40.240.830 Special Management Area Cultural Resource Review Criteria

A.    General Guidelines for Implementing the Cultural Resources Protection Process.

1.    All cultural resource information shall remain confidential, according to Section 6(a)(1)(A) of the Scenic Area Act. Federal agency cultural resource information is also exempt by statute from the Freedom of Information Act under 16 USC 470(hh) and 36 CFR 296.18.

2.    All cultural resources surveys, evaluations, assessments, and mitigation plans shall be performed by professionals whose expertise reflects the type of cultural resources that are involved. Principal investigators shall meet the professional standards published in 36 CFR 61.

3.    The Forest Service will be responsible for performing the literature review and consultation, inventory, evaluations of significance, assessments of effect, and mitigation requirements in Section 40.240.830(D) for forest practices and National Forest System lands.

4.    New developments or land uses shall not adversely affect significant cultural resources.

B.    The procedures and guidelines in Section 40.240.820 shall be used to review all proposed developments and land uses other than those on all federal lands, federally assisted projects and forest practices.

C.    The procedures and guidelines in 36 CFR 800 and Section 40.240.830(D) shall be used by federal agencies to evaluate new developments or land uses on federal lands, federally assisted projects, and forest practices.

D.    The following procedures as well as the provisions in 36 CFR 800 shall be used to assess potential effects to cultural resources:

1.    Literature Review and Consultation.

a.    An assessment shall be made to determine if any cultural resources listed on the National Register of Historic Places at the national, state or county level exist on or within the area of potential direct and indirect impacts.

b.    A search shall be made of state and county government, National Scenic Area/Forest Service and any other pertinent inventories, such as archives and photographs, to identify cultural resources, including consultation with the State Historic Preservation Office and tribal governments. State and tribal government response to the consultation request shall be allowed for thirty (30) days.

c.    Consultation with cultural resource professionals knowledgeable about the area.

d.    A field inventory by a cultural resource professional shall be required if the Forest Service or the responsible official determines that a recorded or known cultural resource exists on or within the immediate vicinity of a new development or land use, including those reported in consultation with the tribal governments.

2.    Field Inventory.

a.    Tribal representatives shall be invited to participate in the field inventory.

b.    The field inventory shall consist of one (1) or the other of the following guidelines, as determined by the cultural resource professional:

(1)    Complete survey: the systematic examination of the ground surface through a controlled procedure, such as walking an area in evenly spaced transects. A complete survey may also require techniques such as clearing of vegetation, augering or shovel probing of subsurface soils for the presence of buried cultural resources.

(2)    Sample survey: the sampling of an area to assess the potential of cultural resources within the area of proposed development or use. This technique is generally used for large or difficult to survey parcels, and is generally accomplished by a stratified random or nonstratified random sampling strategy. A parcel is either stratified by variables such as vegetation, topography or elevation, or by nonenvironmental factors such as a survey grid.

    Under this method, statistically valid samples are selected and surveyed to indicate the probability of presence, numbers and types of cultural resources throughout the sampling strata. Depending on the results of the sample, a complete survey may or may not subsequently be recommended.

c.    A field inventory report shall be prepared, and shall include the following:

(1)    A narrative integrating the literature review of subsection (D)(1) of this section with the field inventory of subsection (D)(2)(b) of this section.

(2)    A description of the field inventory methodology used, including the type and extent of field inventory, supplemented by maps which graphically illustrate the areas surveyed, not surveyed, and the rationale for each.

(3)    A statement of the presence or absence of cultural resources within the area of the new development or land use.

(4)    When cultural resources are not located, a statement of the likelihood of buried or otherwise concealed cultural resources shall be included. Recommendations and standards for monitoring, if appropriate, shall be included.

d.    The report shall follow the format specified by the Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation for inventories conducted in the state of Washington.

e.    The field inventory report shall be presented to the Forest Service or the responsible official for review.

3.    Evaluations of Significance.

a.    When cultural resources are found within the area of the new development or land use, an evaluation of significance shall be completed for each cultural resource in accordance with to the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places (36 CFR 60.4).

b.    Evaluations of cultural resource significance shall be guided by previous and current research designs relevant to specific research questions for the area.

c.    Evaluations of the significance of traditional cultural properties shall follow National Register Bulletin 38, Guidelines for the Evaluation and Documentation of Traditional Cultural Properties, within local and regional contexts.

d.    Recommendations for eligibility to the National Register shall be completed for each identified resource, in accordance with National Register criteria A through D (36 CFR 60.4). The Forest Service or the responsible official shall review evaluations for adequacy.

e.    Evidence of consultation with tribal governments and individuals with knowledge of the cultural resources in the project area, and documentation of their concerns, shall be included as part of the evaluation of significance.

f.    An assessment of effect shall be required if the Forest Service or the responsible official determines that the inventoried cultural resources are significant.

4.    Assessment of Effect.

a.    For each significant (i.e., National Register eligible) cultural resource inventoried within the area of the proposed development or change in use, assessments of effect shall be completed, using the criteria outlined in 36 CFR 800.5 (“Assessing Effects”). Evidence of consultation with tribal governments and individuals with knowledge of the cultural resources of the project area shall be included for subsections (D)(4)(b) through (D)(4)(d) of this section. The Forest Service or the responsible official shall review each determination for adequacy.

b.    If the proposed development or change in use will have “no adverse effect,” as defined by 36 CFR 800.4, to a significant cultural resource, documentation for that finding shall be completed, following the “Documentation Standards” of 36 CFR 800.11. If the proposed development or change in use will have an effect then the criteria of adverse effect (36 CFR 800.5) must be applied.

c.    If the proposed development or change in use will have an “adverse effect,” as defined by 36 CFR 800.5, to a significant cultural resource, the type and extent of “adverse effect” upon the qualities of the property that make it eligible for the National Register shall be documented (36 CFR 800.6 “Resolution of Adverse Effects”). This documentation shall follow the process outlined under 36 CFR 800.11 (“Failure to Resolve Adverse Effects”).

d.    If the “effect” appears to be beneficial (i.e., an enhancement to cultural resources), documentation shall be completed for the recommendation of that effect upon the qualities of the cultural resource that make it eligible to the National Register. This documentation shall follow the process outlined under 36 CFR 800.11 (“Documentation Standards”).

5.    Mitigation.

a.    If there will be an effect on cultural resources, measures shall be provided for mitigation of effects (36 CFR 800.6 “Resolution of Adverse Effects”). These measures shall address factors such as avoidance of the property through project design or modification and subsequent protection, burial under fill, data recovery excavations, or other measures which are proposed to mitigate effects.

b.    Evidence of consultation with tribal governments and individuals with knowledge of the resources to be affected, and documentation of their concerns, shall be included for all mitigation proposals.

c.    The Forest Service or the responsible official shall review all mitigation proposals for adequacy.

(Amended: Ord. 2008-06-02)

E.    Discovery During Construction.

    All authorizations for new developments or land uses shall be conditioned to require the immediate notification of the Forest Service or the responsible official if cultural resources are discovered during construction or development.

1.    If cultural resources are discovered, particularly human bone or burials, work in the immediate area of discovery shall be suspended until a cultural resource professional can evaluate the potential significance of the discovery and recommend measures to protect and/or recover the resources.

2.    If the discovered material is suspected to be human bone or a burial, the following procedure shall be used:

a.    The applicant shall stop all work in the vicinity of the discovery.

b.    The applicant shall immediately notify the responsible official, the Forest Service, the applicant’s cultural resource professional, the State Medical Examiner, and appropriate law enforcement agencies.

c.    The Forest Service or the responsible official shall notify the tribal governments if the discovery is determined to be an Indian burial or a cultural resource.

d.    A cultural resource professional shall evaluate the potential significance of the resource pursuant to Section 40.240.830(D)(3) and report the results to the Forest Service or the responsible official.

3.    The cultural resource review process shall be complete and work may continue if the Forest Service or the responsible official determines that the cultural resource is not significant.

4.    The cultural resource professional shall recommend measures to protect and/or recover the resource pursuant to Section 40.240.830(D)(5) if the Forest Service or the responsible official determines that the cultural resource is significant.

(Amended: Ord. 2006-05-04)