Chapter 4
Private Frontage Design Standards

2.401 Purpose and Applicability.

A.    Purpose. This chapter identifies standards for private frontages. The private frontage is the area on a lot between the front or side street facade of the building and the right of way line. This area is located on a private lot and is privately constructed, owned and maintained, but the design and treatment of the private frontage area is of public importance because it helps shape the public realm of the street. The public realm of the street defines the character of the City.

B.    Applicability.

1.    Compliance With Frontage Types Required. Every building and site in the City shall be designed according to one of the following frontage types. Frontage types that are permitted or may be permitted following special exception review by the Planning Commission are identified in Section 2.403.

2.    Community, education and institution uses have unique characteristics, and therefore are not required to comply with the private frontage requirements.

3.    Existing Buildings. Improvements to existing buildings must comply with the following standards to the greatest extent feasible. However, in order to encourage and facilitate the reuse and improvement of existing buildings the reviewing authority may waive any standards which would place an undue burden on the property owner, commensurate with the scale of the building improvement or reuse project.

C.    How to Use This Chapter. All lots in the City are designated as standard lots or small front setback lots on the Zoning Map. The private frontage or frontages that are permitted on a lot or may be permitted following special exception use approval are identified for each zoning district in Section 2.403. The process for determining the private frontage development standards applicable to a lot is as follows:

1.    Determine if the lot is a standard lot or a small front setback lot, and what zoning district the lot is located in. This information is shown on the Zoning Map.

2.    Determine which private frontages are permitted in the Zoning District as shown in the dimension and design standards table for each zoning district in Section 2.403.

3.    Choose the type of private frontage from the available options (when more than one frontage type is permitted or may be permitted the property owner may choose which private frontage standards to develop under).

4.    Develop or redevelop the property according to the dimension and development standards for the Zoning District (see Article 2, Chapter 3), any development standards for the specific use (see Article 2, Chapter 5) and the private frontage standards of this Chapter.

5.    In the case of any conflicts between the development standards for the Zoning District, the development standards for the specific use, and the private frontage standards of this Chapter, the order of preference for the standards shall be 1) development standards for the specific use, then 2) private frontage standards, then 3) zoning district dimension and development standards.

D.    Definitions. Refer to Section 7.401 for definitions of terms used in this Chapter.

2.402 Private Frontage Summaries.

A.    Description of Private Frontage Types. Refer to Figure 2 for a graphic representation of the following summaries.

1.    Front Parking. This frontage type has a large front yard setback with parking located between the building and the street. This frontage type is most suitable for automobile-oriented nonresidential development located along major thoroughfares with high traffic volumes, and does not contribute to a walkable, pedestrian friendly environment.

2.    Common Yard. This frontage has a large front yard setback where the front yard is landscaped. Parking is located in side or rear yards. This frontage type is most common for single family residential development, although it is also suitable for nonresidential development when uses do not rely upon a high volume of daily traffic and highly visible parking spaces that turn over frequently.

3.    Stoop. This frontage has a small front yard setback where the first floor is elevated above the grade level of the sidewalk to create privacy for the windows. Units or building subdivisions are entered directly from the exterior of the building. This frontage type is often used for ground-floor residential uses, although it can also be used for certain commercial uses such as outdoor cafes that are elevated above the sidewalk level.

4.    Courtyard. This frontage allows a portion of the front building wall to be set back from the front lot line. The forecourt area is suitable for vehicle drop-offs or landscaped open space. This frontage type is suitable for both residential and non-residential uses.

5.    Streetfront. This frontage requires the front building wall to be located at or very close to the front property line with building entrances at sidewalk grade. This frontage type is suitable for first floor retail or service uses, and will have a high level of transparency on the front facade. This frontage type contributes to a walkable, pedestrian friendly environment, so pedestrian amenities such as awnings that overlap the sidewalk are encouraged. Parking is located in side or rear yards.

Figure 2. Summary of Private Frontages

2.403 Permitted Private Frontage Layouts.

The following table lists the private frontage layouts that are or may be permitted in each Zoning District. The private frontage layouts specify how the area between the building and the street shall be designed. Superscript text in parentheses in any cell in the following Table 4 is a reference to one of the footnotes following the table.

Table 4. Permitted Private Frontage Layouts by Zoning District

Key:

Permitted By Right

o May Be Permitted Following Special Exception Approval

[blank] Layout Not Permitted

PRIVATE FRONTAGE LAYOUT (A)

Residential Districts

Mixed Use Districts

Industrial Districts

DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS

R-1

R-2

R-3

C-O

C-1

C-2

C-3

C-4

M-1

M-2

IP-1

Standard Lots (as shown on Zoning Map)

Common Yard

Section 2.404

Front Parking

 

 

o (B)

o (B)

o (C)

Section 2.405

Stoop

 

 

 

 

o

o

 

 

 

 

 

Section 2.406

Courtyard

 

 

 

 

o

o

o

 

 

 

 

Section 2.407

Streetfront

 

 

 

 

o

o

o

 

 

 

 

Section 2.408

Small Front Setback Lots (as shown on Zoning Map)

Common Yard

 

 

 

 

Section 2.404

Front Parking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 2.405

Stoop

 

o

o (D)

o

 

 

 

 

Section 2.406

Courtyard

 

 

 

 

(D)

o

 

 

 

 

Section 2.407

Streetfront

 

 

o

o

 

Section 2.408

Footnotes to Table 4:

A.    Community, Education, and Institution Uses listed in Table 2. Uses Permitted by District are exempt from the private frontage requirements and need only comply with the setback requirements for the zoning district in which they are located.

B.    Front Parking Layouts on Standard Lots in R-3 and C-O Districts may only be permitted for nonresidential uses on standard lots fronting upon an A or B street.

C.    Standard Lots Fronting Upon Woodward Avenue. A front parking layout may only be permitted for standard lots with frontage upon Woodward Avenue in the C-2 district.

D.    Frontage Only Permitted Along B or C Streets on small front setback lots in the C-2 district.

2.404 Common Yard.

Figure 3. Common Yard Private Frontage Illustrative Example

The above Figure 3 shows a residential building. Non-residential buildings will be designed differently and have a different appearance. The above Figure 3 shows one example of development that complies with the requirements of this Section, and is for illustrative purposes only. The above figure is not a binding regulation. Refer to the following text for applicable regulations.

A.    Site Design Standards.

1.    Setbacks and Building Height. Setback and building height requirements are established by zoning district. Refer to the zoning district requirements in Article 2, Chapter 3.

2.    Parking.

a.    All parking spaces, including those in garages, shall be located behind the front building wall of the principal building closest to the front street.

    EXCEPTIONS: Driveway spaces for residential dwelling units may be located in a front yard. In the M-1, M-2 and IP-1 districts, the Planning Commission may approve non-required parking spaces for visitors to be located in the front yard of a common yard private frontage, provided that such parking is set back at least 20 feet from the front property line.

b.    Driveways should access side streets for sites with side street access. Driveways that access front streets are discouraged where side street access is available.

c.    Cross-access between non-residential parking lots on adjacent sites is required. Property owners may be required to file easements granting such cross-access rights to adjacent property owners for the purpose of facilitating common rear-yard parking areas.

d.    Vehicle maneuvering areas may be located in between the building and the front street.

3.    Front Yard Landscaping. The area between the building and the front street shall be landscaped except where vehicle or pedestrian circulation areas are located.

4.    Encroachments. Patios, unenclosed porches, decks, or balconies attached to a dwelling may project up to 8 feet into a required front yard, but in no case may be closer than fifteen feet (15’) to any right-of-way or similar easement.

B.    Residential Building Design Standards.

1.    One and two family dwellings shall comply with following standards:

a.    Aesthetic Quality. One-family and two-family dwellings shall be aesthetically compatible in design and appearance to conventionally constructed homes in the surrounding neighborhood. To that end, each dwelling shall be similar in appearance to conventionally constructed homes typically found in the surrounding neighborhood and/or this Zoning District, in at least the following respects:

i.    massing and related roof lines of the building ;

ii.    arrangement of windows and doors;

iii.    steps and/or porches which provide access to exterior doors;

iv.    color and texture of siding material; and v. roof pitch (5:12 minimum).

b.    Roof Overhang. The dwelling shall have either a roof overhang of not less than six inches (6”) on all sides, or alternatively with window sills or roof drainage systems concentrating roof drainage at collection points along sides of the dwelling. The dwelling shall contain no additions or rooms or other areas which are not constructed with materials similar to the original structure in appearance and quality of workmanship.

c.    Garage Proportion of Front facade. The width of front-loaded garage doors may not exceed 50% of the total width of the front building facade.

d.    Modular or Prefabricated Dwelling Structures shall also comply with the following requirements:

i.    The dwelling shall be firmly attached to a permanent foundation constructed on the site in accordance with the City of Pontiac’s Housing and Building Code. A prefabricated dwelling structure shall be installed in accordance to manufacturer’s specifications.

ii.    The dwelling shall not have exposed wheels, towing mechanism, undercarriage, or chassis.

iii.    The dwelling shall be connected to all required utilities.

iv.    The dwelling will have steps and/or porches which provide access to exterior doors, and which are comparable to steps and/or porches of conventionally constructed homes typically found in the surrounding neighborhood or zoning district in which it is to be located.

v.    The dwelling contains no additions or rooms or other areas which are not constructed with materials similar to the original structure in appearance and quality of workmanship.

    The foregoing standards shall not apply to a mobile home located in a licensed manufactured housing park except to the extent required by state or federal law or otherwise specifically required in the ordinance of the city pertaining to such parks.

2.    Manor House dwelling unit buildings shall comply with the following standards:

a.    Scale and Appearance. The structure shall have a design scale and appearance similar to a single family residential structure.

b.    Architectural details. Walls visible from a street or other residential uses shall include windows and architectural features similar to the front facade of the building, including, but not limited to awnings, cornice work, edge detailing or other decorative finish materials. All buildings shall have pitched roofs, which may include functional dormer windows and varying lines customary with gable or hip style roofing.

c.    Garage Orientation. Attached garages shall be set back a minimum of 5 feet behind the front building wall of the principal structure. There is no limitation on the number or orientation of parking areas, garages and any other accessory structure or uses that may be located within the established rear yard, with access provided by an alley or access drive.

d.    Garage Proportion of Front Facade. The width of front-loaded garage doors may not exceed 50% of the total width of the front building facade.

e.    Front Door Orientation. The manor house building shall have not more nor less than than one main entrance located on the front facade of the building. The front entrance shall include a front porch or stoop that is at least six feet (6’) in width and depth with a minimum area of 36 square feet. Additional exterior entrances may be located on a side facade if the entrance is set back at least 15 feet from the front building wall, or on rear facades.

3.    Apartment buildings shall comply with the following standards:

a.    Building Entrances. Each building shall have at least one entrance door on each street-facing facade to create an appearance that is consistent with a single family character. Entrances to individual units may occur off an interior hallway that is accessed via a front door, or may be located on the side or rear of the building. Interior hallways may also have a secondary entrance on the side or rear of the building.

b.    Architectural Details.

i.    Any facade facing a public street shall be designed as a front facade, including architectural elements to distinguish the facade as the buildings’ primary face. Patio areas are prohibited between the building and a public street unless they are designed to have the appearance of a front porch or stoop commonly found on the front facades of residential structures, or screened by an integral architectural element of the building’s architecture. A freestanding wing wall is an example of a method of screening that is not an integral element of the building. A screening wall that is integral with the front building facade, and that screens a patio area that is partially recessed into the main mass of the building may count as an integral element of the building.

ii.    Walls visible from a street or other residential uses shall include windows and architectural features similar to the front facade of the building, including, but not limited to awnings, cornice work, edge detailing or other decorative finish materials.

c.    Garage Orientation. Where multiple family buildings contain attached or detached garages that are accessory to the dwelling unit, no more than 25% of all garage doors may be located at or in front of the front building wall of the building, with all other garage doors being located at least 10 feet behind the front building wall of the unit or facing the side or rear of the unit. There is no limitation on the number or orientation of parking areas, garages and any other accessory structure or uses that may be located within the established rear yard, with access provided by an alley or access drive.

4.    Modification of Building Design Standards. In the interest of architectural diversity, the residential building design standards may be modified to permit alternate materials or design following the procedures of Article 6, Chapter 6. Any approved modification must result in a building that is equal to or exceeds the quality and design of a building that complies with the building design standards.

C.    Nonresidential Building Design Standards.

1.    Building Materials.

a.    Combination of Materials. Building materials may be combined on a building facade horizontally, with the heavier material below the lighter material.

b.    Primary Building Materials. Primary building materials shall be used on a minimum of 60% of the facade area of the building (excluding the area of doors and windows). Durable natural or natural-appearing building materials such as brick, stone, exposed logs or timber, cementitious siding, split face block, or other similar materials are preferred primary building materials. Durable synthetic building materials that convincingly match the appearance of natural building materials may be used as a primary building material.

c.    Accent Building Materials. Accent materials may be used on up to 40% of the facade area of the building (excluding the area of doors and windows). Acceptable accent materials include decorative precast concrete block, metal, and glass. Non-durable building materials such as EIFS may be used as an accent building material on up to 10% of the total wall area of any facade, but may not be used on the base level of a building.

2.    Base, Middle, Cap Standards.

a.    Base.

i.    The base of the building shall have a minimum height of 12 feet.

ii.    A horizontal molding or cornice shall be provided at the roofline for a one-story building, between the first and second floor for multiple story buildings with 2-4 stories, or between the first and second floor or second and third floor for 5+ story buildings. This molding or cornice adds visual interest and visually separates the base of the building from upper stories. The molding or cornice shall have a minimum height of 4 inches and a projection of at least 2 inches.

b.    Middle. The middle area of the building includes upper stories, and is visually defined by the molding or cornice that defines the base of the building and a cornice or eaves line that defines the cap of the building. There are no specific requirements for the middle of the building. Building material transitions may take place between the base and the middle portions of the facade, or within the middle portion of the facade for buildings 4 stories or greater where the design intent is to create a more substantial appearing base.

c.    Cap. Pitched roofs shall be sloped no less than 5:12, except that roofs for porches and attached sheds may be no less than 2:12. Flat roofs shall be enclosed by parapets a minimum of 30 inches high, or higher if required to conceal mechanical equipment from view from the front street or from any single family residential property. Flat roofs shall include a cornice to define the top of the building.

3.    Building Transparency.

a.    Minimum First Floor Transparency. The minimum transparency on the first floor front facade shall be 40% for buildings with non-residential first floor uses.

b.    Proportion of Openings. Building openings, including doors and windows, shall be square or vertical in proportion except on the first floor front facade, where windows may have a horizontal proportion. Individual windows with a vertical proportion may be grouped together even if the group of windows will have an overall horizontal proportion.

c.    Ground Floor Glass. All ground floor windows shall use transparent, non-reflective, non-tinted glass.

4.    Ground Story Design.

a.    Entrances. All buildings shall have a primary entrance on the front facade of the building. Entrances may be recessed up to 5 feet from the front building wall of the building.

b.    Awnings and Canopies on the ground story may encroach up to 6 feet into setback areas. All awnings shall have a minimum of 8 feet clear space between the sidewalk and the bottom of the awning or any support structure, and the highest point of the awning or canopy shall not exceed the height of the base. Awnings may not be internally illuminated.

5.    Mechanical Equipment and Service Areas.

a.    Service Areas, including utility access, loading areas, and dumpsters shall be located in side or rear yards and shall be screened from view from any street and any residentially used property.

b.    Mechanical and Utility Equipment, such as gas or electrical meters, telephone boxes, utility cabinets, HVAC equipment, and other similar utility devices (whether ground, wall, or roof mounted) shall be screened from view from a point 8 feet above grade level at the centerline of any abutting roads and along any parcel line abutting a residentially used property. The applicant shall submit a line of sight drawing demonstrating that the equipment will not be visible from the above locations. Exterior screening materials shall be the same as the predominant materials of the principal building.

6.    Modification of Building Design Standards. In the interest of architectural diversity, the nonresidential building design standards may be modified to permit alternate materials or design following the procedures of Article 6, Chapter 6. Any approved modification must result in a building that is equal to or exceeds the quality and design of a building that complies with the building design standards.

2.405 Front Parking.

Figure 4. Front Parking Frontage Illustrative Example

The above Figure 4 shows one example of development that complies with the requirements of this Section, and is for illustrative purposes only. The above figure is not a binding regulation. Refer to the following text for applicable regulations.

A.    Site Design Standards.

1.    Setbacks and Building Height. Setback and building height requirements are established by zoning district. Refer to the zoning district requirements in Article 2, Chapter 3.

2.    Parking.

a.    Parking spaces may be located in a front yard between the building and the street.

b.    Driveways should access side streets for sites with side street access. Driveways that access front streets are discouraged where side street access is available.

c.    Cross-access between non-residential parking lots on adjacent sites is required. Property owners may be required to file easements granting such cross-access rights to adjacent property owners for the purpose of facilitating common rear-yard parking areas.

3.    Front Yard Landscaping. The area between parking areas and any street shall be landscaped according to the standards of Article 4, Chapter 4.

B.    Building Design Standards.

1.    Building Materials.

a.    Combination of Materials. Building materials may be combined on a building facade horizontally, with the heavier material below the lighter material.

b.    Primary Building Materials. Primary building materials shall be used on a minimum of 60% of the facade area of the building (excluding the area of doors and windows). Durable natural or natural-appearing building materials such as brick, stone, exposed logs or timber, cementitious siding, split face block, or other similar materials are preferred primary building materials. Durable synthetic building materials that convincingly match the appearance of natural building materials may be used as a primary building material.

c.    Accent Building Materials. Accent materials may be used on up to 40% of the facade area of the building (excluding the area of doors and windows). Acceptable accent materials include decorative precast concrete block, metal, and glass. Non-durable building materials such as EIFS may be used as an accent building material on up to 10% of the total wall area of any facade, but may not be used on the base level of a building.

2.    Base, Middle, Cap Standards.

a.    Base.

i.    The base of the building shall have a minimum height of 12 feet.

ii.    A horizontal molding or cornice shall be provided at the roofline for a one-story building, between the first and second floor for multiple story buildings with 2-4 stories, or between the first and second floor or second and third floor for 5+ story buildings. This molding or cornice adds visual interest and visually separates the base of the building from upper stories. The molding or cornice shall have a minimum height of 4 inches and a projection of at least 2 inches.

b.    Middle. The middle area of the building includes upper stories, and is visually defined by the molding or cornice that defines the base of the building and a cornice or eaves line that defines the cap of the building. There are no specific requirements for the middle of the building. Building material transitions may take place between the base and the middle portions of the facade, or within the middle portion of the facade for buildings 4 stories or greater where the design intent is to create a more substantial appearing base.

c.    Cap. Pitched roofs shall be sloped no less than 5:12, except that roofs for porches and attached sheds may be no less than 2:12. Flat roofs shall be enclosed by parapets a minimum of 30 inches high, or higher if required to conceal mechanical equipment from view from the front street or from any single family residential property. Flat roofs shall include a cornice to define the top of the building.

3.    Building Transparency.

a.    Minimum First Floor Transparency. The minimum transparency on the first floor front facade shall be 40% for buildings with non-residential first floor uses.

b.    Proportion of Openings. Building openings, including doors and windows, shall be square or vertical in proportion except on the first floor front facade, where windows may have a horizontal proportion. Individual windows with a vertical proportion may be grouped together even if the group of windows will have an overall horizontal proportion.

c.    Ground Floor Glass. All ground floor windows shall use transparent, non-reflective, non-tinted glass.

4.    Ground Story Design.

a.    Entrances. All buildings shall have a primary entrance on the front facade of the building. Entrances may be recessed up to 5 feet from the front building wall of the building.

b.    Awnings and Canopies on the ground story may encroach up to 6 feet into setback areas. All awnings shall have a minimum of 8 feet clear space between the sidewalk and the bottom of the awning or any support structure, and the highest point of the awning or canopy shall not exceed the height of the base. Awnings may not be internally illuminated.

5.    Mechanical Equipment and Service Areas.

a.    Service Areas, including utility access, loading areas, and dumpsters shall be located in side or rear yards and shall be screened from view from any street and any residentially used property.

b.    Mechanical and Utility Equipment, such as gas or electrical meters, telephone boxes, utility cabinets, HVAC equipment, and other similar utility devices (whether ground, wall, or roof mounted) shall be screened from view from a point 8 feet above grade level at the centerline of any abutting roads and along any parcel line abutting a residentially used property. The applicant shall submit a line of sight drawing demonstrating that the equipment will not be visible from the above locations. Exterior screening materials shall be the same as the predominant materials of the principal building.

6.    Modification of Building Design Standards. In the interest of architectural diversity, the building design standards may be modified to permit alternate materials or design following the procedures of Article 6, Chapter 6. Any approved modification must result in a building that is equal to or exceeds the quality and design of a building that complies with the building design standards.

2.406 Stoop.

Figure 5. Stoop Private Frontage Illustrative Example

The above Figure 5 shows one example of development that complies with the requirements of this Section, and is for illustrative purposes only. The above figure is not a binding regulation. Refer to the following text for applicable regulations.

A.    Site Design Standards.

1.    Setbacks and Building Height. Setback and building height requirements are established by zoning district, with the exception that the front building wall of any stoop frontage building shall have a minimum front setback of 5 feet. Refer to the zoning district requirements in Article 2, Chapter 3.

2.    Parking.

a.    All parking spaces, including those in garages, shall be located behind the front building wall of the principal building closest to the front street. Exception: portions of driveway spaces for residential dwelling units may be located in a front yard provided that the driveway space has a minimum depth of 18 feet measured from the front property line.

b.    Driveways should access side streets for sites with side street access. Driveways may not access front streets are when a site has side street access. The driveway standards may be modified to permit driveways that access front streets when side street access is available if there is no reasonable alternative, subject to Article 6, Chapter 6.

c.    Cross-access between parking lots on adjacent sites is required. Property owners may be required to file easements granting such cross-access rights to adjacent property owners for the purpose of facilitating common rear-yard parking areas.

3.    Front Yard Landscaping. The area between the building and the front street shall be landscaped except where vehicle or pedestrian circulation areas are located.

4.    Encroachments. Front stoops attached to a dwelling may project up to 6 feet into a required front yard, but in no case may project into a right-of-way or similar easement.

5.    Front Building Wall Frontage in Build-To-Zone. A minimum of 75% of the total width of the front building wall shall be located in the build-to zone for a stoop frontage lot.

B.    Building Design Standards.

1.    Design Features. Any street-facing facade that is visible from a public right-of-way or private road easement shall include features such as, but not limited to columns, cornices, pediments, articulated bases, and fluted masonry covering a minimum of 10% of the exterior wall area.

2.    Front Porch or Stoop Required.

a.    Each dwelling unit or building subdivision shall have a minimum 30 sq. ft. unenclosed porch or stoop.

b.    The porch or stoop shall be raised at least 18 inches above sidewalk grade.

c.    The porch or stoop may be covered so long as the area between the surface of the top surface of the stoop and the underside of the canopy covering the stoop is at least 75% open. For the purpose of calculating the enclosure requirement, the vertical area of any surface or building element intended to enclose the stoop, including screens, shall be subtracted from the total vertical area of the stoop between the floor and the canopy.

3.    Elevated First Floor. In order to provide privacy for first floor rooms, the first floor of the building shall be elevated a minimum of 30 inches above the level of the sidewalk adjacent to the front property line.

4.    Garages.

a.    Garage doors may not comprise more than 35% of the width of any facade facing a public or private street.

b.    Front-facing garage doors may not be located closer to any front street than the front door of the unit to which they are accessory.

c.    Garages are encouraged to be accessed from side or rear facades, particularly when a parcel has side street access.

5.    Building Materials.

a.    Combination of Materials. Building materials may be combined on a building facade horizontally, with the heavier material below the lighter material.

b.    Primary Building Materials. Primary building materials shall be used on a minimum of 60% of the facade area of the building (excluding the area of doors and windows).

    Durable natural or natural-appearing building materials such as brick, stone, exposed logs or timber, cementitious siding, split face block, or other similar materials are preferred primary building materials. Durable synthetic building materials that convincingly match the appearance of natural building materials may be used as a primary building material.

c.    Accent Building Materials. Accent materials may be used on up to 40% of the facade area of the building (excluding the area of doors and windows).

    Acceptable accent materials include decorative precast concrete block, metal, and glass. Non-durable building materials such as EIFS may be used as an accent building material on up to 10% of the total wall area of any facade, but may not be used on the base level of a building.

6.    Base, Middle, Cap Standards.

a.    Base.

i.    The base of the building shall have a minimum height of 10 feet.

ii.    A horizontal molding or cornice shall be provided at the roofline for a one-story building, between the first and second floor for multiple story buildings with 2-4 stories, or between the first and second floor or second and third floor for 5+ story buildings. This molding or cornice adds visual interest and visually separates the base of the building from upper stories. The molding or cornice shall have a minimum height of 4 inches and a projection of at least 2 inches.

b.    Middle. The middle area of the building includes upper stories, and is visually defined by the molding or cornice that defines the base of the building and a cornice or eaves line that defines the cap of the building. There are no specific requirements for the middle of the building. Building material transitions may take place between the base and the middle portions of the facade, or within the middle portion of the facade for buildings 4 stories or greater where the design intent is to create a more substantial appearing base.

c.    Cap. Pitched roofs shall be sloped no less than 5:12, except that roofs for porches and attached sheds may be no less than 2:12. Flat roofs shall be enclosed by parapets a minimum of 30 inches high, or higher if required to conceal mechanical equipment from view from the front street or from any single family residential property. Flat roofs shall include a cornice to define the top of the building.

7.    Building Transparency.

a.    Minimum First Floor Transparency. The minimum transparency on the first floor front facade shall be 50% for buildings with nonresidential first floor uses and 35% for buildings with residential first floor uses.

b.    Maximum Upper Floor Transparency. The maximum transparency on upper stories shall not exceed 50%.

c.    Proportion of Openings. Building openings, including doors and windows, shall be square or vertical in proportion except on the first floor front facade, where windows may have a horizontal proportion. Individual windows with a vertical proportion may be grouped together even if the group of windows will have an overall horizontal proportion.

d.    Ground Floor Glass. All ground floor windows shall use transparent, non-reflective, non-tinted glass.

8.    Entrances. A minimum of 75% of all units within a building shall have their principal entrance on the front facade of the building.

9.    Buildings wider than 75 feet shall incorporate vertical elements in the principal facade to mimic smaller-scale development.

10.    Encroachments. Balconies on upper stories may project up to 6 feet from the face of the building, and may encroach into setback areas.

11.    Mechanical Equipment and Service Areas.

a.    Service Areas, including utility access, loading areas, and dumpsters shall be located in side or rear yards and shall be screened from view from any street and any residentially used property.

b.    Mechanical and Utility Equipment, such as gas or electrical meters, telephone boxes, utility cabinets, HVAC equipment, and other similar utility devices (whether ground, wall, or roof mounted) shall be screened from view from a point 8 feet above grade level at the centerline of any abutting roads and along any parcel line abutting a residentially used property. The applicant shall submit a line of sight drawing demonstrating that the equipment will not be visible from the above locations. Exterior screening materials shall be the same as the predominant materials of the principal building.

12.    Modification of Building Design Standards. In the interest of architectural diversity, the building design standards may be modified to permit alternate materials or design following the procedures of Article 6, Chapter 6. Any approved modification must result in a building that is equal to or exceeds the quality and design of a building that complies with the building design standards.

2.407 Courtyard.

Figure 6. Courtyard Private Frontage Illustrative Example

The above Figure 6 shows one example of development that complies with the requirements of this Section, and is for illustrative purposes only. The above figure is not a binding regulation. Refer to the following text for applicable regulations.

A.    Site Design Standards.

1.    Setbacks and Building Height. Setback and building height requirements are established by zoning district. Refer to the zoning district requirements in Article 2, Chapter 3.

2.    Parking.

a.    All parking spaces, including those in garages, shall be located behind the front building wall of the principal building closest to the front street.

b.    Driveways should access side streets for sites with side street access. Driveways may not access front streets are when a site has side street access. The driveway standards may be modified to permit driveways that access front streets when side street access is available if there is no reasonable alternative, subject to Article 6, Chapter 6.

c.    Cross-access between parking lots on adjacent sites is required. Property owners may be required to file easements granting such cross-access rights to adjacent property owners for the purpose of facilitating common rear-yard parking areas.

d.    Vehicle maneuvering areas may be located in between the building and the front street.

3.    Front Building Wall Frontage in Build-To-Zone. A minimum of 80% of the total width of the front building wall shall be located in the build-to zone for a courtyard frontage lot. For the purposes of measuring front building wall frontage, courtyard areas shall be considered part of the front building wall width.

B.    Building Design Standards.

1.    Courtyard Width. The courtyard shall not exceed 60% of the width of the lot.

2.    Building Materials.

a.    Combination of Materials. Building materials may be combined on a building facade horizontally, with the heavier material below the lighter material.

b.    Primary Building Materials. Primary building materials shall be used on a minimum of 60% of the facade area of the building (excluding the area of doors and windows). Durable natural or natural-appearing building materials such as brick, stone, exposed logs or timber, cementitious siding, split face block, or other similar materials are preferred primary building materials. Durable synthetic building materials that convincingly match the appearance of natural building materials may be used as a primary building material.

c.    Accent Building Materials. Accent materials may be used on up to 40% of the facade area of the building (excluding the area of doors and windows). Acceptable accent materials include decorative precast concrete block, metal, and glass. Non-durable building materials such as EIFS may be used as an accent building material on up to 10% of the total wall area of any facade, but may not be used on the base level of a building.

3.    Base, Middle, Cap Standards.

a.    Base.

i.    The base of the building shall have a minimum height of 12 feet.

ii.    A horizontal molding or cornice shall be provided at the roofline for a one-story building, between the first and second floor for multiple story buildings with 2-4 stories, or between the first and second floor or second and third floor for 5+ story buildings. This molding or cornice adds visual interest and visually separates the base of the building from upper stories. The molding or cornice shall have a minimum height of 4 inches and a projection of at least 2 inches.

b.    Middle. The middle area of the building includes upper stories, and is visually defined by the molding or cornice that defines the base of the building and a cornice or eaves line that defines the cap of the building. There are no specific requirements for the middle of the building. Building material transitions may take place between the base and the middle portions of the facade, or within the middle portion of the facade for buildings 4 stories or greater where the design intent is to create a more substantial appearing base.

c.    Cap. Pitched roofs shall be sloped no less than 5:12, except that roofs for porches and attached sheds may be no less than 2:12. Flat roofs shall be enclosed by parapets a minimum of 30 inches high, or higher if required to conceal mechanical equipment from view from the front street or from any single family residential property. Flat roofs shall include a cornice to define the top of the building.

4.    Building Transparency.

a.    Minimum First Floor Transparency. The minimum transparency on the first floor front facade shall be 50% for buildings with nonresidential first floor uses and 40% for buildings with residential first floor uses.

b.    Maximum Upper Floor Transparency. The maximum transparency on upper stories shall not exceed 60%.

c.    Proportion of Openings. Building openings, including doors and windows, shall be square or vertical in proportion except on the first floor front facade, where windows may have a horizontal proportion. Individual windows with a vertical proportion may be grouped together even if the group of windows will have an overall horizontal proportion.

d.    Ground Floor Glass. All ground floor windows shall use transparent, non-reflective, non-tinted glass.

5.    Ground Story Design.

a.    Entrances. All buildings shall have their principal entrance on the front facade of the building. Entrances may be recessed up to 5 feet from the front building wall of the building.

b.    Ground Story Height. A minimum clear height of 12 feet shall be provided for the ground story in a courtyard building.

c.    Bulkhead Below First Floor Windows. First floor windows may not extend down to grade level. A bulkhead or kickplate with a minimum height of one foot shall be provided below first floor windows. The bulkhead should use primary materials, and the chosen material should appear heavier visually than the material used for the walls.

6.    Alignment of Building Features. Windowsills, moldings, and cornices shall align with those of adjacent buildings to create a consistent design pattern. The bottom and top line defining the edge of the windows (the “windowsill alignment”) shall not vary more than two feet from the alignment of surrounding buildings. If the adjoining buildings have windowsill alignment that varies by more than two feet from one another, the proposed building shall align with one of the adjoining buildings.

7.    Buildings wider than 75 feet shall incorporate vertical elements in the principal facade to mimic smaller-scale development.

8.    Encroachments.

a.    Balconies on upper stories may project up to 6 feet from the face of the building, and may encroach into setback areas.

b.    Awnings on the ground story may encroach up to 6 feet from the face of the building, and may encroach into setback areas. All awnings shall have a minimum of 8 feet clear space between the sidewalk and the bottom of the awning or any support structure, and shall not exceed a height of 12 feet to the highest point of the canopy. Awnings may not be internally illuminated.

9.    Mechanical Equipment and Service Areas.

a.    Service Areas, including utility access, loading areas, and dumpsters shall be located in side or rear yards and shall be screened from view from any street and any residentially used property.

b.    Mechanical and Utility Equipment, such as gas or electrical meters, telephone boxes, utility cabinets, HVAC equipment, and other similar utility devices (whether ground, wall, or roof mounted) shall be screened from view from a point 8 feet above grade level at the centerline of any abutting roads and along any parcel line abutting a residentially used property. The applicant shall submit a line of sight drawing demonstrating that the equipment will not be visible from the above locations. Exterior screening materials shall be the same as the predominant materials of the principal building.

10.    Modification of Building Design Standards. In the interest of architectural diversity, the building design standards may be modified to permit alternate materials or design following the procedures of Article 6, Chapter 6. Any approved modification must result in a building that is equal to or exceeds the quality and design of a building that complies with the building design standards.

2.408 Streetfront.

Figure 7. Streetfront Private Frontage Illustrative Example

The above Figure 7 shows one example of development that complies with the requirements of this Section, and is for illustrative purposes only. The above figure is not a binding regulation. Refer to the following text for applicable regulations.

A.    Site Design Standards.

1.    Setbacks and Building Height. Setback and building height requirements are established by zoning district. Refer to the zoning district requirements in Article 2, Chapter 3.

2.    Parking.

a.    All parking spaces, including those in garages, shall be set back a minimum of 15 feet from any street.

b.    Driveways should access side streets for sites with side street access. Driveways that access front streets are discouraged when side street access is available.

c.    Cross-access between parking lots on adjacent sites is required. Property owners may be required to file easements granting such cross-access rights to adjacent property owners for the purpose of facilitating common rear-yard parking areas.

3.    Front Building Wall Frontage in Build-To-Zone. A minimum of 80% of the total width of the front building wall shall be located in the build-to zone for a streetfront frontage lot.

B.    Building Design Standards.

1.    Base, Middle, Cap Standards.

a.    Base.

i.    The base of the building shall have a minimum height of 12 feet.

ii.    A horizontal molding or cornice shall be provided at the roofline for a one-story building, between the first and second floor for multiple story buildings with 2-4 stories, or between the first and second floor or second and third floor for 5+ story buildings. This molding or cornice adds visual interest and visually separates the base of the building from upper stories. The molding or cornice shall have a minimum height of 4 inches and a projection of at least 2 inches.

b.    Middle. The middle area of the building includes upper stories, and is visually defined by the molding or cornice that defines the base of the building and a cornice or eaves line that defines the cap of the building. There are no specific requirements for the middle of the building. Building material transitions may take place between the base and the middle portions of the facade, or within the middle portion of the facade for buildings 4 stories or greater where the design intent is to create a more substantial appearing base.

c.    Cap. Pitched roofs shall be sloped no less than 5:12, except that roofs for porches and attached sheds may be no less than 2:12. Flat roofs shall be enclosed by parapets a minimum of 30 inches high, or higher if required to conceal mechanical equipment from view from the front street or from any single family residential property. Flat roofs shall include a cornice to define the top of the building.

2.    Building Transparency.

a.    Minimum First Floor Transparency. The minimum transparency on the first floor front facade shall be 65% for buildings with nonresidential first floor uses and 40% for buildings with residential first floor uses.

b.    Maximum Upper Floor Transparency. The maximum transparency on upper stories shall not exceed 60%.

c.    Proportion of Openings. Building openings, including doors and windows, shall be square or vertical in proportion except on the first floor front facade, where windows may have a horizontal proportion. Individual windows with a vertical proportion may be grouped together even if the group of windows will have an overall horizontal proportion.

    Horizontal window bands may be approved as a modification following the procedures of Article 6, Chapter 6 provided that mullions or framing elements are included that create a vertical proportion for panes of glass within the horizontal band.

d.    Ground Floor Glass. All ground floor windows shall use transparent, non-reflective, non-tinted glass.

3.    Ground Story Design.

a.    Entrances. All buildings shall have their principal entrance on the front facade of the building. Entrances may be recessed up to 5 feet from the front building wall of the building.

b.    Ground Story Height. A minimum clear height of 12 feet shall be provided for the ground story in a streetfront building.

c.    Bulkhead Below First Floor Windows. First floor windows may not extend down to grade level. A bulkhead or kickplate with a minimum height of one foot shall be provided below ground story windows. The bulkhead should use primary materials, and the chosen material should appear heavier visually than the material used for the walls.

4.    Alignment of Building Features. Windowsills, moldings, and cornices shall align with those of adjacent buildings to create a consistent design pattern. The bottom and top line defining the edge of the windows (the “windowsill alignment”) shall not vary more than two feet from the alignment of surrounding buildings. If the adjoining buildings have windowsill alignment that varies by more than two feet from one another, the proposed building shall align with one of the adjoining buildings.

5.    Buildings wider than 75 feet shall incorporate vertical elements in the principal facade to mimic smaller-scale development.

6.    Encroachments.

a.    Balconies on upper stories may project up to 6 feet from the face of the building, and may encroach into setback areas.

b.    Awnings on the ground story may encroach up to 6 feet from the face of the building, and may encroach into setback areas. All awnings shall have a minimum of 8 feet clear space between the sidewalk and the bottom of the awning or any support structure, and shall not exceed a height of 12 feet to the highest point of the canopy. Awnings may not be internally illuminated.

7.    Mechanical Equipment and Service Areas.

a.    Service Areas, including utility access, loading areas, and dumpsters shall be located in side or rear yards and shall be screened from view from any street and any residentially used property.

b.    Mechanical and Utility Equipment, such as gas or electrical meters, telephone boxes, utility cabinets, HVAC equipment, and other similar utility devices (whether ground, wall, or roof mounted) shall be screened from view from a point 8 feet above grade level at the centerline of any abutting roads and along any parcel line abutting a residentially used property. The applicant shall submit a line of sight drawing demonstrating that the equipment will not be visible from the above locations. Exterior screening materials shall be the same as the predominant materials of the principal building.

8.    Modification of Building Design Standards. In the interest of architectural diversity, the building design standards may be modified to permit alternate materials or design following the procedures of Article 6, Chapter 6. Any approved modification must result in a building that is equal to or exceeds the quality and design of a building that complies with the building design standards.