Chapter 17.148


17.148.010    Purpose.

17.148.020    General provisions.

17.148.030    Number of parking spaces required.

17.148.040    Size of parking spaces and required aisle width.

17.148.050    Loading space requirements.

17.148.060    Drive-through establishments.

17.148.070    Shared and off-site parking.

17.148.080    Circulation and parking space layout.

17.148.090    Surface of parking areas.

17.148.100    Landscaping.

17.148.110    Lighting.

17.148.120    Parking lot plan required.

17.148.130    Parking and storage of commercial vehicles.

17.148.140    Parking and storage in residential zones.

17.148.010 Purpose.

The purpose of this section is to provide sufficient off-street parking and loading spaces for all land uses and to assure the provision and maintenance of safe, adequate and well-designed off-street parking facilities. It is the intent of this section that the number of parking spaces shall be in proportion to the need created by the particular type of use. The standards for parking facilities are intended to reduce street congestion and traffic hazards, promote vehicular and pedestrian safety and efficient land use. Off-street parking and loading areas shall be established in a manner which will promote compatibility between parking facilities and surrounding neighborhoods, protect property values and enhance the environment through good design by providing such amenities as landscaping, walls, fencing and setbacks, improve the appearance of parking lots, yards, uncovered sales areas and buildings, control heat, wind and air pollutants, minimize nuisances, and promote aesthetic values and the general well-being of the residents of the City. Off-street vehicle parking shall be provided in accordance with this section when the building or structure is constructed or the use of established. Additional off-street parking shall be provided in accordance with this section if an existing building is altered or dwelling units, apartments or guest rooms are added, or a use is intensified by the addition of floor space or seating capacity, or there is a change of use, at the time of such alteration, addition, intensification or change of use. [Ord. 772 § 17.66.010, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.010].

17.148.020 General provisions.

A. All required parking and loading spaces and driveways shall be maintained in good condition and available for its intended use as long as the use for which it was required continues to operate or exist. Except in residential districts, inside a garage, no storage shall encroach into any required parking or loading space or driveway and no vehicles shall be continuously parked in these areas, and all vehicles so parked shall be operable and have current registration.

B. Where automobile parking spaces are provided and maintained on a lot in connection with a structure at the time this chapter became effective is insufficient to meet the requirements for the use with which it is associated, or where no such parking has been provided, said structure may be altered or enlarged, or such use may be extended or intensified only if additional automobile parking spaces are provided to meet the standards for said use in conformity with the requirements set forth in this chapter, for the enlargement, extension or addition proposed.

C. Where calculations of the number of spaces required results in a fractional number, the next higher whole number shall be used.

D. In cases of mixed use in a building or on a lot, the total requirements for off-street parking shall be the sum of the requirements for the various uses computed separately.

E. When a garage is specifically required, or provided to meet required parking, entry doors shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times, and no structural alteration or obstruction shall be permitted within the required parking area which would reduce the number of required parking spaces. Use of garages shall be limited to vehicular and general storage purposes only and shall not conflict with any applicable building, housing, or fire codes.

F. Vacant lots, privately owned lots, and parking lots of commercial and industrial businesses shall not be used for the advertising and sale of motor vehicles, boats or trailers, or similar property unless they are duly licensed by the City to do so, except that occupied property may be used for the sale of personal vehicles of the property owners providing not more than one vehicle may be displayed which is not otherwise prohibited by this chapter and subject to the provisions of LEMC 17.196.110(H).

G. No vehicle, boat, or trailer shall be parked or stored on any vacant or undeveloped property in any district, with the exception that no more than three noncommercial motor vehicles which are operable, currently licensed and registered to the occupant of an abutting developed residential lot may be parked on undeveloped lots in the R-1 (Single-Family Residential) zoning district. The portions of the undeveloped lot which are used for parking shall be paved prior to any use for parking, unless paving is waived for the primary lot pursuant to LEMC 17.148.090(B). [Ord. 772 § 17.66.020, 1986; Ord. 830 § 1, 1988. Code 1987 § 17.66.020].

17.148.030 Number of parking spaces required.

The following minimum numbers of off-street parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with this chapter for all new buildings or uses and when any building or use is altered, extended, changed, or intensified.

A. In commercial districts and generally for commercial uses, including offices, except in the Commercial Manufacturing District, one parking space shall be provided for each 250 square feet of gross floor area, unless otherwise specified in subsection (E) of this section.

B. In the Commercial Manufacturing District, one parking space shall be provided for each 400 square feet of unit area up to 20,000 square feet, plus one space for each 1,000 square feet of unit area over 20,000 square feet, plus one space for each 1,000 square feet of outside sales, display or storage area, unless otherwise specified in subsection (E) of this section. Parking in this district shall be based on the individual unit size into which a building is divided and the cumulative total of spaces required for the individual units shall be the required parking for a building.

C. In manufacturing districts; except the Commercial Manufacturing District, one parking space shall be provided for each 500 square feet of unit area for up to 20,000 square feet, plus one space for each 1,000 square feet of unit area over 20,000 square feet, and one parking space for every 1,000 square feet of warehousing floor area, unless otherwise specified in subsection (E) of this section.

D. Parking Study. A request to reduce the number of required parking spaces may be made to the Planning Commission concurrent with the design review of a commercial or industrial project or with a proposed change of use within a commercial or industrial building when the applicant determines that the actual number of needed parking spaces is less than that required by the code. A request for a parking determination will be by an established fee and will require a separate application.

1. In order for the Planning Commission to grant a parking determination, findings shall be made. Said findings may include but shall not be limited to the following:

a. A parking study supports the finding that the number of parking spaces actually needed for a development and/or use is less than that required by the code.

b. Adequate off-street parking will be provided for the proposed use.

c. Traffic safety and pedestrian safety will not be affected by the modification of the parking requirements.

d. Reduced parking will not affect the health, safety and welfare of the public.

e. Alternative transportation programs exist such as ride sharing, mass transit, etc., that reduce the actual number of parking spaces needed.

f. Only a predetermined portion of the building on the parcel is to be occupied.

g. Sufficient area exists on site for expansion of the parking area should the occupancy or use of the structure change.

h. That space that would otherwise be dedicated for parking could be utilized for a purpose that enhances the project.

i. The parking determination has been conditioned to ensure compliance with the findings and the intent of this chapter and to ensure that additional parking spaces will be provided per code requirements should demand for parking increase on site.

2. A parking determination granting reduced parking requirements may be revoked at any time if there is evidence of insufficient on-site parking, i.e., “spill over” parking onto a public right-of-way or onto an adjacent lot. Upon revocation of a parking determination approval the applicant will be required to submit a new application for a parking determination or provide on-site parking per code requirements.

E. For the following uses the minimum number of parking spaces required shall be as specified below. The required parking shall be the cumulative total for all uses on the same site.

1. For residential uses:

a. Single-Family Detached Dwellings. Two spaces per dwelling unit in a garage, plus two open spaces, which may be located in the driveway in a tandem position, in front of the garage door.

In lieu of the two open spaces in the driveway, one open space per dwelling unit may be provided elsewhere on the lot or in a common area in a planned unit development.

b. For multifamily and attached single-family dwellings, duplexes:

(1) For studio and one-bedroom units: one covered space, plus two-thirds open space per dwelling unit;

(2) For two or more bedrooms: one covered space, plus one and one-third open space per dwelling unit.

2. Auditoriums, churches, theaters and places of assembly: one space per each three seats. Where there are no fixed seats, one space per 21 square feet of floor area in places of assembly. Where fixed seats consist of pews or benches, 18 lineal inches of pew or bench shall be considered one seat.

3. Boardinghouses, fraternities and group living quarters: one space per resident.

4. Bowling alleys: four spaces per lane.

5. Clubs, discos, ballrooms, cabarets, cocktail lounges, dance halls, lodges, and incidental dancing areas and similar facilities where dancing is the principal use of the area: one parking space for every 30 square feet of dance floor area, plus required parking for any dining, assembly or office uses.

6. Game courts, such as tennis and racquetball: two spaces for each court.

7. Golf courses: four spaces per hole.

8. Golf driving ranges: one space per tee.

9. Hospitals, acute care: one space per licensed bed.

10. Hospitals, convalescent homes and sanitariums, nursing homes, rest homes, retirement homes and similar establishments: one space for each three licensed beds.

11. Hotels and motels: one space per room or suite, plus one space per every three employees on the largest workshift, plus one space per three persons to the maximum capacity of each public meeting and/or banquet room, plus 50 percent of the spaces otherwise required for accessory uses (e.g., restaurants and bars).

12. Outdoor display, sales, and storage areas: one space for each 1,000 square feet.

13. Restaurants and other eating, drinking, and food establishments: one space for each 45 square feet of customer area, plus one space for each 200 square feet of noncustomer area.

14. Schools, Private.

a. Elementary and junior high: one space per teacher and staff member, plus one space per two classrooms;

b. Senior high: one space per teacher and staff member on the largest shift, plus five spaces for every classroom;

c. College: one space per staff member on the largest shift, plus 10 spaces per classroom;

d. Commercial or trade schools: one space per two students, plus one space per employee (including faculty) at capacity class attendance period;

e. Day care/preschool: one space for each employee plus one space for each 10 children the facility is designed to accommodate.

15. Vehicle repair and service: three spaces for each service bay, plus one space for each 250 square feet of office, sales, and storage areas.

16. Medical uses (including offices for doctors, dentists, and chiropractors): one space for each 175 square feet of gross floor area.

17. Short-term rentals: parking for short-term rentals shall comply with the parking requirements set forth in Chapter 5.86 LEMC. [Ord. 1465 § 4 (Exh. B § 11), 2022; Ord. 1350 § 4, 2016; Ord. 1191 § 3, 2006; Ord. 884 § 1, 1990; Ord. 830 § 1, 1988; Ord. 772 § 17.66.030, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.030].

17.148.040 Size of parking spaces and required aisle width.

A. Parking spaces shall have the following minimum clear dimensions and aisle width as indicated below:


Space (in feet)

Aisle Width (in feet)








Residential, covered3, 4




Residential, uncovered4














Recreational vehicle







Parallel spaces



(1) Open or uncovered spaces with sides abutting a wall, building, fence, or other obstruction shall be two feet wider than the standard required width.

(2) Parking space length may include a two-foot allowance for vehicle overhang of a landscaped area.

(3) The required dimensions of a garage or carport shall be measured from the interior of the garage or carport.

(4) For multi-car garages or carports, the minimum width for parking stalls shall be nine and one-half feet.

B. In commercial districts and for commercial uses, all parking spaces shall be striped with double lines two feet apart separating spaces.

C. Parking for the handicapped shall be provided in accordance with State requirements. [Ord. 1191 § 3, 2006; Ord. 830 § 1, 1988; Ord. 772 § 17.66.040, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.040].

17.148.050 Loading space requirements.

A. All buildings which are newly constructed, altered with respect to use or occupancy or expanded shall be provided with off-street loading spaces per the following schedule:

Square Feet of Unit Space (Gross Floor Area)

Loading Spaces Required

Commercial Uses


12,000 – 20,000

1 Type A

Over 20,000

1 Type B

Manufacturing Uses (including all uses in the C-M district)


Under 7,500

1 Type A

7,500 – 15,000

1 Type B

15,001 – 25,000

2 Type B

25,001 – 40,000

2 Type C

40,001 – 50,000

3 Type C

For each additional 50,000

1 Type C

Loading spaces shall be provided for each individual unit in accordance with the sizes listed.

B. Minimum Specifications for Loading Spaces.




Vertical Clearance

Type A

20 feet

12 feet

14 feet

Type B

40 feet

12 feet

14 feet

Type C

55 feet

12 feet

14 feet

C. Loading spaces shall not encroach into any drive aisle or other required spaces.

D. Wherever a loading space is located adjacent to parking spaces there shall be a protective landscaped buffer a minimum of five feet wide separating the two.

E. Loading spaces shall be located and designed such that trucks shall not need to maneuver or back onto a public street or alley. [Ord. 772 § 17.66.050, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.050].

17.148.060 Drive-through establishments.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, additional vehicle storage spaces shall be provided for all establishments having vehicle pick-up windows as follows:

A. A drive-through lane with minimum storage for eight vehicles shall be provided at 20 feet per vehicle.

B. The drive-through lane shall be designed such that it will not interfere with free and orderly circulation of the parking lot.

C. The drive-through lane shall not encroach upon or block driveways or parking spaces and shall be separated from adjoining driveways, parking spaces, and property lines by a landscaped planter a minimum of five feet in width. [Ord. 772 § 17.66.060, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.060].

17.148.070 Shared and off-site parking.

The Planning Commission may approve a conditional use permit to allow the use of shared and off-site parking requirements to reduce the total number of required on-site parking spaces for different uses and also to allow sharing of loading spaces when the following requirements have been complied with:

A. A parking study addressing the potential peak parking demand and an actual parking survey of the parking facility under consideration shall be submitted.

B. Sufficient evidence shall be presented demonstrating that no substantial conflict in the principal hours or periods of peak demand for the structures or uses for which the joint use is proposed will exist.

C. Parties concerned in the use of shared or off-site parking facilities shall provide evidence of agreements for such use by a proper legal instrument, which shall be recorded in the Office of the County Recorder with two copies thereof filed with the Planning Division as a condition of any approval.

D. In no case shall the total parking reduction be allowed to exceed 50 percent of the total parking for all uses combined.

E. Any off-site parking shall be located so that it will adequately serve the use for which it is intended, with safe and convenient access without unreasonable hazard to pedestrian, vehicular traffic, or traffic congestion and shall not be detrimental to the use of any business, property or residential neighborhood in the vicinity. [Ord. 772 § 17.66.070, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.070].

17.148.080 Circulation and parking space layout.

All parking areas shall be designed as follows:

A. The location and dimensions of aisle areas adjacent to parking spaces shall be arranged in accordance with the minimum parking standards required by this chapter.

B. For all uses other than one-family and two-family dwellings located in residential districts, parking shall be arranged so as to permit vehicles to move out of the parking area without backing onto a street. No tandem spaces shall be allowed, except for one-family and two-family dwellings.

C. No two-way drive aisle width shall be less than 20 feet. No one-way drive aisle width shall be less than 12 feet.

D. All parking shall be designed to provide complete and through circulation wherever possible. In any case, adequate turning radii and turnarounds shall be provided for emergency vehicles and trash and delivery trucks.

E. Parking spaces should be located within 150 feet of the use which they are intended to serve.

F. For any structure which extends above a drive aisle, the minimum vertical clearance shall be 14 feet. [Ord. 830 § 1, 1988; Ord. 772 § 17.66.080, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.080].

17.148.090 Surface of parking areas.

The following standards shall apply to all parking areas required by this chapter:

A. The flooring material for garages and carports in all districts shall be portland cement concrete.

B. All parking and loading spaces and driveways shall be paved and maintained in good and safe condition and shall be so graded and drained as to dispose of all surface water and to prevent water from running off onto adjoining property without the permission of the owner of that property. Paving of driveways for single-family residences may be waived where street improvements are not installed. Drainage courses and swales in parking lots shall be paved with concrete. All asphalt parking lots shall receive a seal coat.

C. Except for single-family and two-family residences all off-street parking and loading spaces shall be marked by white stripes not less than four inches wide painted on the surfaced area, or by similar means as approved by the Community Development Director. [Ord. 772 § 17.66.090, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.090].

17.148.100 Landscaping.

Wherever any parking area, except for single-family dwellings, is provided landscaping consisting of trees, shrubs, vines, ground cover, or combinations thereof, and permanent irrigation shall be installed and permanently maintained in accordance with the following standards.

A. Where any parking area or driveway abuts a street, there shall be a minimum setback of 15 feet and an average of 20 feet from the public right-of-way, which shall be fully landscaped and irrigated unless a greater setback is required by any other provision of this title.

B. Where any parking or driveway areas which are intended to serve a commercial or industrial use abuts a residential district, a minimum 10-foot-wide landscaped planter containing evergreen trees spaced not more than 30 feet apart shall be provided. In addition, a masonry wall a minimum of six feet in height shall also be constructed along the property line adjacent to the residential district.

C. Where any parking or driveway abuts a residential or commercial district, a landscaped planter a minimum of five feet shall separate the parking area from the property line, unless a greater setback is required by any other provisions of this title.

D. Internal landscaping in addition to subsections (A), (B) and (C) of this section, and equal to a minimum of five percent of the parking and driveway areas is required and shall be distributed throughout the parking area.

E. All landscape planter beds in interior parking areas shall be not less than five feet in width and bordered by a concrete curb not less than six inches nor more than eight inches in height adjacent to the parking surface.

F. Parking and driveway areas in commercial and residential zones shall be separated from buildings by a landscaped planter.

G. Where a drive aisle abuts the side of a parking space, a landscaped planter shall separate the parking space from the drive aisle.

H. At least one 24-inch box tree shall be provided within the parking area for every five parking spaces built.

I. Any unused space resulting from the design of the parking area shall be used for landscape purposes.

J. The height of boundary or interior landscaping shall be limited to a height not to exceed three feet or in the case of trees, no branch shall be below six feet, when within 15 feet of the point of intersection of:

1. A vehicular trafficway or driveway and a street;

2. A vehicular trafficway or driveway or sidewalk;

3. Two or more vehicular trafficways or streets.

K. Maintenance. Required landscaping shall be maintained in a neat, clean, and healthy condition. This includes pruning, mowing of lawns, weeding, removal of litter, fertilizing, replacement of plants where necessary, and the regular watering of all plant material. [Ord. 1206 § 4, 2006; Ord. 853 § 1, 1989; Ord. 772 § 17.66.100, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.100].

17.148.110 Lighting.

Adequate parking lot lighting for security purposes shall be required and maintained to effectively illuminate the parking area of all developments, except for single-family and duplex dwellings. Lighting shall be located and designed so as to preclude the direct glare of light shining onto adjacent property, streets, or into the sky above a horizontal plane passing through the luminaire. [Ord. 830 § 1, 1988; Ord. 772 § 17.66.110, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.110].

17.148.120 Parking lot plan required.

Prior to the occupancy of any building or property except a single-family residence, an approval of a parking lot plan shall be obtained from the Planning Division. The parking lot plan shall be required to contain the following information, which may be provided on separate or multiple sheets:

A. Name, address, and location of the development;

B. Scale, north arrow, and vicinity map showing closest major streets and distances to cross streets on each side;

C. Property lines and lot dimensions;

D. Location and width of all easements;

E. Footprint of all structures and any overhangs or projections;

F. Location of all entrances and loading doors;

G. Location of all curbs and wheel stops;

H. Location, typical dimensions, and type of surfacing for all driveways, parking and loading spaces, and thickness of the paving;

I. Location of all trash enclosures, transformers, and any equipment outside a building;

J. Striping plan;

K. Location and type of any lighting fixtures;

L. Location and type of any signs;

M. Grading and drainage plan;

N. Landscaping and irrigation plan;

O. Statistical summary of the project including total gross square feet of each building and the total square feet, the number of covered, standard, and compact parking spaces, and the total number of parking and loading spaces. [Ord. 772 § 17.66.120, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.120].

17.148.130 Parking and storage of commercial vehicles.

A. Definition. For the purpose of this section “commercial vehicle” shall mean self-propelled vehicle used or maintained for the transportation of persons for hire, compensation or profit or used and maintained primarily for the transportation of property including, but not limited to, tractors, vans, trailers, panel trucks, dump trucks, but excluding vans and pickups with wheel bases less than 150 inches.

B. Restrictions.

1. Parking or storing of commercial vehicles in residential districts for any length of time is prohibited, except that commercial vehicles may park for the purpose of making pickups and deliveries of materials and merchandise from or to any building or site.

2. Commercial vehicles shall not be parked or stored on vacant or undeveloped property in any district. [Ord. 772 § 17.66.130, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.130].

17.148.140 Parking and storage in residential zones.

A. When a garage is specifically required, entry doors shall remain operable at all times, and no structural alteration or permanent obstruction shall be permitted within the required parking area. Use of garages shall be for vehicular and general storage purposes only, and shall not conflict with any applicable building, housing and fire codes.

B. Motor vehicles, trailers, boats, and similar equipment may be parked within the required front yard setback only in a driveway or parking space which conforms to City standards. They shall not otherwise be parked in the required front yard setback. They may be parked behind the required front yard setback or in a side or rear yard only if they are screened from adjacent properties and the public right-of-way by a solid fence, wall, or gate a minimum of six feet in height. [Ord. 1342 § 1, 2015; Ord. 772 § 17.66.140, 1986. Code 1987 § 17.66.140].