way. They shall also be allowed in the established and approved setback of the building(s) in commercial, multi-family buildings of more than four units, institutional, and mixed use developments, except on corner properties where no such light shall be placed within seventy-five (75) feet of the property line abutting residential property. All decorative or pedestrian lighting fixtures shall be affixed with internal reflectors.

G.    Fixtures mounted on building walls shall be shielded or recessed so that the lamp or bulb shall be invisible from a horizontal plane to neighboring residences and streets. Fixtures mounted under canopies, eaves or similar building structures shall be recessed and function as a full cutoff fixture.

H.    Parking lot lighting systems shall be extinguished or reduced to fifty (50) percent no later than thirty (30) minutes after the close of business for the day or after the end of normal office hours for the majority of employees when adjacent to residential districts and when recommended by the plan commission.

I.    Illumination shall not be located within the city right-of-way area unless approved by the board of public works, with comments from the plan commission. This rule shall not apply to public street lighting.

J.    Properties zoned “VAB” village area business are allowed to have lighting encroaching onto public right-of-way, subject to plan commission and board of public works approval, and should have lower-intensity bulbs to meet the intent of this section.

K.    In lieu of box lighting for any application (including parking lots), decorative lighting with cut-off, flat lens fixtures are required. (Ord. 2068-06 § 5, 2006; Ord. 2001-05 § 1, 2005: Ord. 1886 § 1, 2002)

17.120.075 Residential illumination.

Lighting on residential properties shall be designed to illuminate specific areas (driveways, entryways, decks, residence facades, landscaping highlights, etc.). Lighting shall not be used to illuminate entire properties. Residential lighting shall be aimed so as to eliminate glare onto neighboring properties. (Ord. 2001-05 § 2, 2005)

17.120.080 Off-street loading and unloading.

A.    Required. In any local business, general business, office and light industry or industrial district, an off-street loading space shall be provided, in addition to the defined off-street parking area, for every ten thousand (10,000) square feet or fraction thereof in excess of three thousand (3,000) square feet of building area, exclusive of storage areas, used for commercial purposes.

B.    Area. Each such loading space shall have an area of at least ten feet wide by forty-five (45) feet long and with a minimum of fourteen (14) feet height clearance. The plan commission may, by a resolution recorded in its minutes, permit exceptions to this requirement if the use and location so warrants. (Prior code § 17.15)