Chapter 92 – DESIGN REGULATIONS

92.05    Introduction

    1.    General

    2.    Applicability

    3.    Design Review Procedures

    4.    Relationship to Other Regulations

    5.    Dedication

    6.    Design Districts in Rose Hill Business District

    7.    Design Districts in the Totem Lake Business District

92.10    Site Design, Building Placement and Pedestrian-Oriented Facades

    1.    Building Placement in JBD

    2.    Pedestrian-Oriented Facades Defined for RHBD and TLBD

    3.    Building Placement in RHBD, TLBD and YBD

    4.    Multi-Story Buildings on Sites Adjacent to a Low Density Zone in RHBD and TLBD

    5.    Multifamily Buildings Located in TLBD

    6.    Building Location at Street Corners in the RHBD and TLBD Zones

    7.    Building Location at Street Corners in CBD, HENC 1 and HENC 3

92.15    Pedestrian-Oriented Improvements on or Adjacent to the Subject Property

    1.    All Zones – Pedestrian-Oriented Space and Plazas in Parking Areas

    2.    Pedestrian-Oriented Space and Plazas in BDC, CBD, BN, BNA, MSC 2, FHNC, HENC 1, HENC 3, NRHBD, RHBD and TLBD Zones

    3.    Blank Wall Treatment

    4.    Parking Garages

92.30    Architectural and Human Scale

    1.    Techniques To Moderate Bulk and Mass in the CBD

    2.    Horizontal Definition in All Zones

    3.    Techniques To Moderate Bulk and Mass in the RHBD and TLBD Zones

    4.    Techniques To Achieve Architectural Scale in All Zones

    5.    Techniques To Achieve Architectural Scale in the RHBD and the TLBD Zones

    6.    Achieving Human Scale in All Zones

92.35    Building Material, Color and Detail

    1.    Required Elements in All Zones

    2.    Prohibited Materials – All Zones

    3.    Metal Siding – All Zones

    4.    Concrete Block – All Zones

    5.    Awnings – All Zones

    6.    Covering of Existing Facades – All Zones

    7.    Building Cornerstone or Plaque – All Zones

    8.    Required On-Site Improvements – All Zones

92.05 Introduction

1.    General – This chapter establishes the design regulations that apply to development in Design Districts including the Central Business District (CBD), Finn Hill Neighborhood Center (FHNC), Market Street Corridor (MSC), Neighborhood Business Districts (BN, BNA), Houghton/Everest Neighborhood Center (HENC), Juanita Business District (JBD), Rose Hill Business District (RHBD), Totem Lake Business District (TLBD), North Rose Hill Business District (NRHBD), Business District Core (BDC), Yarrow Bay Business District (YBD) and in PLA 5C.

Special provisions that apply to a particular Design District are noted in the section headings of the chapter.

2.    Applicability – The provisions of this chapter apply to all new development, with the exception of development in the TL 7 zone. The provisions of Chapters 142 and 162 KZC regarding Design Review and nonconformance establish which of the regulations of this chapter apply to developed sites. Where provisions of this chapter conflict with provisions in any other section of the code, this chapter prevails. For more information on each Design District refer to the Design Guidelines applicable to that Design District adopted by reference in Chapter 3.30 KMC.

3.    Design Review Procedures – The City will use Chapter 142 KZC to apply the regulations of this chapter to development activities that require Design Review approval.

4.    Relationship to Other Regulations – Refer to the following chapters of the Zoning Code for additional requirements related to new development on or adjacent to the subject property.

a.    Landscaping – Chapter 95 KZC describes the installation and maintenance of landscaping requirements on the subject property.

b.    Installation of Sidewalks, Public Pedestrian Pathways and Public Improvements – Chapter 110 KZC describes the regulations for the installation of public sidewalks, major pedestrian sidewalks, pedestrian-oriented sidewalks, or other public improvements on or adjacent to the subject property in zones subject to Design Review. Plate 34 in Chapter 180 KZC provides the location and designation of the sidewalk, pedestrian walkways, pathways or other required public improvements within each Design District.

c.    Pedestrian Access to Buildings, Installation of Pedestrian Pathways, Pedestrian Weather Protection – Chapter 105 KZC describes the requirements for pedestrian access to buildings and between properties, through parking areas and requirements for pedestrian weather protection. See also Plate 34 in Chapter 180 KZC.

d.    Parking Area Location and Design, Pedestrian and Vehicular Access – Chapter 105 KZC describes the requirements for parking lot design, number of driveways, or pedestrian and vehicular access through parking areas.

e.    Screening of Loading Areas, Outdoor Storage Areas and Garbage Receptacles – Chapter 95 KZC describes the location and screening requirements of outdoor storage. Chapter 115 KZC describes the screening of loading areas, waste storage and garbage disposal facilities.

5.    Dedication – The City may require the applicant to dedicate development rights, air space, or an easement to the City to ensure compliance with any of the requirements of this chapter.

6.    Design Districts in Rose Hill Business District – Various places in this chapter refer to the three (3) Design Districts in the Rose Hill Business District: Regional Center, Neighborhood Center and East End. Figure 92.05.A below describes where these are located. For a more detailed description of each area, see the Design Guidelines for the Rose Hill Business District adopted by reference in Chapter 3.30 KMC.

Design Districts within the Rose Hill Business District

FIGURE 92.05.A

7.    Design Districts in the Totem Lake Business District – Various places in this chapter refer to either the Business District Core (BDC) Design District or the larger Totem Lake Business District (TLBD). Figure 92.05.B below describes where the Business District Core Design District is located within the larger Totem Lake Business District. For more information on the design guidelines for each area see the Totem Lake Business District Design Guidelines and the Guidelines for Pedestrian-Oriented Business Districts that apply in the Business District Core adopted by reference in Chapter 3.30 KMC.

Business District Core within the Totem Lake Business District

FIGURE 92.05.B

(Ord. 4637 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4636 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4495 § 2, 2015; Ord. 4392 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4390 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4357 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4333 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4174 § 1, 2009; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4037 § 1, 2006; Ord. 4030 § 1, 2006; Ord. 3972 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3889 § 2, 2003; Ord. 3833 § 1, 2002)

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92.10 Site Design, Building Placement and Pedestrian-Oriented Facades

This section contains regulations which establish the location of a building on the site in relationship to the adjacent sidewalk, pedestrian pathway or pedestrian-oriented elements on or adjacent to the subject property.

1.    Building Placement in JBD – All buildings must front on a right-of-way or through-block pathway (see Plate 34).

2.    Pedestrian-Oriented Facades Defined for RHBD and TLBD – To meet the definition of a pedestrian-oriented facade (see Figure 92.10.A):    

a.    The building’s primary entrance must be located on this facade and facing the street. For purposes of this chapter, “primary entrance” shall be defined as the primary or principal pedestrian entrance of all buildings along that street. The primary entrance is the entrance designed for access by pedestrians from the sidewalk. This is the principal architectural entrance even though customers or residents may use a secondary entrance associated with a garage, parking area, driveway or other vehicular use area more frequently.

b.    Transparent windows and/or doors must occupy at least 75 percent of the facade area between two (2) and seven (7) feet above the sidewalk.

c.    Weather protection feature(s) at least five (5) feet wide must be provided over at least 75 percent of the facade. This could include awnings, canopies, marquees, or other permitted treatments that provide functional weather protection.

3.    Building Placement in RHBD, TLBD and YBD

a.    Building Location Featuring Pedestrian-Oriented Facades in RHBD, TLBD and YBD Zones – Buildings may be located adjacent to the sidewalk of any street (except west of 124th Avenue NE in the TLBD) and in YBD (except for Lake Washington Boulevard and Northup Way), if they contain a pedestrian-oriented facade along that street frontage pursuant to the standards in subsection (2) of this section. As part of the Design Review process, required yards, setbacks or other development standards may be modified along the street frontage. Buildings not featuring a pedestrian-oriented facade along a street must provide a building setback of at least 10 feet from any public street (except areas used for pedestrian or vehicular access) landscaped with a combination of trees, shrubs, and groundcover per the requirements of supplemental landscape standards of KZC 95.41(2).

Pedestrian-Oriented Facade

FIGURE 92.10.A

b.    For All Other Building Facades in RHBD and TLBD Zones (Non-Pedestrian-Oriented Facade) – Building facades not featuring a pedestrian-oriented facade described in subsection (2) of this section must provide at least three (3) feet of landscaping between any vehicular access area or walkway and the building. (See Figure 92.10.B.)

Exceptions:

1)    Alleys and other areas generally not visible to the public, as determined by the City;

2)    Other design options may be considered through the Design Review process, provided they meet the intent of the guidelines.

Interior Pedestrian Pathway Shall Be Separated from Non-Pedestrian-Oriented Facades by Landscaping

FIGURE 92.10.B

c.    Neighborhood Center Frontage – At least 50 percent of the NE 85th Street property frontage must contain pedestrian-oriented facades located directly on the sidewalk. Vehicle sales uses are exempt as long as their showroom faces the street and is sited within 10 feet of the sidewalk.

d.    Vehicle Sales Showrooms in RHBD and TLBD Zones – Vehicle sales uses are encouraged to locate their showrooms toward the street (and toward NE 85th Street in RHBD) with parking to the side or rear.

e.    RHBD East End – NE 85th Street Building Frontage Options and Preferences

1)    Preferred Option: Buildings may be located adjacent to the sidewalk on NE 85th Street if they contain a pedestrian-oriented facade (see Figure 92.10.A);

2)    Second Option: Locate and orient building towards the sidewalk on NE 85th Street. In this option, the development features a 10-foot minimum landscaped front yard, a clear pathway between the sidewalk and the building, and a building entry and windows facing the street.

3)    Least Preferred Option: Locate the building at the rear of the property with parking between NE 85th Street and the building as long as the following standards are applied:

a)    Provide a perimeter parking landscape buffer between the sidewalk and parking area per Chapter 95 KZC.

b)    Provide clear pedestrian access from the sidewalk to the building entry.

c)    Provide a walkway along the building facade meeting through-block pathway standards as described in KZC 105.19.

f.    RHBD East End – Rear Yard Building Placement – Pursuant to KZC 95.40 through 95.45, in most cases, commercial uses shall install a required landscaped buffer adjacent to single-family properties. By requesting a modification to these provisions, the property owners may negotiate an agreement to reduce the landscape buffer/setback in a way that can benefit both parties.

Where buildings are sited towards the rear of the property, the applicant must utilize one (1) of the following standards to minimize impacts to adjacent residential areas (see Figure 92.10.C and options below):

1)    Meet the required landscape buffer pursuant to KZC 95.42.

2)    Provide a blank wall no taller than 15 feet in height with no openings placed at the rear property line (building itself serves as a wall, uses are inside the building, shielded from adjacent residential uses). To qualify for this method, the treatment must be agreed to by the adjoining property owners per the modifications section of Chapter 95 KZC.

3)    Provide a combination of both methods above. For example, provide a blank wall no taller than 15 feet in height between zero and 15 feet from the property line and landscape the applicable area between the building and the property line. In addition, an unfenced design option would effectively enlarge the adjacent homeowners’ rear yard (a mutually beneficial arrangement). To qualify for these methods, the treatment must be agreed to by the adjoining property owners per the landscape buffer modifications section of Chapter 95 KZC.

Rear Yard Building Placement Options in the RHBD

FIGURE 92.10.C

4.    Multi-Story Buildings on Sites Adjacent to a Low Density Zone in RHBD and TLBD – Multi-story buildings on sites adjacent to a low density zone in RHBD and TLBD shall be configured and designed to minimize privacy impacts on adjacent low density uses. For example, a development may meet this requirement by orienting upper floors towards the street and/or towards interior courtyards.

5.    Multifamily Buildings Located in TLBD – Multifamily buildings located in TLBD adjacent to NE 120th Street must be oriented toward this street. To meet this requirement, common and/or individual unit entries must face the street. The building must include windows that face the street. Parking areas between the building and the street are prohibited. Alternative configurations may be considered in the Design Review process.

6.    Building Location at Street Corners in the RHBD and TLBD Zones

a.    General Standards – For development at street corner sites, the applicant must incorporate one (1) or more of the following site treatments:

1)    Locate and orient the building towards the street corner (within 10 feet of corner property line). To qualify for this option, the building must have direct pedestrian access from the street corner. Exception: Properties in the RHBD Regional Center must provide a 10-foot minimum setback between NE 85th Street and any building.

2)    Provide an architectural feature that adds identity or demarcation of the area. Such an architectural element may have a sign incorporated into it (as long as such sign does not identify an individual business or businesses) (see Figure 92.10.D).

3)    Provide a “pedestrian-oriented space” at the corner leading directly to a building entry or entries (see KZC 92.15 and Figure 92.10.D).

4)    Install substantial landscaping (at least 30-foot by 30-foot or 900 square feet of ground surface area with trees, shrubs, and/or ground cover).

b.    RHBD Properties Located at the 124th, 126th, and 128th Avenue NE Intersections – Buildings must be located at the street corner and provide pedestrian-oriented facades along both streets. Exceptions:

1)    Setbacks will be allowed only where the space between the sidewalk and the building meets the definition of a pedestrian-oriented space. An example is shown in Figure 92.10.D.

2)    Vehicle sales and properties on the west side of the 124th Avenue NE are exempt from this standard because of transmission line easement limitations.

Building located directly on a street corner with direct pedestrian access and pedestrian-oriented facades.

FIGURE 92.10.D

7.    Building Location at Street Corners in CBD, HENC 1 and HENC 3

a.    Building Corners in the CBD, HENC 1 and HENC 3 – If the subject property is adjacent to the intersection of two (2) streets, at least one (1) of which is a pedestrian-oriented street, the applicant shall use one (1) or more of the following elements or treatments in the design and construction of the corner of the building facing the intersection of the streets which includes the pedestrian-oriented street. As an alternative, the applicant may propose other techniques, elements or treatments in the design of the corner which are consistent with the design guidelines and the provisions of the Comprehensive Plan.

1)    Provide at least 100 square feet of sidewalk area or pedestrian-oriented open space in addition to the area required to produce a 10-foot-wide sidewalk as required under KZC 110.52, pedestrian-oriented street (see Figure 92.10.E).

2)    Provide an entranceway to a store, building atrium or lobby, exterior courtyard or pedestrian-oriented open space (see Figure 92.10.F).

3)    Provide a pedestrian pathway, at least eight (8) feet in width, that connects to another street, public feature or building (see Figure 92.10.F).

4)    Provide one (1) or more of the elements listed below on both sides of an axis running diagonally through the corner of the building and bisecting the angle formed by the two (2) building facades (see Figure 92.10.G):

a)    A bay window or turret.

b)    A roof deck.

c)    Balconies above the ground floor.

d)    A building corner setback notch or curved facade surface.

e)    Sculpture or artwork, either bas-relief or figurative.

f)    Distinctive use of facade materials.

5)    Provide special or unique treatment, other than the use of fabric or vinyl awnings, for pedestrian weather protection at the corner of the building.

Options for Corner Setback Configurations

FIGURE 92.10.E

Options for Corner Entry Elements

FIGURE 92.10.F

Architectural Elements for Corners

FIGURE 92.10.G

(Ord. 4637 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4636 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4495 § 2, 2015; Ord. 4333 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4238 § 2, 2010; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4037 § 1, 2006; Ord. 4030 § 1, 2006; Ord. 3972 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3889 § 2, 2003; Ord. 3833 § 1, 2002)

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92.15 Pedestrian-Oriented Improvements on or Adjacent to the Subject Property

1.    All Zones – Pedestrian-Oriented Space and Plazas in Parking Areas – The applicant must provide at least 175 square feet of pedestrian-oriented space at the main building entrance in a central location, or adjacent to a parking area. This area must be raised at least six (6) inches above the parking lot surface and must be paved with concrete or unit pavers.

2.    Pedestrian-Oriented Space and Plazas in BDC, CBD, BN, BNA, MSC 2, FHNC, HENC 1, HENC 3, NRHBD, RHBD and TLBD Zones

a.    In the CBD, BN, BNA, MSC 2, FHNC, HENC 1, HENC 3 or in BDC – If the subject property abuts a pedestrian-oriented street (see Plate 34 in Chapter 180 KZC) or public park, the space, if any, between the sidewalk and the building must be developed consistent with the following criteria:

1)    Enhance visual and pedestrian access, including handicapped access, onto the subject property from the sidewalk.

2)    Contain paved walking surface of either concrete or approved unit pavers.

3)    Contain on-site or building-mounted lighting which provides adequate illumination.

4)    Contain two (2) linear feet of seating area or one (1) individual seat per 65 square feet of area between the sidewalk and the building.

5)    Contain landscaping such as trees, shrubs, trellises, or potted plants.

6)    It may not include asphalt or gravel pavement or be adjacent to an unscreened parking area, a chain link fence or a blank wall which does not comply with the requirements of subsection (3) of this section, Blank Wall Treatment.

7)    An alternative solution for the pedestrian-oriented space may be established through a Conceptual Master Plan in TL 2.

b.    In the NRHBD Zones – If the subject property abuts a major pedestrian sidewalk on the southwest corner of NE 116th Street and 124th Avenue NE (see Plate 34 in Chapter 180 KZC), the space, if any, between the sidewalk and the building must be developed consistent with the following criteria:

1)    Enhance visual and pedestrian access, including handicapped access, onto the subject property from the sidewalk.

2)    Contain paved walking surface of either concrete or approved unit pavers.

3)    Contain on-site or building-mounted lighting which provides adequate illumination.

4)    Contain two (2) linear feet of seating area or one (1) individual seat per 65 square feet of area between the sidewalk and the building.

5)    Contain landscaping, such as trees, shrubs, trellises, or potted plants.

6)    In the alternative, the pedestrian-oriented space can be integrated with a pedestrian connection linking Slater Avenue NE and NE 116th Street, anywhere on the subject property, consistent with the criteria in subsections (2)(b)(1) through (5) of this section.

c.    In the RHBD and TLBD Zones – All nonresidential uses must provide pedestrian-oriented space in conjunction with new development according to the formula below. For the purposes of this section, required pathways shall not count as pedestrian-oriented space. However, as part of the Design Review, the City may allow those portions of pathways widened beyond minimum requirements to count towards the required pedestrian-oriented space as long as such space meets the definition of pedestrian-oriented space.

1)    Size: One (1) percent of the applicable lot area plus one (1) percent of the nonresidential building gross floor area. (See Figure 92.15.A).

a)    The City may exempt uses that are likely to generate very little customer/pedestrian activity and have few or no employees. These may include warehouse, storage, industrial, and other similar uses.

Pedestrian-Oriented Space Requirement for Large Nonresidential Buildings Served by Surface Parking

FIGURE 92.15.A

2)    Design: To qualify as a pedestrian-oriented space, an area must have all of the following (see Figure 92.15.B):

a)    Pedestrian access to the abutting structures from the street, private drive, or a nonvehicular courtyard.

b)    Paved walking surfaces of either concrete or approved unit paving.

c)    Pedestrian-scaled lighting (no more than 15 feet in height) at a level averaging at least two (2) foot-candles throughout the space. Lighting may be ground- or building-mounted lighting.

d)    Contain two (2) linear feet of seating area or one (1) individual seat per 65 square feet of area between the sidewalk and the building.

e)    Spaces must be positioned in areas with significant pedestrian traffic to provide interest and security – such as adjacent to a building entry.

f)    Landscaping covering at least 20 percent of the space (some of this may include potted plants). Such landscaping components must add seasonal interest to the space.

3)    The following features are encouraged in a pedestrian-oriented space and may be required by the City:

a)    Pedestrian amenities such as a water feature, a drinking fountain, tables, and/or distinctive paving or artwork.

b)    Provide pedestrian-oriented facades on some or all buildings facing the space.

c)    Consideration of the sun angle and the wind pattern in the design of the open space.

d)    Transitional zones along building edges to allow for outdoor eating areas and a planted buffer.

e)    Movable seating.

4)    The following features are prohibited within pedestrian-oriented space:

a)    Asphalt or gravel pavement.

b)    Adjacent unscreened parking lots.

c)    Adjacent chain link fences.

d)    Adjacent “blank walls.”

e)    Adjacent dumpsters or service areas.

f)    Outdoor storage or retail sales that do not contribute to the pedestrian environment.

An Example of a Pedestrian-Oriented Space

FIGURE 92.15.B

3.    Blank Wall Treatment

a.    Blank Wall Defined – All Zones – A blank wall is any wall or portion of a wall that meets either of the following criteria (see Figure 92.15.C):

1)    A wall or portion of a wall with a surface area of at least 400 square feet having both a length and a width of at least 10 feet without a window, door, building modulation at least one (1) foot in depth or other architectural feature.

2)    Any wall or portion of a wall between four (4) feet and 13 feet above ground level with a horizontal dimension longer than 15 feet without a window, door, building modulation at least one (1) foot in depth or other architectural feature.

b.    Blank Wall Treatments – All Zones – Each blank wall that is visible from any right-of-way, internal access road, pedestrian-oriented space, through-block pathway, the Cross Kirkland Corridor or the Eastside Rail Corridor must be screened or treated in at least one (1) of the ways listed in subsection (3)(c) of this section if it meets the criteria for a blank wall under subsection (3)(a) of this section. Internal roadways used primarily for service access and not visible from a street, pedestrian-oriented space, through-block pathway, the Cross Kirkland Corridor or the Eastside Rail Corridor are exempt from this requirement.

Designating Blank Walls

FIGURE 92.15.C

c.    Blank Wall Treatment Standards in All Zones – At least one (1) of the following techniques must be used to treat or screen blank walls:

1)    By the installation of a vertical trellis with climbing vines or plant material in front of the blank wall.

2)    By providing a landscaped planting bed at least five (5) feet wide or a raised planter bed at least two (2) feet high and three (3) feet wide in front of the blank wall and planted with plant materials that will obscure or screen at least 50 percent of the blank wall within two (2) years.

3)    By providing artwork, such as mosaics, murals, sculptures or bas-relief on the blank wall.

4)    By proposing alternative techniques as part of the Design Review process.

d.    All Zones – Modifications – The provisions of this subsection (3) may be modified or eliminated as part of the Design Review decision if they conflict with the International Building Code.

Pedestrian-Friendly Building Facade Requirements

FIGURE 92.15.D

e.    Treatment of Building Facades in CBD – In the CBD, each facade of a building facing a pedestrian-oriented street or public park must contain or be treated with at least one (1) of the following elements:

1)    It must contain transparent windows or window displays comprising at least 75 percent of the area of the facade between two (2) feet and seven (7) feet above ground level (see Figure 92.15.D).

2)    It must contain sculptural, mosaic or bas-relief artwork comprising at least 75 percent of the area of the facade between two (2) feet and seven (7) feet above ground level (see Figure 92.15.D).

3)    The area next to the facade must be developed such that for every 10 linear feet of the facade, at least 20 square feet of this area must be developed with landscaping consistent with subsection (3)(c)(1) or (2) of this section, depending on the location, dimensions, and size of the area.

4.    Parking Garages

a.    All Zones – Each facade of a garage or a building containing ground floor parking must either:

1)    Provide and maintain a ground floor area of the garage or building extending along the entire facade of the garage or building (excluding vehicle access points) which is developed as and made available for pedestrian-oriented businesses (see Figure 92.15.E); or

Providing Space for Pedestrian-Oriented Business

FIGURE 92.15.E

2)    Provide and maintain a pedestrian-oriented space, at least 10 feet in depth and extending along the entire facade of the garage or building (excluding vehicle access points); or

3)    Treat the facade consistent with subsection (3)(e)(1), (2) or (3) of this section, treatment of building facades; or

4)    A combination of methods described above.

b.    All Zones – There must be architectural screening or other treatment of openings above the ground level for the facades of parking garages along the Market Street Corridor, pedestrian-oriented streets, through-block pathways and major pedestrian sidewalks.

c.    RHBD and TLBD Zones – Structures containing parking on the ground floor:

1)    Parking structures on designated pedestrian-oriented streets shall provide space for ground-floor commercial uses along street frontages at a minimum of 75 percent of the frontage width. The entire facade facing a pedestrian-oriented street must feature a pedestrian-oriented facade.

2)    Parking structures adjacent to non-pedestrian-oriented streets may be located adjacent to a sidewalk where they provide space for ground-floor commercial uses along street frontages at a minimum of 75 percent of the frontage width and include a pedestrian-oriented facade along the applicable frontage.

3)    Parking structures adjacent to non-pedestrian-oriented streets and not featuring a pedestrian-oriented facade shall be set back at least 10 feet from the sidewalk and feature substantial landscaping between the sidewalk and the structure. This includes a combination of evergreen and deciduous trees (one (1) per 20 lineal feet), shrubs (one (1) per 20 square feet), and ground cover (sufficient to cover 90 percent of the area within three (3) years). Other treatments will be considered in the Design Review process.

4)    Parking garage entries shall be designed and sited to complement, not subordinate, the pedestrian entry. If possible, locate the parking entry away from the primary street, to either the side or rear of the building.

5)    The design of structured parking at finished grade under a building shall minimize the apparent width of garage entries.

6)    Parking within the building shall be enclosed or screened through any combination of walls, decorative grilles, or trellis work with landscaping.

7)    Parking garages shall be designed to be complementary with adjacent buildings. Use similar forms, materials, and/or details to enhance garages.

8)    Parking structure service and storage functions shall be located away from the street edge and generally not be visible from the street or sidewalks.

(Ord. 4671 § 2, 2018; Ord. 4637 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4636 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4495 § 2, 2015; Ord. 4390 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4107 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4037 § 1, 2006; Ord. 4030 § 1, 2006; Ord. 3972 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3833 § 1, 2002)

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92.30 Architectural and Human Scale

1.    Techniques To Moderate Bulk and Mass in the CBD

a.    General – This section establishes required techniques to be used in the design and construction of building facades in specific areas of the CBD. The applicant shall comply with the techniques listed below in order to reduce the perceived bulk and mass of large structures by dividing the building mass into smaller-scale components. As an alternative, the City may approve other techniques, elements, or methods if consistent with the following criteria:

1)    The alternative is generally consistent with the downtown plan provisions of the Comprehensive Plan and the design guidelines.

2)    The alternative clearly provides superior moderation of the architectural bulk and mass than would result from strict application of the required techniques.

b.    Vertical Definition – The applicant shall comply with the following requirements to moderate the horizontal scale of buildings:

1)    All CBD Zones – The maximum length of any facade facing a street is 70 feet without vertical definition. Vertical definition may be in the form of changes in color and materials, modulations of sufficient width and depth to define the vertical element, or some combination of these techniques. This vertical element should carry through all floors of the building.

2)    CBD 4, CBD 6, CBD 8 – Along First Street, Second Street South, First Avenue South, and Fifth Street, the maximum length of a facade is 120 feet. Any facade that exceeds 120 feet along the right-of-way shall comply with the following requirements (see Figure 92.30.A):

a)    Shall be divided by a 30-foot-wide modulation of the exterior wall so the maximum length of the facade is 120 feet without this modulation.

b)    The modulation shall be 20 feet in depth and shall start at finished grade and extend through all floors.

c)    Decks and roof overhangs may encroach up to three (3) feet (per side) into the modulation.

Vertical Definition: CBD 4, 6, and 8

FIGURE 92.30.A

3)    CBD 6, CBD 8: Along the axes of all buildings which are predominantly east-west and/or most closely parallel to Central Way, Third Avenue, Fourth Avenue, or Sixth Avenue, the maximum length of a building is 120 feet. The following exceptions apply (see Figure 92.30.B):

a)    Portions of buildings which are below the elevation of Third Avenue, Fourth Avenue, or Sixth Avenue, as measured at the midpoint of the frontage of the subject property on the applicable right-of-way, may exceed the 120-foot limitation.

b)    Portions of the building above Third Avenue, Fourth Avenue, or Sixth Avenue shall be divided into two (2) or more distinct building masses with a maximum length of 120 feet separated by at least 20 feet in width.

c)    Decks, bay windows, roof overhangs, and chimneys may encroach up to three (3) feet (per side) into the separation.

Vertical Definition: CBD 6 and 8

FIGURE 92.30.B

2.    Horizontal Definition in All Zones – The applicant shall comply with the following requirements to moderate the vertical scale of buildings. All buildings shall include design techniques which clearly define the building’s top, middle, and bottom (see Figure 92.30.C). The following techniques are suggested methods of achieving vertical articulation:

a.    Top: Sloped roofs, strong eave lines, cornice treatments, horizontal trellises, or sunshades, etc.

b.    Middle: Windows, balconies, material changes, railings, and similar treatments that unify the building design.

c.    Bottom: Pedestrian-oriented storefronts, pedestrian-scale building details, awnings, arcades, “earth” materials such as concrete stone, stucco, etc.

Where appropriate, the applicant should coordinate the horizontal elements (i.e., cornices, window lines, arcades, etc.) in a pattern and height to reflect similar elements on neighboring buildings.

Horizontal Definition: Articulation of Buildings’ Top, Middle and Bottom

FIGURE 92.30.C

3.    Techniques To Moderate Bulk and Mass in the RHBD and TLBD Zones

a.    Along all streets, through-block pathways, and public open spaces, the maximum length of a facade is 120 feet. Any facade that exceeds 120 feet along the right-of-way shall comply with the following requirements (see Figure 92.30.A):

1)    Shall be divided by a 30-foot-wide modulation of the exterior wall so the maximum length of the facade is 120 feet without this modulation.

2)    The modulation shall be 20 feet in depth and shall start at finished grade and extend through all floors.

3)    Decks and roof overhangs may encroach up to three (3) feet (per side) into the modulation.

4.    Techniques To Achieve Architectural Scale in All Zones – The applicant shall use at least two (2) of the following elements and features in the design and construction of all buildings that are three (3) or more stories or have a building footprint of more than 10,000 square feet. As an alternative, the applicant may propose slight variations from the required dimensions noted in the following techniques, or other methods to comply with the requirements of this subsection. The City may approve the proposal if it is consistent with the design guidelines and the Comprehensive Plan.

a.    All stories above the second story must be set back at least 10 feet from the ground floor facade along at least two (2) facades of the building.

b.    Horizontal Building Modulation – On all building facades visible from a street or public park, provide horizontal modulation consistent with all of the following standards:

1)    The maximum allowable horizontal dimension of the facade between modulations is 70 feet;

2)    The minimum depth of each modulation, except balconies, is 10 feet; and

3)    The minimum width of each modulation, except balconies, is 15 feet.

c.    On all building facades visible from a street or public park, provide balconies which are consistent with the following standards:

1)    Balconies must be placed on at least every other floor above the ground floor;

2)    The maximum distance between balconies, measured horizontally, is 100 feet; and

3)    The minimum amount of floor area for each balcony is 100 square feet.

d.    Change in Roofline – Provide vertical modulation of the roof line of all facades of the building adjoining a street or public park. For buildings with flat, gabled, hipped or similar roofs, the maximum length of any continuous roof line, with a slope of less than three (3) feet vertical to 12 feet horizontal, is 50 feet without being modulated. If modulation is necessary, at least one (1) of the following methods must be used (see Figure 92.30.D):

1)    The height of the visible roof line must change at least eight (8) feet if the adjacent roof segments are less than 50 feet in length.

2)    The height of the visible roof line must change at least 12 feet if the adjacent roof segments are greater than 50 feet in length.

Flat Roof Modulation Options

FIGURE 92.30.D

3)    The length of a sloped or gabled roof line segment must be at least 20 feet. The minimum slope of the roof segment is three (3) feet vertical to 12 feet horizontal.

e.    Buildings with other roof forms, such as arched, gabled, vaulted, dormered or sawtooth, must have a significant change in slope or significant change in roof line at least every 100 feet.

5.    Techniques To Achieve Architectural Scale in the RHBD and the TLBD Zones

a.    The following standards supplement the required techniques described in subsection (4) of this section. Where there are similar techniques, the standards in this section shall apply. All buildings in the RHBD and TLBD zones shall include at least three (3) of the following modulation techniques at the articulation intervals described in subsection (5)(b) of this section along all facades containing the primary building entries (alley facades are exempt):

1)    Repeating distinctive window patterns at intervals less than the articulation interval;

2)    Horizontal Building Modulation – Minimum depth of modulation is two (2) feet and minimum width for each modulation is four (4) feet if tied to a change in color or building material and roof line modulation as defined below. Otherwise, minimum depth of modulation is 10 feet (except balconies) and minimum width for each modulation is 15 feet;

3)    Providing a separate covered entry or separate weather protection feature for each articulation interval;

4)    Change of Roofline – To qualify for this measure, the maximum length of any continuous roofline shall not be less than the articulation interval and comply with the treatments below (see Figure 92.30.E):

a)    For segments less than 50 feet in horizontal width, the height of visible roofline must change at least four (4) feet if tied to horizontal building modulation and at least eight (8) feet in other cases.

b)    For segments more than 50 feet in horizontal width, the height of visible roofline must change at least six (6) feet if tied to horizontal building modulation and at least 12 feet in other cases.

c)    The length of sloped or gabled roof line segments must be at least 20 feet. The minimum slope of the roof segment is three (3) feet vertical to 12 feet horizontal;

5)    Change in building material or siding style coordinated with horizontal building modulation and/or change in building color where appropriate;

6)    Providing lighting fixtures, trellis, tree, or other landscape feature within each interval;

7)    Alternative methods that achieve the desired architectural scale as approved by the City.

b.    Articulation Intervals – Modulation and/or articulation shall be provided at the following intervals:

1)    No more than 30 feet for buildings containing residential uses on all floors above the ground floor;

2)    No more than 70 feet for nonresidential buildings (within RHBD, this applies to the Regional Center);

3)    RHBD – No more than 50 feet for nonresidential buildings in the Neighborhood Center;

4)    RHBD – No more than 30 feet for nonresidential buildings in the East End.

Building Articulation and Modulation Techniques

FIGURE 92.30.E

c.    Techniques To Achieve Architectural Scale for Office Buildings in the RHBD and in the TLBD Outside of Business District Core

1)    Office Building Design Standards for the TLBD and the RHBD’s Regional Center – These standards are intended to supplement other building design standards that apply to the Totem Lake Business District and to the Regional Center. Where there is a conflict between standards, these standards shall apply as they are specific to office buildings.

a)    Buildings must use design techniques to break up long continuous building walls, reduce the architectural scale of the building, and add visual interest. Specifically, any building facade longer than 120 feet in width must employ design techniques to limit the length of individual facades. To meet this requirement, buildings must utilize a combination of horizontal building modulation with a change in building materials or finishes, a clear change in building articulation and/or a change in fenestration technique (see Figure 92.30.F).

This building uses an angled window wall over the primary building entry to break up the width of the facade:

FIGURE 92.30.F

b)    Buildings must employ design techniques to divide windows into units that give the building an identifiable scale (see Figure 92.30.G). Specifically:

1)    Windows must be broken into units of 35 square feet or less with each window unit separated by a visible mullion or other element.

2)    Multi-paned windows separated by mullions shall not exceed 20 feet in width and shall not exceed the height of individual floors.

3)    Horizontal groupings of windows shall not exceed 30 feet in width. At least one (1) vertical architectural feature at least six (6) inches wide shall be used within the grouping to break up individual multi-paned windows. Architectural features at least two (2) feet in width shall separate such horizontal groupings of windows.

4)    Siding material at least two (2) feet in height shall separate windows on each floor.

5)    Building facades shall employ techniques to recess or project windows at least two (2) inches from the facade (see Figure 92.30.H).

Standards to divide windows into units that will give buildings an identifiable sense of scale.

FIGURE 92.30.G

Some or all of these standards may be relaxed through the Design Review process where other methods can be effectively used to divide windows into units and give the building an identifiable scale.

c)    Continuous window walls are prohibited, except where used as an accent facade element to break up long continuous building walls and/or emphasize a building entry. Such window walls should be modulated horizontally, by at least two (2) feet, and should not exceed 20 feet in width.

d)    Mirrored glass and other highly reflective materials are prohibited (see Figure 92.30.I).

6.    Achieving Human Scale in All Zones

a.    General

1)    CBD – Except as provided in subsection (6)(a)(3) of this section, the applicant shall use at least two (2) of the elements or techniques listed in subsection (6)(b) of this section in the design and construction of each facade of a building facing a street or public park.

2)    BN, JBD, NRHBD, RHBD, MSC, BDC, YBD and TLBD – Except as provided in subsection (6)(a)(3)     of this section, the applicant shall use at least one (1) of the elements or techniques listed in subsection (6)(b) of this section in the design and construction of each facade of a 1-story building facing a street or through-block pathway, and at least two (2) of the elements or techniques for a 2-story building facing a street or through-block pathway (see Plate 34 in Chapter 180 KZC).

3)    All Zones – The applicant shall use at least three (3) of the elements or techniques listed in subsection (6)(b) of this section in the design and construction of any facade of a building facing a street, through-block pathway or public park, if:

a)    The facade has a height of three (3) or more stories; or

b)    The facade is more than 100 feet long.

b.    Techniques To Achieve Human Scale in All Zones – The techniques to be used in the design and construction of building facades under subsection (6)(a) of this section are listed below. As an alternative, the applicant may propose other techniques, elements or methods which provide human scale to the building and are consistent with the applicable design guidelines and the Comprehensive Plan.

1)    On each story above the ground floor, provide balconies or decks, at least six (6) feet wide and six (6) feet deep.

2)    On each story above the ground floor, provide bay windows that extend out at least one (1) foot, measured horizontally, from each facade of the building.

3)    Provide at least 150 square feet of pedestrian-oriented space in front of each facade (see KZC 92.15(2)(c)(2)).

4)    Provide at least one-half (1/2) of the window area above the ground floor of each facade consistent with all of the following criteria (see Figure 92.30.J):

a)    The windows must have glazed areas with dimensions less than five (5) feet by seven (7) feet.

b)    The windows must be surrounded by trim, molding and/or sill at least two (2) inches wide.

c)    Individual window units must be separated from adjacent window units by at least six (6) inches of siding or other exterior finish material of the building.

5)    Provide at least one-half (1/2) of the window area above the ground floor of each facade facing a street or public park in panes with dimensions less than two (2) feet by three (3) feet and with individual panes separated by window mullions (see Figure 92.30.K).

Individual Windows Option

FIGURE 92.30.J

Multiple-Paned Fenestration Option

FIGURE 92.30.K

6)    Provide a hipped or gable roof which covers at least one-half (1/2) of the building footprint and has a slope equal to or greater than three (3) feet vertical to 12 feet horizontal. To meet this requirement, the ridge width of a continuous roofline shall not extend more than 100 feet without modulation. This includes a gabled or other sloped roofline segment at least 20 feet in width.

7)    If the main entrance of the building is on the facade of the building facing a street, through-block pathway, or public park, provide a covered porch or entry on the subject property at the building’s main entrance. Pedestrian weather protection required under KZC 105.18 may not be used to meet this requirement unless the required pedestrian weather protection covers an area at least 15 feet long by 15 feet wide and is available for outdoor display or outdoor vendors or contains pedestrian-oriented improvements or amenities beyond what is otherwise required.

8)    Provide one (1) or more stories above the ground floor setback at least six (6) feet from the ground floor facade facing the street, through-block pathway, or a public park.

9)    Compose smaller building elements near the entry of a large building (see Figure 92.30.L).

c.    Techniques To Achieve Human Scale in RHBD and TLBD – In addition to the requirements of subsection (6)(b) of this section, Techniques to Achieve Human Scale in All Zones, nonresidential uses (office, retail, industrial, etc.) in the RHBD and TLBD with over 40,000 square feet of floor area shall incorporate the following human scale features on the facade featuring the primary building entry:

1)    Provide pedestrian-oriented space near the building entry. The minimum size of the area shall be no less than one (1) percent of the floor area of the use (see Figure 92.15.A). This must include a covered area at least 15 feet long by 15 feet wide and is available for outdoor display or outdoor vendors; and

2)    Compose smaller building elements near the entry (see Figure 92.30.L).

3)    As an alternative, the applicant may propose other mechanisms for providing human scale to such buildings, consistent with the design guidelines.

Composing Smaller Building Elements Near the Entry

FIGURE 92.30.L

(Ord. 4636 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4495 § 2, 2015; Ord. 4390 § 1, 2012; Ord. 4333 § 1, 2011; Ord. 4107 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4037 § 1, 2006; Ord. 4030 § 1, 2006; Ord. 3972 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3889 § 2, 2003; Ord. 3833 § 1, 2002)

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92.35 Building Material, Color and Detail

1.    Required Elements in All Zones – The applicant shall incorporate at least three (3) of the following elements on each facade of a building that faces a street, through-block pathway, pedestrian-oriented space or a public park. As an alternative, the applicant may propose other mechanisms for providing interesting visual detail to buildings, consistent with the design guidelines.

a.    Decorative roof lines, including ornamental molding, frieze or other roof line devices visible from the ground. Linear features must be at least eight (8) inches wide, measured vertically.

b.    Decorative molding or framing details around all ground floor doors and windows. The molding or trim may have a traditional, contemporary, geometric or sculptural design.

c.    Decorative glazing on all ground floor doors and windows, including stained glass, crystal cut glass, etched glass or similar individualized and permanent treatment, but excluding single-colored glass, opaque glass or plastic. On all ground floor windows, this decorative glazing must have a surface area of at least 30 square feet.

d.    Railings, grill work, landscape guards or other similar elements including materials, design, configuration, embellishment or workmanship that exceeds the normal functional requirements for the element.

e.    Trellises or arbors having an area of at least 100 square feet and planted consistent with the requirements of KZC 95.41 to achieve at least 30 percent coverage of the trellis or arbor with plant material within three (3) years.

f.    Decorative light fixture or fixtures, either one (1) if one-of-a-kind or custom-built or one (1) every 30 feet along the facade of the building if not one-of-a-kind or custom-built, that meet either of the following criteria:

1)    Includes a diffuse, visible light source, such as a globe.

2)    Contains a shade or mounting that includes some use of material, configuration, shape, embellishment or detail that exceeds the normal functional requirement for the shade or mounting.

g.    Use of any of the following decorative materials:

1)    Any of the following decorative masonry elements:

a)    Decorative masonry patterns, other than running bond pattern.

b)    Bricks, tile, stone, cast stone or other masonry units of at least two (2) colors installed in layers or tiers to form a geometric pattern.

c)    Decorative bands of masonry, such as a soldier course of brick or multicolored ceramic tile band, in conjunction with another exterior surface material.

2)    Individualized wood patterns or continuous wood details, such as fancy butt shingles in a geometric pattern, decorative moldings, brackets, eave trim or lattice work.

3)    Ceramic tile, stone, glass blocks, camera glass or other similar materials incorporated into other compatible surface materials and used to form or create, or in conjunction with, a geometric pattern, distinctive shape, unusual surface treatment, special lighting or other decorative or textural element.

4)    Other materials with decorative or textural qualities, as demonstrated by architectural drawings and material samples, approved by the City as part of Design Review.

h.    Decorative unit paving, including at least 50 square feet of multicolored tile, paver blocks, brick or other paving material in a decorative pattern, installed in a pedestrian-circulation area adjacent to the facade.

i.    Artwork in the form of a mosaic mural, bas-relief sculpture, light sculpture, water sculpture, fountain, freestanding sculpture, art in pavement, murals, graphics or other forms, either freestanding in front of the facade or attached to the facade.

2.    Prohibited Materials – All Zones – The following materials may not be used on any exterior surface which is visible from any area beyond the subject property:

a.    Mirrored glass and other highly reflective materials.

b.    Corrugated fiberglass.

c.    Chain link fencing, except for temporary purposes, such as during construction.

3.    Metal Siding – All Zones – Corner and edge trim must be used to cover exposed edges of metal siding. If metal siding covers more than 25 percent of a building’s facade, the following regulations apply:

a.    The siding must have a matted finish.

b.    The siding must be in a neutral, earth tone or dulled color such as buff, grey, beige, tan, creme, white, barn-red, blue-grey, burgundy or ocher.

c.    The facade must have visible window and door trim painted or finished in a color which is complementary to the siding color.

4.    Concrete Block – All Zones – Any concrete block, masonry unit or cinder block wall which is visible from a street or public park must contain one (1) or more of the following features or elements:

a.    Use of textured blocks with surfaces such as split-faced or grooved.

b.    Use of colored mortar complementary to the color of the blocks.

c.    Use of other surface material such as bricks, glass blocks or tile as a significant feature of the wall.

5.    Awnings – All Zones – (See Chapter 105 for other pedestrian water protection requirements.)

a.    The design of awnings should complement the architecture of the building. Steel and glass, fabric, and other materials of a more permanent nature are encouraged. Vinyl or plastic awnings and awnings used predominantly for advertising are discouraged.

b.    Translucent awnings shall not be backlit. Lights directed downward mounted from internal awning frames are permitted. Lights mounted above awnings and directed downward are permitted.

6.    Covering of Existing Facades – All Zones – Existing brick or cast stone masonry facades may not be covered with metal siding, metal screening, plastic siding, fiberglass siding, plywood siding, or wood siding materials. Other existing facades may be covered if consistent with the provisions of this subsection (6). As part of Design Review for remodels, the City may require the removal of coverings.

7.    Building Cornerstone or Plaque – All Zones – All commercial buildings designed for use by more than one (1) tenant must have a building cornerstone or plaque, placed in a prominent location, consistent with the following standards:

a.    Building cornerstones must be constructed in carved stone, cast stone, carved masonry, terra cotta or other vandal-resistant material.

b.    Building plaques must be mounted no lower than two (2) feet and no higher than 10 feet above ground and must be made of bronze, brass, anodized aluminum, porcelain enamel-covered steel or aluminum or other corrosion-resistant material.

c.    Building cornerstones and plaques must indicate the name of the building and, if known, the date of construction and architect.

d.    Building cornerstones and plaques may include the owner’s name and other historical information.

8.    Required On-Site Improvements – All Zones – Water spigots shall be provided on all building facades along sidewalks for cleaning and plant watering.

(Ord. 4636 § 3, 2018; Ord. 4238 § 2, 2010; Ord. 4097 § 1, 2007; Ord. 4037 § 1, 2006; Ord. 4030 § 1, 2006; Ord. 3972 § 1, 2004; Ord. 3833 § 1, 2002)

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