Division 10-80.20:
Definition of Specialized Terms, Phrases, and Building Functions


10-80.20.005    Generally

10-80.20.010    Definitions “A”

10-80.20.020    Definitions “B”

10-80.20.030    Definitions “C”

10-80.20.040    Definitions “D”

10-80.20.050    Definitions “E”

10-80.20.060    Definitions “F”

10-80.20.070    Definitions “G”

10-80.20.080    Definitions “H”

10-80.20.090    Definitions “I”

10-80.20.100    Definitions “J”

10-80.20.110    Definitions “K”

10-80.20.120    Definitions “L”

10-80.20.130    Definitions “M”

10-80.20.140    Definitions “N”

10-80.20.150    Definitions “O”

10-80.20.160    Definitions “P”

10-80.20.170    Definitions “Q”

10-80.20.180    Definitions “R”

10-80.20.190    Definitions “S”

10-80.20.200    Definitions “T”

10-80.20.210    Definitions “U”

10-80.20.220    Definitions “V”

10-80.20.230    Definitions “W”

10-80.20.240    Definitions “X”

10-80.20.250    Definitions “Y”

10-80.20.260    Definitions “Z”

10-80.20.005 Generally

As used in this Zoning Code, the following terms and phrases shall have the meaning ascribed to them in this section, unless the context in which they are used clearly requires otherwise.

10-80.20.010 Definitions, “A”

A-Grid Thoroughfares: Thoroughfares that by virtue of their pre-existing or proposed pedestrian-supportive qualities, or their future importance to pedestrian connectivity, are held to the highest standards prescribed by the Zoning Code. See “B-Grid Thoroughfares.”

Abandonment of Use: See “Use, Abandonment of.”

Abutting: Having a common border with or being separated from such common border by an alley or easement, other than publicly dedicated and approved rights-of-way.

Access: A means of vehicular or nonvehicular approach or entry to or exit from a property, street, or highway.

Access Road: An outer vehicular lane or lanes of a thoroughfare designed for slow speeds while inner lanes carry higher speed traffic, and separated from them by a median.

Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU), Attached: A subordinate dwelling unit on a lot or parcel that is physically attached to the primary dwelling unit by a wall or roof. An Attached ADU does not include a duplex, two-family dwelling, townhouse or townhome, condominium unit, single room occupancy development or co-housing.

Figure 10-80.20.010. Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU), Attached.

Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU), Detached: A subordinate dwelling unit on a lot or parcel that is physically detached from the primary dwelling unit.

Figure 10-80.20.010. Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU), Detached.

Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU), Interior: A delineated living area located within a dwelling unit that has interior pedestrian access to the common area of the dwelling unit, such as a foyer, living room, laundry room, basement, etc., shares a primary entrance and exit, contains permanent facilities for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation, and may have a separate secondary entrance/exit.

Figure 10-80.20.010. Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU), Interior.

Accessory Structure: A building or structure (including sheds, barns, garages, carports, greenhouses, detached solar systems, shade structures, light pole, flag pole, pool, fence, wall, or other accessory structure as determined by the Zoning Administrator) which:

1.    Is subordinate in building area, intensity of use, or purpose to the primary structure;

2.    Contributes to the comfort, convenience, or necessity of the occupants of the primary building or use served; and

3.    Is located on the same lot as the primary structure or use served, with the single exception of accessory off-street parking facilities that are permitted to locate elsewhere.

Accessory Use: A subordinate use of a building, other structure, or use of land that is:

1.    Clearly incidental to the use of the main building, other structure, or use of land;

2.    Customarily used in connection with the main building, other structure, or primary use of the land; and

3.    Located on the same lot with the main building, other structure, or primary use of the land.

Accessory Wind Energy System: A wind energy conversion system consisting of wind turbines that convert wind power to mechanical energy.

Accessory Wind Energy Systems – Pole Mounted Wind Turbines: Wind turbines mounted on light poles within parking and street areas.

Acre: Forty-three thousand five hundred sixty (43,560) square feet of land area.

Adjacent: Nearby, but not necessarily touching or abutting.

ADOT: Arizona Department of Transportation.

Adult Entertainment: This definition includes adult-oriented businesses and other similar forms of entertainment:

1.    Adult Arcade: Any place to which the public is permitted or invited and in which coin-operated or slug-operated or electronically, electrically, or mechanically controlled still or motion picture machines, projectors or other image producing devices are maintained to show images involving specific sexual activities or specific anatomical areas to persons in booths or viewing rooms.

2.    Adult Bookstore: A commercial establishment that offers for sale, rent, or viewing any of the following as one of its principal business purposes:

a.    Books, magazines, periodicals, or other printed matter, photographs, films, motion pictures, videocassettes, electronic or magnetic storage medium, including but not limited to any hard disk, floppy disk, diskette, disk pack, DVD, CD ROM, hologram, magnetic tape or cards or other similar photographic reproductions, or reproductions or slides or other visual representations that depict or describe specific sexual activities or specific anatomical areas;

b.    Instruments, devices, or paraphernalia that are designed for use in connection with specific sexual activities excluding condoms, diaphragms, contraceptive inserts, contraceptive medications and other birth control or disease prevention devices prescribed by a licensed medical doctor or osteopathic doctor;

c.    Regularly excludes all minors from the premises or a separate defined section thereof because of the sexually explicit nature of the items sold, rented or displayed; or

d.    A commercial establishment may have other business purposes that do not involve the offering for sale or rental of material depicting or describing specific sexual activities or specific anatomical areas and still be categorized as an adult bookstore, adult video store, or adult novelty store. Such other business purposes will not serve to exempt such commercial establishment from being categorized as an adult bookstore, adult video store, or adult novelty store.

3.    Adult Cabaret: Excludes any establishment licensed under A.R.S. Title 4, and includes any nightclub, bar, restaurant or other similar commercial establishment that regularly features:

a.    Persons who appear in a state of nudity or who are seminude;

b.    Live performances that are characterized by the exposure of specific anatomical areas or specific sexual activities; or

c.    Films, motion pictures, videocassettes, slides or other photographic reproductions that are characterized by the depiction or description of specific sexual activities or specific anatomical areas.

d.    Nothing in the definition of adult cabaret shall be construed to apply to the presentation, showing, or performance of any play, drama or ballet in any theater, concert hall, fine arts academy, school, institution of higher learning, or other similar establishment as a form of expression or opinion or communication of ideas or information, as differentiated from the promotion or exploitation of nudity for the purposes of advancing the economic welfare of a commercial or business enterprise.

4.    Adult Cinema: An enclosed building or open-air theatre used on a regular basis for presenting for viewing by customers or commercial patrons pictorial materials or other visual images by way of direct or indirect projections, or through coin or slug operated or electrically, electronically, or mechanically controlled still or motion picture, videotape machines, or other image-producing devices maintained to show images or material, a predominance of which is principally distinguished or characterized by an emphasis on the depiction of specified sexual activities or specified anatomical areas, in return for the payment of any form of consideration or gratuity, irrespective of the number of patrons who may be able to view the presentation at any one time.

5.    Adult Live Entertainment Establishment: A nightclub, bar, restaurant, theater, or other establishment or enterprise that features any of the following:

a.    Persons who appear in a state of nudity;

b.    Live performances that are characterized by the exposure of specific anatomical areas or by specific sexual activities; or

c.    Films, motion pictures, videocassettes, slides, or other photographic reproductions which are characterized by the depiction or description of specific sexual activities or specific anatomical areas.

d.    Nothing in the definition of adult live entertainment establishment shall be construed to apply to the presentation, showing, or performance of any play, drama, or ballet in any theater, concert hall, fine arts academy, school, institution of higher education, or other similar establishment as a form of expression of opinion or communication of ideas or information, as differentiated from the promotion or exploitation of nudity for the purpose of advancing the economic welfare of a commercial or business enterprise.

6.    Adult Hotel or Motel: A hotel, motel, or similar commercial establishment which:

a.    Offers accommodations to the public for any form of consideration; provides patrons with closed-circuit television transmissions, films, motion pictures, videocassettes, video reproductions, slides, or other reproductions offered in photographic, electronic, magnetic, digital or other imaging medium or other visual presentations which are distinguished or characterized by specific sexual activities or specific anatomical areas as one of its principal business purposes;

b.    Offers a sleeping room for rent for a period of time that is less than 10 hours; or

c.    Allows a tenant or occupant of a sleeping room to sub-rent the room for a period of time that is less than 10 hours.

7.    Adult Motion Picture Theater: A commercial establishment in which for any form of consideration films, motion pictures, videocassettes, slides, plate negative film, plate positive film or tape designed to be projected on a screen for exhibition, glass slides or transparencies, either in negative or positive form, designed for exhibition by projection on a screen, or images from an on-site or off-site electronic or magnetic storage medium, including but not limited to any hard disk, floppy disk, diskette, disk pack, DVD, CD ROM, hologram, magnetic tape or cards or other similar photographic reproductions or any other device capable of creating a display on a screen or other viewing media that are characterized by the depiction or description of specific sexual activities or specific anatomical areas are predominantly shown. Nothing in the definition of adult motion picture theater shall be construed to apply to the presentation, showing or performance of any play, drama or ballet in any theater, concert hall, fine arts academy, school, institution of higher learning or other similar establishment as a form of expression of opinion or communication of ideas or information, as differentiated from the promotion or exploitation of nudity for the purposes of advancing the economic welfare of a commercial or business enterprise.

8.    Adult-Oriented Business: The existence, operation, opening or commencement of, or the conversion of an existing business to, or the addition to any other existing business of, or the relocation of any of the following: adult arcades; adult bookstores or video stores or novelty stores; cabarets; adult live entertainment establishments; adult motion picture theaters; adult theaters; massage establishments that offer adult service; escort agencies that offer adult service; sexual encounter centers; erotic dance or performance studios; adult motels, or nude model studios.

9.    Adult-Oriented Business Manager: A person on the premises of an adult-oriented business who is authorized to exercise overall operational control of the business.

10.    Adult Novelty Store: See “Adult Bookstore.”

11.    Adult Service: Adult service includes dancing, serving food or beverages, modeling, posing, wrestling, singing, reading, talking, listening, or other performances or activities conducted for any consideration in an adult-oriented business by a person who is nude or seminude during all or part of the time that the person is providing the service.

12.    Adult Service Provider or Erotic Entertainer: Any natural person who provides an adult service.

13.    Adult Theater: A theater, concert hall, auditorium, or similar commercial establishment that predominantly features persons who appear in a state of nudity or who engage in live performances that are characterized by the exposure of specific anatomical areas or specific sexual activities. Nothing in the definition of adult theater shall be construed to apply to the presentation, showing, or performance of any play, drama, or ballet in any theater, concert hall, fine arts academy, school, institution of higher learning or other similar establishment as a form of expression of opinion or communication of ideas or information, as differentiated from the promotion or exploitation of nudity for the purposes of advancing the economic welfare of a commercial or business enterprise.

14.    Adult Video Store: See “Adult Bookstore.”

15.    Cabaret: An adult-oriented business licensed to provide alcoholic beverages in compliance with A.R.S. Title 4, Chapter 2, Article 1.

16.    Discernibly Turgid State: The state of being visibly swollen, bloated, inflated, or distended.

17.    Erotic Dance or Performance Studio: A business that emphasizes and seeks, through one or more dancers or other performers, to arouse or excite the patrons’ sexual desires. Nothing in the definition of erotic dance or performance studio shall be construed to apply to the presentation, showing, or performance of any play, drama, or ballet in any theater, concert hall, fine arts academy, school, institution of higher education, or other similar establishment as a form of expression of opinion or communication of ideas or information, as differentiated from the promotion or exploitation of nudity for the purpose of advancing the economic welfare of a commercial or business enterprise.

18.    Erotic Entertainer: See “Adult Service Provider.”

19.    Escort: A person who for consideration agrees or offers to act as a companion, guide or date for another person or who agrees or offers to privately model lingerie or to privately perform a striptease for another person.

20.    Escort Agency: A person or business association that furnishes, offers to furnish, or advertises the furnishing of escorts as one of its primary business purposes for any fee, tip, or other consideration.

21.    Massage Establishment: An establishment in which a person, firm, association, or corporation engages in or permits massage activities, including any method of pressure on, friction against, stroking, kneading, rubbing, tapping, pounding, vibrating or stimulating of external soft parts of the body with the hands or with the aid of any mechanical apparatus or electrical apparatus or appliance. A massage establishment shall also include any bathing establishment operated in conjunction with the business. This subsection does not apply to:

a.    Physicians licensed in compliance with A.R.S. Title 32, Chapter 7, 8, 13, 14 or 17.

b.    Registered nurses, licensed practical nurses or technicians who are acting under the supervision of a physician licensed in compliance with A.R.S. Title 32, Chapter 13 or 17.

c.    Persons who are employed or acting as trainers for a bona fide amateur, semiprofessional or professional athlete or athletic team.

d.    Persons who are licensed in compliance with A.R.S. Title 32, Chapter 3 or 5 if the activity is limited to the head, face or neck.

22.    Nude Model Studio: A place in which a person who appears in a state of nudity or who displays specific anatomical areas is observed, sketched, drawn, painted, sculptured, photographed or otherwise depicted by other persons who pay money or other consideration. Nude model studio does not include a proprietary school that is licensed by Arizona, a college, community college or university that is supported entirely or in part by taxation, a private college or university that maintains and operates educational programs in which credits are transferable to a college, community college or university that is supported entirely or in part by taxation or a structure to which the following apply:

a.    A sign is not visible from the exterior of the structure and no other advertising appears indicating that a nude person is available for viewing;

b.    A student must enroll at least three days in advance of a class in order to participate; and

c.    No more than one nude or seminude model is on the premises at any time.

23.    Nude, Nudity, State of Nudity: Includes any of the following:

a.    The appearance of the cleft of the buttocks, a human anus, genitals, or female breast below a point immediately above the top of the areola; or

b.    A state of dress that fails to opaquely cover the cleft of the buttocks, a human anus, genitals or female breast below a point immediately above the top of the areola.

24.    Principal Adult Business Purposes: Means that a commercial establishment meets any one or more of the following criteria:

a.    That has 30 percent or more of its inventory, stock, or merchandise on hand at any time that is comprised of items listed under the definition for an adult bookstore;

b.    That derives 30 percent or more of its gross income for any one calendar month from the sale or rental, for any form of consideration, of the items listed under the definition for an adult bookstore;

c.    That at any time displays items listed under the definition for an adult bookstore either in a display area that is 30 percent or more of its total display area or on a floor area equal to at least 200 square feet. For purposes of calculating the floor area, the business premises shall be viewed from above in two dimensions and all areas that are reserved for foot traffic shall be included; or

d.    Which regularly excludes minors from the premises because of the sexually explicit nature of the items sold, rented, or displayed on the business premises.

25.    Seminude: A state of dress in which clothing covers no more than the genitals, pubic region, and female breast below a point immediately above the top of the areola, as well as portions of the body that are covered by supporting straps or devices.

26.    Sexual Encounter Center: Any business, agency, or person who, for any form of consideration or gratuity, provides:

a.    Activities between persons when one or more of the persons is in a state of nudity;

b.    The matching and/or exchanging of persons for specific sexual activities;

c.    Activities between persons when one or more of the persons is in a state of nudity for the purpose of engaging or attempting to engage in specific sexual activities; or

d.    Physical contact between persons, when one or more of the persons is in a state of nudity in the forms of tumbling, wrestling, or other similar activities for the purpose of engaging or attempting to engage in specific sexual activities.

27.    Specific Anatomical Areas: Means any of the following:

a.    A human anus, genitals, pubic region, cleft of the buttocks, or a female breast below a point immediately above the top of the areola that is less than completely and opaquely covered; or

b.    Human genitals in a discernibly turgid state even if completely and opaquely covered.

28.    Specific Sexual Activities: Means any of the following:

a.    Human genitals in a state of sexual stimulation or arousal;

b.    Sex acts, normal or perverted, actual or simulated, including acts of human masturbation, sexual intercourse, oral copulation, or sodomy;

c.    Fondling or other erotic touching of the human genitals, pubic region, buttocks, anus, or female breast; or

d.    Urinary or excretory functions as part of or in connection with any of the activities described in subsections a, b, and c of this definition.

Affordable Housing: Housing that is affordable to those who cannot afford market priced housing locally to either rent or purchase. It is housing that may be provided with either public and/or private subsidy for people who are unable to resolve their housing requirements in the local housing market because of the relationship between housing costs and local incomes.

Agriculture: The tilling of the soil, raising of crops, horticulture, small livestock farming, dairying, and/or pasture and range livestock production, including all uses customarily incidental thereto, but not including slaughterhouses, fertilizer yards, or plants for the reduction of animal matter or any other industrial use which is similarly objectionable because of noise, odor, smoke, dust, or fumes.

Agriculture, Urban: The cultivation of food and other goods within the boundaries of an urban environment.

Airport: An area of land or water that is designed or set aside for the landing and taking off of aircraft, including those for private use and those used by ultra-light aircraft.

Airport, Municipal: The City of Flagstaff’s Pulliam Municipal Airport.

Airspace Height: Height limits in the Airport Overlay (AO) District. As set forth in this title, the elevation data shall be above mean sea level elevation (AMSL) unless otherwise specified.

Aisle: The traveled way by which cars and other vehicles enter and depart parking spaces, but not including streets or alleys.

Allee: A regularly spaced and aligned row of trees usually planted along a thoroughfare or path.

Alley: A dedicated public right-of-way or passage or way affording a secondary means of vehicular access to abutting property and not intended for general traffic circulation.

Alteration: Any change in size, shape, character, occupancy, or use of a building or structure.

Alternative Paving: Alternatives to traditional paving techniques such as light colored paving.

Animal Keeping: The raising or keeping of certain farm animals (including, for example, horses, cows, goats, or sheep) as authorized in City Code Chapter 6-03, Animal Keeping. Animal keeping does not include the keeping of common household pets such as birds, dogs, or cats. Does not include shelters or kennels; see “Kennel, Animal Boarding.”

Annexations: The incorporation of new territory into the corporate boundaries of the City.

Antenna: Any exterior apparatus designed to collect or radiate electromagnetic waves, including but not limited to directional antennas, such as panels, microwave dishes, and satellite dishes, and omnidirectional antennas, such as whip antennas.

Antenna-Supporting Structures: A vertical projection composed of metal, wood or other substance with or without a foundation that is for the express purpose of accommodating antennas at a desired height above grade.

Apartment: Any real property that has one or more structures and that contains three or more dwelling units for rent or lease.

Apartment House: A building type that is a medium-to-large-sized structure that consists of four to 12 side-by-side and/or stacked dwelling units, typically with one shared entry.

Appeal: A means for obtaining review of a decision, determination, order, or failure to act.

Applicant: Any person who files an application on a form prescribed by the Community Development Division.

Approach Surface: An area longitudinally centered on the extended runway centerline and extending outward from each end of the primary surface. An approach surface is designated for each runway based upon the type of approach available or planned for at the runway end. The inner edge of the approach surface is the same width as the primary surface and expands uniformly to a width for each runway in compliance with the Airport Master Plan clear zone drawings.

Archaeological Resource: A type of cultural resource that includes any material remains or physical evidence of past human life or activities which are of archaeological interest, including the record or evidence of the effects of human activities on the environment.

Archaeological Resource Study: A type of cultural resource study used to locate and evaluate surface and below ground deposits of objects or structures dating from prehistoric or historic periods.

Area of Special Designation: A geographical area or site indicated within the Zoning Code providing for special sign regulations.

A.R.S.: Arizona Revised Statutes.

Arterial Streets, Roads: A road, street, or highway that is intended to provide for high speed travel between or within communities or to and from collectors. Access is controlled so that only regionally significant land uses may take direct access to these streets.

1.    Major Arterial: Streets used for high volumes of through traffic, at relatively high speed, with full control of access and grade separations at intersections.

2.    Minor Arterial: Streets intended for or used by large volumes of through traffic.

As-Built Plans: A set of architectural plans and other drawings that document actual existing conditions of a building and site, prepared by a qualified technician who collects accurate data, such as measurements and photographs, to inform the drawings. Unless specified otherwise, the Historic American Building Survey Guidelines shall be used to determine techniques for developing the drawings and for required drawing content.

Attached Telecommunication Facilities: An antenna or antenna array that is attached to an existing building with any accompanying pole or device which attaches it to the building, transmission cables, and an equipment enclosure, which may be located either inside or outside of the existing building.

Attic: The interior part of a building contained within its roof structure above the ceiling of the top story.

Authorized Agent: A person or firm duly authorized by the property owner or developer to submit applications or represent the applicant on his, her, their, or its behalf.

Automobile and Trailer Rental: An establishment renting automobiles, trucks and vans, trailers, motorcycles, and other motorized vehicles. This does not include bicycles.

Automobile Service Station and Convenience Store: An establishment providing sales of vehicle fuel and such services as lubrication, oil and tire changes, and minor repairs. This use does not include paint spraying or body repair, automobile top or upholstery repair, or tire retreading and repair; see “Automobile/Vehicle Repair Garages – Major.” This does not include equipment rental (see “Automobile and Trailer Rental”) or outside storage or display of used or new merchandise (see “Automobile/Vehicle Sales and Services, New and Used”).

Automobile/Vehicle Repair Garages – Major: All activities involving automobile repair, including top, body, and upholstery repair, body painting, and tire retreading and repair.

Automobile/Vehicle Repair Garages – Minor: Automobile repair or vehicle repair garages, including automotive top or upholstery shops. This does not include body or paint shops, or tire retreading and repair shops; see “Automobile/Vehicle Repair Garages – Major.”

Automobile/Vehicle Sales and Services, New and Used: A retail or wholesale establishment selling and/or renting automobiles, trucks and vans, trailers, motorcycles, and other motor vehicles new or used. Vehicles for sale may be displayed outdoors or indoors, as authorized by the required use permit (use permit required in the CC Zone). Does not include auto towing storage yards; see “Industrial, Light – General.” Does not include bicycles; see “General Retail Business.”

Auxiliary Building Elevation: A section of a building elevation which does not contain the primary entrance to a business establishment, but which may be parallel to a street frontage.

Avenue (AV): A thoroughfare of high vehicular capacity and low to moderate speed designed with a landscaped median that functions as a short distance connector between urban centers.

Awning: An architectural feature used to enhance a store front that:

1.    Provides protection from the elements to pedestrians below, or to occupants within the building; and

2.    Is temporary in that, whether stationary or retractable, it can be removed from the building without altering the building structure.

(Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17); Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2019-31, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-48); Ord. 2017-10, Amended, 4/4/2017; Ord. 2016-22, Amended, 6/21/2016 (Res. 2016-13); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.020 Definitions, “B”

B-Grid Thoroughfares: Thoroughfares that by virtue of their use, location, or absence of pre-existing or proposed pedestrian-supportive qualities, may meet a standard lower than that of the A-Grid. Exceptions to the standard for parking may be granted for B-Grid thoroughfares. See “A-Grid Thoroughfares.”

Bar Ditch: A roadside borrow pit dug for drainage purposes.

Bars/Taverns: A business, which is not part of a larger restaurant, where alcoholic beverages are sold for on-site consumption. Includes bars, taverns, pubs, and similar establishments where any food service is subordinate to the sale of alcoholic beverages. Does not include adult oriented businesses, which are separately defined.

Basement: A portion of a building located partially underground, having less than 50 percent of its clear floor-to-ceiling height above grade.

Basement Garage: See “Garage, Basement.”

Bed and Breakfast: An accommodation provided and offered to transient guests for stays of less than 30 days in a private home, consisting of a room for sleeping, which may include separate sanitation facilities in each room, and breakfast is provided to the guest(s) the next morning and is included in the price of the room. Bed and breakfast is not a travel accommodation, vacation rental or short-term rental.

Bedroom: A room in a residence marketed, designed, or likely to function primarily for sleeping.

Bicycle Boulevard: A street that is shared with motor vehicles, but prioritizes bicycle traffic through various treatments, including traffic diverters to reduce vehicle traffic and traffic calming to slow remaining traffic.

Bicycle Lane (BL): A dedicated lane for bicycle use demarcated by striping.

Bicycle Route (BR): A thoroughfare designated for the shared use of bicycles and automobiles.

Bicycle Trail (BT): A bicycle way located separately and independent from a vehicular thoroughfare for the shared use of bicycles and pedestrians.

Biofiltration Swale: See “Swale, Biofiltration.”

Biomass: Biological material, such as plant or animal matter, excluding organic material that has been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum or derivatives thereof, which may be transformed into a fuel source.

Bioretention Facility: A low-lying vegetated area underlain by a sand/soil bed and gravel/underdrain system. A shallow surcharge zone exists above the bioretention for temporary storage of the runoff control volume.

Bioswale: A long, gently sloped ditch vegetated with grasses or wetland plants, and designed to filter pollutants from stormwater.

Block: The aggregate of private lots, passages, rear alleys and rear lanes, circumscribed by thoroughfares.

Block Face: The aggregate of all the building facades on one side of a block. The block face provides the context for establishing architectural harmony.

Block Perimeter: The aggregate of all block side lengths.

Block Side: The edge of a block adjacent to a thoroughfare or civic space.

Boat: A small vessel or watercraft propelled on water by oars, sails, or one or more engines. A boat is not considered a recreational vehicle even though it may have facilities for temporary living quarters.

Boulevard (BV): A thoroughfare designed for high vehicular capacity and moderate speed traversing an urbanized area.

Brownfield: The expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of real property which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.

Bubbler: An irrigation head that delivers water to the root zone by “flooding” the planted area, usually measured in gallons per minute. Bubblers exhibit a trickle, umbrella, or short stream pattern.

Buffer: An area of land with natural or planted landscaping intended to visually and physically separate buildings, uses, or lots from each other.

Build-to Line (BTL): The distance from the lot line at which a building must be placed.

Buildable Area:

1.    In a manufactured home subdivision, the area where a manufactured home, other structure or automobile parking shall be placed on each lot.

2.    The portion of a lot or parcel, exclusive of required setback areas or open space, within which a building or structure may be built.

Building: A roofed structure built, maintained, or intended to be used for the shelter or enclosure of persons, animals, or property of any kind. The term is inclusive of any part thereof. Where independent units with separate entrances are divided by party walls, each unit is a building.

Building Code: The regulations contained in Title 4, Building Regulations, of the Flagstaff City Code.

Building, Corner: A building located at the intersection of two streets or alleys, or a street and an alley.

Building Depth: The dimension of a building or structure measured perpendicular to the front of a lot.

Building Element: Any uninterrupted flat surface finished with a single material to which a sign may be mounted, excluding the background to a sign.

Building Entry Zone: The most direct pedestrian route between the primary entrance to a building and a sidewalk in a public right-of-way. When there is no other option, the route may be between the primary entrance and a walkway to the associated parking area.

Building Envelope: The three-dimensional space on a lot or parcel delineated by the property’s zone requirements for building height, setback, stepback, yards and other provisions of the Zoning Code.

Building-Forward Design: The design and layout of a development site in which buildings are placed as close to a primary street frontage as possible so that vehicle parking and circulation areas, including driveways, are located behind or to the side of a building. On a corner lot or parcel, an appropriate building-forward design would place the building at the intersection.

Building Front: The exterior wall of a building that faces the front lot line.

Building Frontage: The maximum lineal dimension of an exterior wall, excluding canopies and projections, measured on the facade that faces a public right-of-way.

Building Frontage, Auxiliary: The exterior walls of a building which are not the primary building frontage.

Building Frontage, Primary: The exterior wall of a building containing the principal entrance to a business.

Building Official: The Chief of Building Inspectors or his official representative, who is charged with the administration and enforcement of the Building Code.

Building Permit: The permit required for new construction and additions pursuant to the City Code.

Building Width: The dimension of a building or structure measured parallel to the front of a lot.

Bulk: Standards that control the height, density, intensity, and location of structures.

Bungalow Court: A building type that consists of a series of small, detached structures on a single lot, providing multiple units that are arranged to define a shared court.

Business: Any individual or for-profit corporation or partnership engaged in a commercial activity designed to produce income or profit.

Business Park: A planned industrial or technologically based facility or collection of facilities intended for research and development, light manufacturing, light industrial usage, or warehousing.

By Right: Characterizing a proposal or component of a proposal that complies with the Zoning Code, and may thereby be processed administratively, without public hearing.

(Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.030 Definitions, “C”

Caliper: A measurement of the size of a tree taken six inches from above ground level for trees up to and including four-inch caliper sizes, and 12 inches above ground level for larger trees.

Canopy, Non-Structural: See “Awning.”

Canopy, Structural: An architectural feature that:

1.    Projects from and is the exterior wall of a building or by a combination of building wall and support posts;

2.    Provides protection from the elements to pedestrians below, or within the building; and

3.    Is permanent in that it is not retractable and cannot be removed from the building without altering the building face or structure.

Canopy Tree: A woody plant, other than a palm tree, with a mature crown diameter of at least 15 feet and having a trunk that, at maturity, is kept clear of leaves and branches at least six feet above grade.

Car Wash: A facility for the washing or steam cleaning of passenger vehicles; includes automatic and nonautomatic, self-service, and full service facilities.

Carport: An open building, at least two sides of which are at least 50 percent open, the principal use of which is the storage of motor vehicles.

Carpenter or Cabinet Shops: The workshop of a person who works in a manual trade of carpentry or cabinet making where specific, skilled manual work is performed.

Carriage House: An accessory dwelling unit to a primary dwelling on the same site. A carriage house provides on the ground floor or above a garage, permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation.

Cemeteries: Internment establishments engaged in subdividing property into cemetery lots and offering burial plots or air space for sale. Includes animal cemeteries; cemetery, mausoleum and columbarium operations; and full-service funeral parlors, whether accessory to or separate from a cemetery or columbarium. Does not include crematoriums – see “Crematorium.”

Certificate of Appropriateness: Documentation that the Heritage Preservation Commission has reviewed and approved plans for proposed construction or development, including alterations and demolition, in which major impacts on cultural resources have been mitigated.

Certificate of Economic Hardship: Documentation that the Heritage Preservation Commission, in lieu of issuing a Certificate of Appropriateness, has found that necessary mitigation measures would have certain unavoidable negative economic impacts, and are thus not required.

Certificate of No Effect: Documentation that the Heritage Preservation Commission has reviewed and approved plans for proposed construction or development, including alterations and demolition, when there is no major impact on a cultural resource.

Certificate of Occupancy: An official authorization to occupy a structure as issued by the Community Development Director.

Change of Use: See “Use, Change of.”

Character District: An identifiable neighborhood or district within the City of Flagstaff that exhibits unique or consistent physical patterns of development including building form, scale, character, street layout, historic significance, or other unique features that define and make it distinct from surrounding areas.

Charrette: A collaborative planning and design process during which stakeholders, including, for example, land developers, design professionals, citizens, city staff, and other interested persons, propose a solution to a design problem or create a plan for the development of land.

Child Care: The compensated supervision service that is provided to a child who is unaccompanied by a parent or guardian during a portion of a 24-hour day.

Cisterns: Any above or below ground storage container used solely for the collection and storage of rainwater that has a capacity greater than 100 gallons.

City: The City of Flagstaff, Arizona.

Civic: Not-for-profit or governmental activities dedicated to arts, culture, education, recreation, government, transit, and municipal parking.

Civic Building: A building operated by governmental or not-for-profit organizations and limited to civic and related uses.

Civic Organization: An organization that embodies the ideas of citizens of the community cooperating to promote the common good and to accomplish community ends, operated exclusively for the promotion of social welfare, and not organized for profit.

Civic Space: An outdoor area dedicated for civic activities.

Class 1 Lighting: See “Lighting, Class 1.”

Class 2 Lighting: See “Lighting, Class 2.”

Class 3 Lighting: See “Lighting, Class 3.”

Clear View Zones: The triangular volume defined by the intersection sight triangle and sight lines between the driver’s eye on each leg of the intersection and a vehicle approaching on the other leg. Driver’s eye height is the range of three and one-half feet to eight feet above the roadway, and the approaching vehicle is a point which is three feet above the surface of the roadway at the center line of the nearest through approach lane.

Cluster Dwelling: See “Dwelling, Cluster.”

Co-housing: A clustered housing development that combines private living quarters with common dining and activity areas. Living quarters may range from detached units to townhouses or multi-family units.

Co-location: A situation in which two or more different telecommunication service providers place wireless communication antenna or antennas on a common antenna-supporting structure. Co-location shall not be applied to a situation where two or more telecommunications service providers independently place equipment on an existing building.

Collector Street: A street that collects traffic from local streets and carries it to the arterial system. Collectors may supplement the arterial system by facilitating some through traffic volumes and may also serve abutting property.

Colonnade: A structure composed of columns placed at regular intervals.

Color: Any distinct tint, hue, or shade including white, black, or gray.

Colors, Night-Bright: For the purposes of the Zoning Code, colors identified as “night-bright” shall be based upon the Gerber Scientific Products GSP 230 Scotchcal Translucent Film Specifications Guide that provides color swatches of vinyl products available for plexiglas sign faces. Individual colors identified on the aforementioned Specifications Guide as White #230-20; Ivory #230-005; and Yellow #230-015, or comparable colors provided by other sign vinyl suppliers, shall be deemed as “night-bright” colors. Colors not shown on the Specifications Guide or product information of other sign vinyl suppliers, which include but are not limited to pale gray, baby blue, or light pink, shall also be considered to be “night-bright” colors.

Commercial: Term collectively defining workplace, office, retail and lodging functions for the purpose of describing general land use.

Commercial Campground: Commercial, for-profit campgrounds, recreational vehicle parks, or a mix of the aforementioned uses. Includes camps, recreational vehicle facilities, campsites, tent and travel trailer parks.

Commercial Message: A message conveyed by any sign that is solely intended to interest, entice, or solicit any person to participate in commercial transactions with a business, including but not limited to offers of goods, cash, discounts on products or services, or other items, including the offering of free goods or services made in exchange for or with the intent to induce the recipient’s willingness to receive information relating to a possible commercial transaction.

Commercial Recreation Facilities, Indoor: These uses include all indoor commercial recreation and amusement facilities (except “Adult Entertainment” uses) including but not limited to bowling alleys, indoor sports arenas, indoor sports facilities, physical fitness facilities, video arcades and pool arcades. Does not include movie theaters, defined separately under “Theater.”

Commercial Recreation Facilities, Outdoor: These uses include golf driving ranges, outdoor commercial amusement facilities including but not limited to outdoor stadiums, racing facilities, rodeos, music arenas, theme parks, amusement parks, miniature golf establishments, ice and roller skating rinks, water slides, batting cages, archery ranges, pistol ranges and shooting ranges.

Commercial Vehicle: Any motor vehicle used for business or institutional purposes or having painted thereon or affixed thereto a sign identifying a business or institution or a principal product or service of a business or institution. Agricultural equipment used as part of a permitted agricultural principal use shall not be considered as a commercial vehicle.

Common Area: Land in a residential development held in common and/or single ownership and not reserved for the exclusive use or benefit of an individual tenant or owner.

Common Building Entrance: An entrance leading to two or more uses that share a single exterior entrance, or to a common lobby, atrium, patio, and/or elevator foyer, in a multi-tenant and/or multi-storied building.

Common Destination: An area of focused community activity acting as the social center of a neighborhood usually defining the approximate center of a pedestrian shed that includes one or more of the following: a civic space, a civic building, a retail trade center, or a transit station.

Common Open Space: See “Open Space, Common.”

Common Yard: A private frontage type that has no fences or hedges between front yards or between the front yard and sidewalk across multiple parcels providing an entrance to building.

Community: A group of people who interact with each other and are of similar character, agreement, and/or identity. The nature of the interaction is informal and spontaneous rather than formalized.

Community Development Division: The Division of Community Development for the City of Flagstaff, Arizona.

Community Garden: An area where neighbors and residents have the opportunity to contribute and manage the cultivation of plants, vegetables, and fruits.

Compatibility: Capable of existing in harmonious, agreeable, or congenial combination with other buildings, structures, blocks, or streets through the use of similar basic design principles including composition, rhythm, emphasis, transition, simplicity, and balance. Work is compatible if it is designed to complement the physical characteristics of the context and is cohesive and visually unobtrusive in terms of the overall patterns of development, scale and continuity.

Composting Facility: A facility in which controlled biological decomposition of organic solid waste, excluding restaurant grease and septage, derived primarily from off-site locations under in-vessel anaerobic or aerobic conditions, occurs for commercial purposes.

Comprehensive Sign Program: A specific set of design standards established for the purpose of unifying a variety of signs associated with a multi-tenant or multi-use building or complex of buildings. The design standards may include, but are not limited to, letter and logo sizes, letter style, colors, texture, lighting methods, sign type and architectural features.

Concept Plan: A generalized plan that conceptually illustrates a development proposal, including the identification of proposed land uses, land use intensity, circulation, and open space/sensitive areas. The relationship of the proposed development to existing surrounding development and uses is also included in a concept plan.

Concept Zoning Plan: A concept plan only submitted in support of a Zoning Map amendment application that conceptually illustrates a development proposal as well as the relationship of the proposed development to existing surrounding development and uses.

Concertina Wire: Coiled barbed wire used as an obstacle.

Conditional Use: A use that would not be appropriate without restriction, but which is permitted; provided, that all performance standards and other requirements of the Zoning Code are met.

Condominium: Real estate, portions of which are designated for separate ownership and the remainder of which is designated for common ownership solely by the owners of the separate portions. Real estate is not a condominium unless the undivided interests in the common elements are vested in the unit owners.

Configuration: The form of a building, based on its massing, private frontage, and height.

Conforming Use: See “Use, Authorized.”

Congregate Care Facility: A facility for long-term residence exclusively by persons 62 years of age or older, and which shall include, without limitation, common dining and social and recreational features, special safety and convenience features designed for the needs of the elderly, such as emergency call systems, grab bars, and handrails, special door hardware, cabinets, appliances, passageways, and doorways designed to accommodate wheelchairs, and the provision of social services for residents which must include at least two of the following: meal services, transportation, housekeeping, linen, and organized social activities.

Conical Surface: The area extending outward from the periphery of the horizontal surface for a distance of 4,000 feet. Height limitations for structures in the conical surface are 150 feet above airport height at the inner boundary and increases one foot vertically for every 20 feet horizontally to a height of 350 feet above airport height at the outer boundary.

Conjectural Feature: Work that creates a false sense of historical development including creating or adding features or elements not known to exist, elements from different historic properties, or by combining features that never existed together historically.

Construction: Any or all work or operations necessary or incidental to the erection, demolition, assembling, installing, or equipping of buildings, or any alterations and operations incidental thereto. Includes land clearing, grading, excavating and filling, and shall also mean the finished product of any such work or operations.

Construction, Start of: The excavation of or installation of foundation footings or grading other than for the installation of materials for road construction.

Construction Storage/Supply Yard: An outdoor storage facility operated by or on behalf of a contractor for the storage of large equipment, vehicles, and/or materials commonly used in the individual contractor’s type of business, and for the repair and maintenance of the contractor’s equipment. May include an accessory office or buildings for the storage and repair of equipment and vehicles.

Context: Refers to the development site itself, surrounding properties, and the neighborhood in which a development site is located.

Contiguous: In contact with one or more sides.

Convent or Monastery: The living quarters or dwelling units for a religious order or for the congregation of persons under religious vows.

Coordinated Frontage: A frontage where the public frontage and private frontage are coordinated as a single, coherent landscape and paving design.

Corridor: A lineal geographic system incorporating transportation and/or greenway trajectories.

Council: The City Council of the City of Flagstaff.

Courtyard Building: A building that occupies the boundaries of its lot while internally defining one or more private patios.

Coverage: The portion of a lot, expressed as a percentage, that is covered by any and all buildings and structures including accessory buildings and decks. The following are not included when determining lot coverage: paved areas, uncovered parking areas, single-level unenclosed covered parking areas such as a carport (unless the roof space is used for any use or activity), structures supporting solar collectors, unenclosed covered walkways, driveways, walks, patios, terraces, swimming pools, and landscape areas.

Cover-cropped: The planting of specific crops that are primarily planted not to be harvested for food but for soil erosion control, weed control, and improving soil quality while the garden is otherwise dormant.

Crematorium: A location within an enclosed building, or a building containing properly installed, certified apparatus intended for use in the act of cremation of the remains of deceased persons and animals.

Cultural Resource: Historic and archaeological resources.

Cultural Resource Study: A document that describes record research and field surveying that identifies and inventories cultural resources associated with proposed construction or development and then for such cultural resources, evaluates their significance, identifies and evaluates the potential impacts from the proposed work, and then prescribes mitigation measures designed to minimize any major impacts.

Curb: The edge of the vehicular pavement that may be raised curb or flush to a swale. The curb usually incorporates the drainage system.

Custodial Care Facility: A facility providing care and treatment in a protective living environment for persons residing voluntarily, by court placement, or under protective control of Federal, State, county, or City governance including, without limitation, correctional and postcorrectional facilities, juvenile detention facilities, temporary detention facilities, chronically ill tenants, domestic violence victims, outpatient clients, and the developmentally disabled.

Cycle Track: A bicycle lane separated from vehicle lanes by curbs, railings, vegetated areas, parked cars, and/or grade separation.

(Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35); Ord. 2013-21, Amended, 11/05/2013 (Res. 2013-22))

10-80.20.040 Definitions, “D”

Day: A calendar day; “working day” means the days Monday through Friday, not including holidays recognized by the City Council.

Day Care, Center: A facility, other than a dwelling unit or an accessory structure of a dwelling unit, where supervision of children, older individuals, or disabled persons is provided for less than 24 hours. This includes adult day care or adult day health as defined in A.R.S. § 46-191.1., as amended.

Day Care, Home: A home occupation in any dwelling or an accessory structure of a dwelling where supervision of children, older individuals, or disabled persons is provided for less than 24 hours. This includes adult day care or adult day health as defined in A.R.S. § 46-191.1., as amended.

Day-Night Average Sound Level (LDN): A basic measure for quantifying noise exposure, namely: the A-weighted sound level averaged over a 24-hour time period, with a 10 decibel penalty applied to nighttime (10:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.) sound levels.

DBH: See “Diameter at Breast Height (DBH).”

Deciduous Tree: Trees with broad leaves that lose all their leaves in one season.

Dedication: The transfer of property interests from private to public ownership for a public purpose. The transfer may be of fee simple interest or of a less than fee simple interest, including an easement.

Density, Gross: The number of dwelling units allowed on one acre of a development site. The density of a development is calculated by the total number of dwelling units divided by the total acreage of the Development Site Area.

Design: Street alignment, grades, and widths; alignment and widths of easements for water drainage, sanitary sewers, and water lines; and the arrangement and orientation of lots.

Design Speed: The velocity at which a thoroughfare tends to be driven without the constraints of signage or enforcement.

Designation: For the purposes of Division 10-30.30 (Heritage Preservation), the act of adding a historic district zone to a property or properties.

Detention Basins: Areas for the temporary storage of storm runoff, used primarily for flood control and to control discharge rates sufficiently to provide gravity settling of pollutants.

Developer: The legal or beneficial owner(s) of a lot or parcel of any land proposed for inclusion in a development, including an optionee or contract purchaser.

Development: The carrying out of any building activity, the making of any material change in the use or appearance of any structure or land, or the dividing of land into parcels by any property owner. When appropriate to the context, “development” refers to the act of development or to the result of development within the City. Within the context of this Zoning Code, development shall include the following activities or uses:

1.    The reconstruction, alteration of, or material change in the external appearance of a structure on land or water;

2.    A change in the intensity of use of land, such as an increase in the number of dwelling units in a structure or on land, or an increase in the number of businesses, manufacturing establishments, or offices;

3.    Alteration of a shore or bank of a pond, river, stream, lake, or other waterway;

4.    Commencement of drilling (except to obtain soil samples), mining, or excavation on a parcel of land;

5.    Demolition of a building or structure;

6.    Clearing of land as an adjunct to construction, including clearing or removal of vegetation, any significant disturbance of vegetation, or any soil manipulation; and

7.    Deposit of refuse, solid or liquid waste, or fill on a parcel of land.

For the purpose of this Zoning Code the following operations or uses shall not be taken to mean “development”:

1.    Work by a highway or road agency or railroad company for the maintenance of a road or railroad track if the work is carried out on land within the boundaries of the right-of-way;

2.    Work by any utility, and other persons engaged in the distribution or transmission of gas or water, for the purposes of inspecting, repairing, renewing, or constructing on established rights-of-way, sewers, mains, pipes, cables, utility tunnels, power lines, towers, poles, tracks, or similar facilities (exclusive of the activities requiring a conditional use permit as specified in Chapter 10-40, Specific to Zones);

3.    The maintenance, renewal, or alteration of any building or structure, where only the interior or the color of the structure or the decoration of the exterior of the structure is affected;

4.    The use of any structure or land devoted to dwelling uses for any purpose customarily incidental to enjoyment of the dwelling;

5.    A change in the ownership or form of ownership of any parcel or structure;

6.    Work involving the landscaping of a detached dwelling; and

7.    Work involving the maintenance of existing landscaped areas and existing rights-of-way.

Development – Attached, Single-Family: A development consisting of one or more lots or parcels that contains a dwelling unit that is attached to a dwelling unit on another lot or parcel.

Development, Cluster, Single-Family: A single-family development – detached or co-housing that includes common open space and is developed to the requirements of this code.

Development – Detached, Single-Family: A development consisting of one or more lots or parcels that contains a single-family dwelling that is detached from a dwelling unit on another lot or parcel. A single-family development – detached includes lots and parcels that contain a primary dwelling unit and an accessory dwelling unit in accordance with the provisions of this code.

Development, Duplex: A development consisting of one or more lots or parcels that contains a duplex.

Development Fee: A fee adopted in compliance with A.R.S. § 9-463.05, which is imposed on new development on a pro rata basis in connection with and as a condition of the issuance of a building permit and which is calculated to defray all or a portion of the costs of the public facilities required to accommodate new development at City-designated level of service (“LOS”) standards and which reasonably benefits the new development.

Development Master Plan: A comprehensive conceptual plan for the development of a large or complicated land area, the platting of which is expected in progressive steps as required by the requirements of Title 11, General Plans and Subdivisions.

Development – Multiple-Family: A development (including a residential condominium) consisting of any number of structures, or portion thereof, that contains a total of three or more dwelling units on a lot or parcel.

Development Pad: The portion of a lot subject to site disruption from construction activities including construction of principal and accessory buildings, driveways, walkways, loading areas, storage yards, septic or alternative waste disposal areas, and forest removal activities.

Development Site: Any lot or parcel of land, or combination of contiguous lots or parcels of land, whether under common ownership or multiple ownership, which constitutes a site on which development is proposed, or exists.

Development Site Area: The total area of a development site, excluding all existing dedications for public rights-of-way or private street tract(s).

Diameter at Breast Height (DBH): A measurement of the size of a tree equal to the diameter of its trunk measured four and one half feet above natural grade.

Direct Illumination: Illumination resulting from light emitted directly from a lamp or luminaire, not light diffused through translucent signs or reflected from other surfaces such as the ground or building faces.

Direct Reuse: The beneficial use of reclaimed water for specific purposes authorized pursuant to A.R.S. Title 49, Chapter 2, Water Quality Control.

Director: The City of Flagstaff Planning Director, or designee.

Disaster Preparedness Shelter: Structure(s) used during such instances where there is an imminent loss to sleeping areas identified through a declaration of threat, disaster, or emergency by means of a natural disaster, or other identified community threat. The shelter may or may not have food preparation or shower facilities.

Display and Parking of Vehicles, Mobile Homes and Travel Trailers: The permanent or temporary outdoor display of vehicles, mobile homes, and travel trailers incidental to an adjacent indoor retail use and certain independent outdoor retail sales facilities.

Dooryard: Private frontage type with a shallow setback and front garden or patio, usually with a low wall at the frontage line.

Dormitories: A building or portion thereof that contains living quarters in individual rooms for nine or more students, staff, or members of a college, university, primary or secondary boarding school, theological school, other comparable organization, or an organization or business that provides living quarters for its employees. Areas held in common by all tenants within a dormitory include, but are not limited to, common gathering and meeting rooms, cooking facilities, laundry and other facilities. Single-family, two-family and multi-family dwellings are defined separately.

A building or portion thereof that contains living quarters in individual rooms for nine or more students, staff, or members of a college, university, primary or secondary boarding school, theological school, other comparable organization; provided, that such building is either owned or managed by such organization. Single-family and two-family dwellings are defined separately.

Downspout Disconnection: The process of separating roof downspouts from the storm drain system and redirecting roof runoff onto pervious surfaces, most commonly landscape areas or lawns.

Drainage Courses: Natural water conveyance system including swales, ditches, and washes.

Drip System Irrigation: Surface or subsurface irrigation systems that apply water through low volume emitters, most commonly measured in gallons per hour.

Drive: A thoroughfare along the boundary between an urbanized and a natural condition, usually along a park or promontory. One side has the character of a thoroughfare with sidewalk and building, while the other has the qualities of a road or parkway with naturalistic planting and rural details.

Driveable Suburban: An environment in which a person is mostly dependent on an automobile to travel to work or other destinations, and to accomplish most shopping and recreation needs. Driveable suburban environments may include areas where it is possible to walk or ride a bike for recreational purposes, but due to the separation of different land uses and a resultant lack of connectivity or nearby amenities, are not favorable for walking or biking as a primary mode of transportation on a day-to-day basis.

Drive-Through Aisle: A vehicular lane or lanes provided to serve a drive-through retail or service use including the required drive-through stacking area, area in front of order and pick-up windows, and the exit lane or lanes to a public street.

Drive-Through Retail: A facility where food or other products may be purchased by motorists without leaving their vehicles. Examples of drive-through sales facilities include fast-food restaurants, drive-through coffee, dairy product, photo stores, pharmacies, and similar uses.

Drive-Through Service: A facility where services may be obtained by motorists without leaving their vehicles. Examples of drive-through service facilities include, but are not limited to, drive-through bank teller windows and ATMs, dry cleaners, but do not include gas stations or other vehicle services, which are separately defined under “Automobile/Vehicle Sales and Services, New and Used.”

Driveway: A vehicular lane or lanes within a lot, or shared between two lots, providing access for vehicles to a garage, carport, parking space or parking area.

Dry-Cleaning, Processing: A facility that operates a system to clean (clothing or fabrics) with chemical solvents that have little or no water.

Duplex: A residential building designed to be occupied by two families living independently of each other with two attached dwelling units on one lot or parcel. The units may be attached front-to-back or side-to-side with a common or party wall, or stacked one atop the other with a common ceiling-floor separating the units.

Dwelling, Single-Family: Single-family residential uses, including all single-family detached dwelling units, factory built homes, and modular homes, built on lots at one unit per lot unless the zone provides for additional units. See also “Factory Built Building” and “Modular Home.”

Dwelling, Two-Family: See “Development – Duplex.”

Dwelling Unit: One or more rooms as a single unit used as an independent residential living facility for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation. A dwelling unit does not include suites or guest rooms in a travel accommodation or bed and breakfast.

(Ord. 2023-01, Amended, 2/21/2023; Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17); Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.050 Definitions, “E”

Easement: A grant of one or more, but less than all, of the property rights by the property owner to, or for the use by, the public, or another person or entity.

Edible Landscaping: Plant materials that may be used for landscaping purposes as defined in Division 10-50.60 (Landscaping Standards) which are in large part composed of plants with edible parts (e.g., Blue Elderberry).

Effective Date: The date upon which this Zoning Code is in full force and effect from and after its passage as further described in Section 10-10.50.010, Effective Date.

Egress: An exit.

Electric Grid: An interconnection of both generation and transmission electrical subsystems that distributes electricity to consumers and businesses.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE): The conductors, including the ungrounded, grounded, and equipment grounding conductors, and the electric vehicle connectors, attachment plugs, and all other fittings, devices, power outlets, or apparatus installed specifically for the purpose of transferring energy between the premises’ wiring and the electric vehicle.

Elevation: An exterior wall of a building.

Embodied Energy: The available energy that was used in the work of making a product. Embodied energy is an accounting methodology which aims to find the sum total of the energy necessary for an entire product lifecycle. This lifecycle includes raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, assembly, installation, disassembly, deconstruction and/or decomposition.

Emergency Services: Services to the public for emergencies and related buildings or garages (e.g., ambulance, fire, police and rescue).

Emergency Shelter: A type of homeless shelter that provides temporary housing on a first-come, first-served basis where clients must leave in the morning and have no guaranteed bed for the next night or provide beds for a specific period of time, regardless of whether or not clients leave the building. Facilities that provide temporary shelter during extremely cold weather (such as churches) are also included.

Employee Housing: Residence for necessary employees or security personnel.

Encroachment: Any structure or structural element such as galleries, fences, garden walls, porches, stoops, balconies, bay windows, terraces, or decks that break the plane of a vertical or horizontal regulatory limit extending into a setback, beyond the build-to-line, into the public frontage, or above a height limit.

Engineer: Registered professional engineer in the State of Arizona.

Engineering Plans: Maps, plats, profiles, cross-sections, and other required details for the construction of public improvements, prepared by an engineer registered in the State of Arizona in accordance with the approved tentative plat and in compliance with the standards of design and construction approved by the City Council. These plans are distinguished from the preliminary submittals required for preliminary plat approval.

Engineering Standards: The City of Flagstaff Engineering Design and Construction Standards and Specifications for New Infrastructure as may be amended from time to time.

Enhanced Concept Zoning Plan: A variation of a concept plan submitted in support of a Zoning Map amendment application for a multi-phase scale development in which additional information to that required for a concept zoning plan is submitted in support of the application (see Section 10-20.50.040.C, Application Requirements).

Equestrian Recreation Facilities: A commercial facility for horses, donkeys, and/or mules, examples of which include horse ranches, boarding stables, riding schools and academies, horse exhibition facilities (for shows or other competitive events), and barns, stables, corrals and paddocks accessory and incidental to these uses. Does not include the simple pasturing of horses, donkeys, and/or mules, which is instead included in “Animal Keeping.”

Equipment Rental Yard: A service establishment that may offer a wide variety of household and business equipment, furniture, and materials for rental. Does not include construction equipment rental, which is separately defined under “Equipment Rental Yard – Heavy.”

Equipment Rental Yard – Heavy: Establishments renting construction, farm, or other heavy equipment. Examples include, but are not limited to, cranes, earth moving equipment, tractors, combines, and heavy trucks.

Erosion: The detachment and movement of soil fragments by water, wind, ice, and/or gravity.

Euclidean Zoning: Zoning characterized by establishing and regulating land based on use. Euclidean zoning is guided by two main goals, which are: 1) the reduction of density and the prevention of the illegal overcrowding of land; and, 2) separation of uses based on size, height, noise, pollution, or parking requirements. Euclidean zoning codes are based on the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (1922).

Evapotranspiration: Discharge of water from the earth’s surface to the atmosphere by transpiration from plants and by evaporation from lakes, streams, and soil surfaces.

Exception: Any parcel of land which is within the boundaries of a subdivision and minor land division, but which is not being subdivided or divided, and which is noted as such. An exception is not a part of a subdivision or minor land division, and is not a subdivided or split lot.

Expression Line: A line prescribed at a certain level of a building for the major part of the width of a facade, expressed by a variation in material or by a limited projection such as a molding or balcony.

(Ord. 2022-04, Amended, 3/1/2022 (Res. 2022-05); Ord. 2013-21, Amended, 11/05/2013 (Res. 2013-22))

10-80.20.060 Definitions, “F”

Facade: The exterior wall of a building that is set along a frontage line.

Factory Built Building: As defined by the A.R.S. § 41-4001, as amended, a factory built residential or commercial building is: (1) either wholly or substantially manufactured at an off-site location and transported for installation or completion, or both, on-site; (2) constructed in compliance with adopted codes, standards and procedures of the State of Arizona; and, (3) installed temporarily or permanently. A factory built building does not include a manufactured home, recreational vehicle, panelized building or domestic or light commercial storage building.


1.    One or more persons related by blood, marriage, adoption, or affinity, and resident domestic employees, which occupy a dwelling unit and live as a single housekeeping unit; or

2.    Persons with disabilities as so defined in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, as amended by the Fair Housing Act; or

3.    Not more than eight unrelated persons, living together as a single housekeeping unit in a dwelling unit.

FAR: See “Floor Area Ratio, Gross (GFAR).”

Farmers Market: A temporary business established and operated for a specific time, selling raw, unprocessed fruits, vegetables, flowers, nuts and other produce in its raw or natural state.

Fascia: A wide band of material covering the ends of roof rafters, sometimes supporting a gutter in steep-slope roofing, but typically it is a border or trim in low-slope roofing.

Fence: Any artificially constructed barrier of any material or combination of materials erected to enclose or screen areas of land. This includes walls which are not building walls.

Fenestration: The arrangement of openings in a building wall, including windows and doors, allowing light and views between the interior and the exterior of a building.

FF: An abbreviation for finish floor.

Final Plat: A map of a land subdivision prepared in a form suitable for filing a record with necessary affidavits, dedications, and acceptances; and with complete bearings and dimensions of all lines defining lots and blocks, streets, and alleys, public areas and other dimensions.

Finished Grade: The manmade topography of a site at the completion of grading.

Fire Code: The regulations contained in Title 5, Fire Code, of the Flagstaff City Code.

Fixed Aerial Display: Any aerial advertising medium that is tethered to the ground.

Fixture: See “Light Fixture, Outdoor.”

Fixture, Fully Shielded: A light fixture or luminous tube constructed and mounted such that all light emitted by the fixture or tube, either directly from the lamp, tube, or a diffusing element, or indirectly by reflection or refraction from any part of the light fixture, is projected below the horizontal. If the lamp or tube, any reflective surface, or lens cover (clear or prismatic) is visible when viewed from above or directly from the side, from any angle around the fixture or tube, the fixture or tube is not fully shielded. Examples of fully shielded light fixtures include, but are not limited to, those illustrated below (Note: to be fully shielded these fixtures must be closed on top and mounted such that the bottom opening is horizontal):

Examples of fully shielded light fixtures.

Fixture, Partially Shielded: A light fixture constructed and mounted such that most light emitted by the fixture, either directly from the lamp or a diffusing element, or indirectly by reflection or refraction from any part of the fixture, is projected below the horizontal. Light emitted at or above the horizontal direction (sideways or upwards) arises only from incidental decorative elements or strongly colored or diffusing materials such as “honey” or colored glass or plastic. Fixtures using spot or flood lamps are considered partially shielded if the lamps are aimed no higher than 45 degrees above straight down (half-way between straight down and straight to the side). Examples of partially shielded fixtures include, but are not limited to, those illustrated below:

Examples of partially shielded light fixtures.

Fixture, Unshielded: A light fixture that is not fully shielded or partially shielded. Examples of fixtures that are unshielded include, but are not limited to, those illustrated below (Note: even though the lamp in these fixtures is shielded from direct view when viewed from the side or above, reflective surfaces and/or lens covers are directly visible from the side):

Examples of unshielded light fixtures.

Flag: A fabric sheet of square, rectangular or triangular shape that is mounted on a pole. This category includes the State, United States, and/or flags of foreign nations. This definition does not include “banner.”

Flammable Liquid, Gas, and Bulk Fuel – Storage and Sale: Includes liquefied petroleum gas or fuel oil storage for retail sales and storage of flammable liquids, gases, and bulk fuels.

Flea Market: An occasional or periodic market held in an open area or structure where goods are offered for sale to the general public by individual sellers from open or semi-open facilities or temporary structures outside of an enclosed building.

Flood Lamp: See “Spot Lamp.”

Floodplain: Any areas in a watercourse that have been or may be covered partially or wholly by floodwater from a 100-year flood. For the purposes of this Zoning Code, floodplain areas shall be considered as one of the following types:

1.    Urban Floodplains: Delineated floodplain areas that are located in developed urban areas of the City.

2.    Rural Floodplains: Delineated floodplain areas that are essentially open space and natural land uses which are unsuitable for purposes due to poor natural soil conditions and periodic flood inundation.

Floor Area: The sum of the gross floor area for each of a building’s stories measured from the exterior limits of the faces of the structure. The floor area of a building includes basement floor area. Attic floor area is included only if the attic area meets the Building Code standards for habitable floor area. Not included are cellars and unenclosed porches or any floor space in an accessory building or in the principal building which is designed for the parking of motor vehicles in order to meet parking requirements.

Floor Area Ratio, Gross (GFAR): An intensity measured as a ratio derived by dividing the total floor area in square feet of all buildings or structures on a development site by the Development Site Area in square feet.

Flow-Through and Infiltration Planters: Flow-through and infiltration planters are landscape features that also provide stormwater runoff control and treatment. Flow-through planters are sealed on all sides and fitted with an under drain. They only absorb as much water as soil and plants in the planter can accommodate. Once the planter is at capacity, water is then discharged through the under drain.

Food Production: The use of land or buildings (except for the roof of a building – See “Vegetated Roof”) for farming, agriculture, or horticulture including necessary accessory uses for packing, treating, or storing produce; provided, that any such accessory use shall be secondary to that of normal food production activities. Food production does not include the raising of animals or fowl for commercial purposes, or the retail sale of any products on the premises except where specifically allowed in the underlying zone.

Forecourt: A private frontage where a portion of the facade is close to the frontage line and the central portion is set back.

Forest Resources: For the purposes of Division 10-50.90 (Resource Protection Standards), forest is defined as the area that includes the drip line area of one or more trees and the spaces in between.

Forestry: Logging operations as managed by the United States Forest Service and the Arizona State Land Department.

Form-Based Code: The regulatory document adopted by the Council that defines the regulations and standards applicable to development of a specific parcel or area of land that is zoned with a transect zone. The form-based code for a particular development applies the standards from the Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan to a unique site, and is made up of the design standards that define the urban form by addressing the details of relationships between building facades and the public realm of the street, the form and mass of buildings in relation to one another, and the scale and type of streets and blocks.

Fraternity, Sorority: Group living facilities for nine or more occupants, owned by an organization of university or college students or their parent organizations for housing members while enrolled in school and recognized as a student group by the university or college.

Freight or Trucking Facility: A facility for the receipt, transfer, short-term storage, and dispatch of goods transported by truck. Includes express and other mail and package distribution facilities.

Front: To place an element along a frontage line, as in “... porches front the street.”

Frontage: The areas between a facade and the vehicular lanes inclusive of its built and planted components of private property and the right-of-way. Frontage also includes civic space, such as a square or plaza, located within a block. Frontage is divided into private frontage and public frontage. Includes all the property fronting on one side of a street between the two nearest intersecting streets, excluding alleys, measured along the line of the street or, if dead-ended, then all of the property abutting on one side between an intersecting street and the dead-end of the street.

Frontage Line: A lot line abutting a public right-of-way, or, in the case of privately held right-of-way, the lot line within the right-of-way most nearly parallel to the vehicular lanes.

Fully Shielded Light Fixture: See “Fixture, Fully Shielded.”

Funeral Homes, Chapels, Mortuaries: A State licensed business for the care, storage, and preparation of the deceased prior to burial or cremation. Funeral services may be conducted on the premises.

Furnishing Zone: The portion of the sidewalk nearest to the curb used for street trees, transit stops, street lights, benches, trash containers, bike racks, or other street furnishings or equipment.

FUTS: (Pronounced “foots”) The Flagstaff Urban Trails System, a city-wide network of non-motorized, shared-use pathways that are used by bicyclists, walkers, hikers, runners, and other users for both recreation and transportation.

(Ord. 2022-27, Amended, 11/15/2022 (Res. 2022-51); Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17); Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2015-03, Amended, 05/05/2015; Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.070 Definitions, “G”

Gallery: A private frontage typically used in retail applications where the facade is aligned close to the frontage line with an attached cantilevered shed roof or a lightweight colonnade overlapping the sidewalk.

Garage: A deck or building, or part thereof, used or intended to be used for the parking and storage of motor vehicles.

Garage, Basement: A basement garage is located partially underground, having less than 50 percent of its clear floor-to-ceiling height above grade, and its entrance level with the basement floor.

Garage, Side Entrance: A deck or building, or part thereof, used or intended to be used for the parking and storage of motor vehicles with doors that do not face the street but face a side yard setback instead.

Garage, Off-Street: Parking structures provided on property other than a public street, alley, or right-of-way. Designed for the temporary parking of automobiles, usually on an hourly, daily, or monthly contract or fee basis; and to accommodate passenger cars and light trucks only, unless a separate area is set aside and designed for larger vehicles.

Garden Center: A place of business where retail and wholesale products are sold to the retail consumer. These centers, which may include a nursery and/or greenhouses, import most of the items sold. Items offered for sale may include plants, nursery products and stock, fertilizers, potting soil, hardware, power equipment and machinery, hoes, rakes, shovels, and other garden and farm tools, and utensils.

Garden Plot: An area established for the growing of food for home use. Such areas may be owned by an individual, community association, homeowners’ association, or agency.

Garden Wall: A nonstructural wall used to retain soil to prevent it from eroding away, for which no building permit is required.

General Plan: The comprehensive long-range policy guide for orderly growth and development in the City of Flagstaff adopted in compliance with the authority provided in A.R.S. § 9-461.05.

General Retail Business: Stores and shops selling many lines of merchandise to the ultimate consumer for any purpose other than for resale. Examples of these stores and lines of merchandise include, but are not limited to:

Antique stores


Art galleries, retail

Luggage and leather goods

Art supplies, including picture framing services

Miscellaneous retail; except fuel dealers

Bicycle sales

Musical instruments, parts and accessories

Books, magazines, and newspapers

Orthopedic supplies

Cameras and photographic supplies

Records, CDs

Clothing, shoes, and accessories

Religious goods

Collectibles (cards, coins, comics, stamps, etc.)

Retail building supply

Department stores

Small wares

Dry goods

Specialty shops

Fabrics and sewing supplies

Sporting goods and equipment

Feed stores


Greenhouses (retail) and greenhouses with garden supplies

Toys and games

Variety stores

Hobby materials

Videos, DVDs, including rental

General Services: Facilities primarily engaged in providing personal services, commercial services, and miscellaneous repair services and shops, including but not limited to the following:

Commercial Services:

Repair Services:

Personal Services:

Banks and other financial institutions

Bicycle repair

Clothing service/rental, non-theatrical

Printing and copying

Leather goods repair


Lock and gun repair

Dry cleaning and laundromats

Musical instrument repair

Legal document services


Locker rental, except cold storage

Salon services (depilatory, tanning, electrolysis, massage, etc.)

Tattoo parlors

Valet parking

Home electronics and small appliance repair

Wedding chapels, private

Does not include industrial launderers and linen supply or those services serving customers in vehicles, such as drive-up banking facilities.

Geothermal Energy: Power extracted from heat stored in the earth. Geothermal resources include:

1.    All products of geothermal processes embracing indigenous steam, hot water and hot brines;

2.    Steam and other gases, hot water and brines resulting from water, other fluids or gas artificially introduced into geothermal formations;

3.    Heat or other associated energy found in geothermal formations, including any artificial stimulation or induction thereof; and

4.    Any mineral or minerals, exclusive of fossil fuels and helium gas, which may be present in solution or in association with geothermal steam, water or brines.

GFAR: See “Floor Area Ratio, Gross (GFAR).”

Golf Course and Related Facilities: Substantially undeveloped land area designated for recreational golf activities. It may include amenities such as landscaping, irrigation systems, paths, golf greens, and tees. Golf courses may be public or private facilities. A golf course may also include other facilities such as commercially operated driving range, clubhouse, and incidental accessory uses.

Governmental Service and Maintenance Facilities: Facilities that support the maintenance and servicing activities of government owned land, property and buildings.

Green: A civic space type for unstructured recreation that may be spatially defined by landscaping rather than building frontages.

Greenfield: An area that consists of forested or open lands that has not been previously developed.

Greenhouse: An enclosed building, permanent or portable, which is used for the growth of plants.

Greenway: An open space corridor in largely natural conditions, which may include trails for bicycles and pedestrians.

Greyfield: An area that was previously developed primarily as a parking lot, such as a shopping center or shopping mall.

Greywater: Nonindustrial wastewater that has been collected separately from sewage flow and that is generated from domestic processes such as dishwashing, laundry and bathing. Greywater comprises wastewater generation from all of the house’s sanitation equipment except for the septic tank.

Group Home: A residential facility for eight or fewer unrelated persons providing living facilities, sleeping rooms, and meals in a family-like environment. The number listed does not include the operator, members of the operator’s family, or persons employed by the operator as staff, except that the total number of persons living in a group home shall not exceed 10. This use shall be considered as a single-family dwelling in terms of applicable building form standards. Residents are supervised by a sponsoring entity or its staff which furnishes rehabilitative services to the group home residents. A group home is owned or operated under the auspices of a nonprofit association, private care provider, government agency, or other legal entity, other than the residents themselves or their parents or other individuals who are their legal guardians. A group home imposes no time limit on how long an individual can reside in the group home. A group home is a relatively permanent living arrangement where tenancy is measured in years. This category does not include a home for the developmentally disabled or other institutional uses such as protective living or sheltered care facilities. See “Institutional Residential.”

Guideline: A nonmandatory statement of desired, recommended, or best practice that allows some discretion or leeway in its interpretation, implementation, or use.

(Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02))

10-80.20.080 Definitions, “H”

Halo Illumination: A form of sign illumination in which neon tubing, LED, or similar lights are mounted within the letter to illuminate the mounting surface causing a halo of light around the letter.

Hardscaping: The part of a building’s grounds consisting of hard materials including brick, concrete, wood, tile paver, or other decorative hard surfaces used in lieu of or in conjunction with landscape materials such as trees, shrubs, turf, ground cover, wood chips, or gravel.

Heat Island: Built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas.

Heavy Retail/Services: Retail activities and other services characterized by intensity of use, such as auto or engine repair, but not including junkyards, industrial uses, and activities involving the production, processing, cleaning, servicing, testing, or repair of materials, goods, or products that would be considered as industrial or heavy industry.

Heavy Services: Service activities that have large amounts of exterior service or storage areas or partially enclosed structures.

Heliport: An area of land, water or structure that is used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of rotocraft or a heavier than air aircraft that depends principally for its support in flight on the lift generated by one or more rotors.

Helistop: An area designated for the landing and taking off of helicopters for the purpose of picking up or discharging passengers or cargo, not including fueling or service facilities.

HERS (Home Energy Rating System): A scoring system established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code) scores a HERS Index of 100, while a net zero energy home scores a HERS Index of 0. The lower a home’s HERS Index, the more energy-efficient it is.

High Occupancy Housing Development (HOHD): Means any of following: High Occupancy Housing Development, Single-Family; High Occupancy Housing Development, Two-units; High Occupancy Housing Development, Three-units; and High Occupancy Housing Development, Four-units and Greater (see definitions below). Housing development, either for rental or purchase, in which all dwelling units are permanently affordable and offered at 60 percent of the Area Median Income (AMI) in compliance with the Department of Housing and Urban Development regulations shall not be categorized as High Occupancy Housing Development, regardless of the number units, bedrooms, or zoning.

High Occupancy Housing Development, Single-Family: A single-family attached or detached dwelling unit with:

a.    Seven or more bedrooms; or

b.    Five or more sanitation facilities.

High Occupancy Housing Development, Two-Units: A lot or parcel containing two dwelling units, excluding an accessory dwelling unit, with:

a.    More than a total of seven bedrooms; or

b.    One or more dwelling unit(s) containing four or more sanitation facilities.

High Occupancy Housing Development, Three-Units: A lot or parcel containing three dwelling units with:

a.    More than a total of nine bedrooms; or

b.    One or more dwelling unit(s) containing four or more sanitation facilities.

High Occupancy Housing Development, Four-Units and Greater: A Development Site containing four or more dwelling units where:

a.    More than 20 percent of the total dwelling units have four bedrooms or more;

b.    One or more of the dwelling unit(s) containing four or more sanitation facilities; or

c.    The total number of dwelling units per acre, or bedrooms per acre, requires a Conditional Use Permit for an HOHD in accordance with the building form and property development standards of the property’s designated Non-Transect Zone; or, if the property owner has elected a Transect Zone, the density is greater than 29 dwelling units per acre or 72.5 bedrooms per acre.

Historic District: A special overlay zone applied to specific property or properties that have been recognized as having historic, architectural, archaeological, cultural, or aesthetic significance and that includes regulations that modify regulations in another zone with which the zone is combined.

Historic Period: The period of significance for cultural resources for the period of recorded history.

Historic Property: A single property with a specific historic district designation that includes development standards and guidelines that are individualized for the specific cultural resource being recognized.

Historic Resource: A type of cultural resource that refers to objects, structures, natural features, sites, places, or areas that are associated with events or persons in the architectural, engineering, archaeological, scientific, technological, economic, agricultural, educational, social, political, military, or cultural annals of the City of Flagstaff, the State of Arizona, or the United States of America.

Historic Resource Study: A type of cultural resource study used to locate and evaluate surface and above-ground objects, structures, natural features, sites, or places from the historic period with historical architectural, landscape architectural or cultural importance.

Holding Zone: An informal designation for RR and RR-E zoned lands which are not suitable for Very Low Density Residential development, but also not available for more intensive development requiring a zoning change because of a lack of urban services such as water and sewer systems. These areas are designated in categories other than VL, Very Low Density Residential on the Land Use Plan of the City’s General Plan.

Home Occupation: Any occupation, profession, activity, or use which is conducted in a residence and which does not change the exterior of the property, affect the character of the residential use, or bring customer traffic into a residential neighborhood.

Homeless Shelter: A supervised publicly or privately operated shelter and services designed to provide temporary living accommodations to individuals or families who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence.

Hooded Entry: A roofed gable or shed structure located above the entry door of a building designed to provide some protection from the elements in front of the door, and supported by corbels, one on each side of the door frame.

Horizontal Surface: The area around Pulliam Airport, the perimeter of which is constructed by swinging arcs of specified radii from the center of each end of the primary surface of each runway and connecting the adjacent area by lines tangent to those arcs in compliance with the Airport Master Plan clear zone drawings.

Hospital: An institution, place, building, or agency, public or private, whether organized for profit or not, devoted primarily to the maintenance and operation of facilities for the diagnosis and treatment or care of persons admitted for overnight stay or longer in order to obtain medical treatment, including surgical, obstetric, psychiatric, and nursing care of illness, disease, injury, infirmity, or deformity. The term “hospital” also includes:

1.    Any facility which is devoted primarily to providing psychiatric and related services and programs for the diagnosis and treatment or care of persons suffering from emotional or nervous illness; and

2.    All places where pregnant women are received, cared for, or treated during delivery, regardless of the number of patients received.

House: See “Dwelling, Single-Family.”

Housing for the Elderly: A building or group of buildings containing a development type where the occupancy of the dwelling is restricted to persons 62 years of age or older, or couples where at least one member of the household is at least 62 years old.

Hydrozone: A portion of a landscaped area having plants with similar water needs.

(Ord. 2020-28, Amended, 11/17/2020 (Res. 2020-59); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.090 Definitions, “I”

Illustrative Plan: A plan or map that depicts (i.e., illustrates but does not regulate) the streets, lots, buildings and general landscaping of a proposed development.

Impermeable: Not able to be infiltrated by water.

Impervious Surface/Area: Any surface or area that cannot be effectively (easily) penetrated by water. Examples include conventional pavements, buildings, highly compacted soils and rock outcrops.

Improvements: All types of roadway construction, street lights, street and traffic signs, sidewalks, pedestrian ways, bicycle ways, water lines, sanitary sewers, storm drainage structures, grading and other community facilities of like nature.

Independent Living Unit: Independent dwelling unit.

Indirect Illumination: A source of external illumination for a sign located away from the sign.

Individual: Any person or his agent, lessee, firm, partnership, association, joint venture, corporation, or agent of the aforementioned groups or the State of Arizona or any agency or political subdivision of the State.

Industrial, Heavy – General: Construction, manufacturing, transportation, and public utilities, and those uses that may have severe potential for negative impact on any uses located relatively close to them. Differs from light industrial uses in that it includes uses that require unenclosed structures that are large, tall, and unsightly, such as concrete batching plants. These uses also have the potential for generation of dust, noise, and odor and may involve large amounts of exterior storage. Because of their scale, they are likely to have a regional impact. This term specifically includes, but is not limited to, the following uses:

Chemicals and allied products (except drugs)

Primary metal industries

Electrical distribution equipment

Processing of animal/fish oils and meat products

Electrical industrial apparatus

Railroad transportation

Heavy construction contractors

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics

Leather tanning

Sawmills, planing mills and storage of logs, paper, pulp, or paperboard mills

Manufacturing of alcoholic beverages

Stone, clay and glass products including concrete plants


Transportation equipment

Petroleum and coal products

Utility, production or processing facilities, but not offices or transmission or distribution

Industrial, Light – General: This use includes manufacturing, storage, transportation, construction, repair, and wholesale uses that do not include hazardous wastes or resulting large truck usage/parking on the site. Light industrial uses include, but are not limited to, the following:


Pharmaceutical manufacturing

Electric and electronic equipment (except electronic distribution and electrical industrial)

Printing and publishing

Special trade contractors

Fabricated metal

Special warehousing and storage

Food products, including liquor distribution, except meat products

Textiles and apparel

Transportation services

Fuel and ice dealers

Trucking and general warehousing including mini-storage

Furniture and fixtures

General building contractors

Vehicle repair including top, body and upholstery repair and paint shops and tire retreading and repair shops

Instruments and related products


Large truck, industrial truck and tractor repair

Vehicle storage, excluding Federal Highway Administration class 7, and above, vehicles and heavy equipment/construction vehicles

Leather, except tanning and finishing

Local and interurban passenger transit

Lumber and wood products

Vehicle towing

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

Welding repair

Office and computing machines

Wholesale trade, durable and nondurable

Paper products, except mills


Infill: Redevelopment within an existing urbanized area that has been previously developed, including most greyfield or brownfield sites, where infrastructure is already in place.

Infill Community: A community proposed for redevelopment under a Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan located within an existing urbanized area that has been previously developed, including most greyfield or brownfield sites, where infrastructure is already in place.

Infiltration Trench: Subsurface facilities designed to provide on-site stormwater retention in areas of good infiltration by collecting and recharging stormwater runoff into the ground, and to filter pollutants to improve water quality and contribute towards groundwater recharge.

Ingress: Access or entry point or entrance.

Institutional Residential: Facilities for living, sleeping, and sanitation and may include facilities for eating and cooking, for occupancy by other than a family.

Institutional Use: A nonprofit or quasi-public use such as a religious institution, library, public or private school, hospital, or government-owned or government-operated structure or land used for public use.

Integrity, Historical Resource or Cultural Resource: The authenticity of a cultural resource’s identity, judged by how evident is the general character of the period of significance, the degree to which the characteristics that define its significance are present, and the degree to which incompatible elements are reversible.

Internally Illuminated Architecture: Any architectural element including walls or portions of buildings that is internally illuminated and that is not a sign, windows, or doors.

Intersection Sight Triangles: See “Clear View Zones.”

(Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17); Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02))

10-80.20.100 Definitions, “J”

Junk Yard: An establishment or place of business maintained, used or operated for storing, keeping, buying or selling junk or for maintaining or operating an automobile graveyard, including garbage dumps and sanitary landfills. Includes vehicle wrecking yards and uses of a similar nature.

10-80.20.110 Definitions, “K”

Kennel, Animal Boarding: An enclosed, controlled area, either building, lot, or premises, inaccessible to other animals, on which five or more dogs, cats, or other small animals are kept, maintained, trained, boarded, or offered for sale with or without compensation. The keeping of animals for personal or commercial uses is defined separately. See “Animal Keeping.”

Key Lot: A lot or parcel that abuts a corner lot that has its side lot line in common with the rear lot line of the corner lot, or alley abutting rear lot line of the corner lot, and the lot fronts on to a street that forms the street side of the corner lot.

Figure 10-80.20.110. Key Lot

(Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17))

10-80.20.120 Definitions, “L”

Land Development Code (LDC): Title 10 of the City of Flagstaff City Code, adopted by the Flagstaff City Council on April 8, 1991, as Ordinance 1690, and as subsequently amended.

Landing Strip: A strip of land or water, paved or otherwise, used for the landing of planes, sufficient in size and otherwise adequate to meet the standards of the Federal Aviation Agency and Department of Transportation.

Landmark: A property with a specific historic district designation known as the landmark district.

Landscape Area: For purposes of sign regulation, an area as required by Table 10-50.100.060.H (Standards for Freestanding Signs), surrounding the base of a freestanding sign, and containing living plant materials with or without a fixed border.

Landscape Buffer: An area of landscaping or preserved forest resources separating two distinct land uses, or a land use and a public right-of-way that acts to soften or mitigate the effects of one land use on the other.

Landscaped Area: The parcel area less building footprints, driveway, parking areas, paved walks and patios, and undeveloped open space of designated natural areas. Development landscaped area includes all areas under irrigation, water features, and hardscape integrated as part of a landscape design.

Landscaping: Flowers, shrubs, trees or other decorative material of natural origin.

Lane: A local urban thoroughfare accommodating low-speed yield traffic movements.

Last Assessment: The most recent date customarily used by the Coconino County Assessor’s Office for the assessment of real property.

LDN: See “Day-Night Average Sound Level (LDN).”

LED, Narrow-Spectrum Amber: A light-emitting diode (LED) with a peak wavelength between 589 and 595 nanometers and a full width at 50 percent power no greater than 15 nanometers.

Representative Narrow-Spectrum Amber LED Spectrum

Letter Report: An abbreviated cultural resource study, in the form of a letter.

Level Spreader: Structures that are designed to uniformly distribute concentrated stormwater flow over a large area to mimic natural sheet flow. Concentrated flow enters the spreader through a pipe, ditch or swale; the flow is retarded, energy is dissipated; the flow is distributed throughout a long linear shallow trench or behind a low berm; water then flows over the berm/ditch, theoretically uniformly along the entire length.

Libraries, Museums: Public or quasi-public facilities, examples of which include: aquariums, arboretums, art galleries and exhibitions, botanical gardens, historic sites and exhibits, libraries, museums, observatories, planetariums, and zoos. May also include accessory retail uses such as a gift/book shop or a restaurant.

LID: See “Low Impact Development (LID).”

LID Manual: The Low Impact Development Manual that provides information on minimum acceptable design, construction, and maintenance practices for the use of low impact development projects, as incorporated into the City Code by Ordinance No. 2009-07 Low Impact Development (LID) Amendments to the City of Flagstaff Stormwater Management Design Manual.

Light Fixture, Outdoor: A complete lighting assembly (including the lamp, housing, reflectors, lenses, and shields), less the support assembly (pole or mounting bracket); a light fixture. Includes luminous tubes, lamps or similar devices, permanently installed or portable, used for illumination, decoration, or advertisement. Such devices shall include, but are not limited to, lights used for:

1.    Parking lot or parking garage lighting;

2.    Roadway and driveway lighting;

3.    Pedestrian or walkway lighting;

4.    Entryway lighting;

5.    Buildings and structures;

6.    Recreational areas;

7.    Landscape lighting;

8.    Billboards and other signs (advertising or other);

9.    Product display area lighting;

10.    Building or structure decoration; and

11.    Building overhangs and open canopies.

Light Reflectance Value (LRV): A measure of visible and usable light that is reflected from a surface when illuminated by a light source, and conversely how much it absorbs. LRV is typically measured on a scale from zero percent to 100 percent where an LRV of zero is assumed to be an absolute black and an LRV of 100 percent is assumed to be perfectly reflective white.

Light Trespass: Light falling across property boundaries, on property not containing the originating light source.

Lighting, Class 1: All outdoor lighting used for applications where color rendition is required to preserve the effectiveness of an activity.

Lighting, Class 2: All outdoor lighting used for applications where general illumination for safety or security is the primary concern.

Lighting, Class 3: Any outdoor lighting used for decorative purposes.

Lightwell: A private frontage type that is a below-grade entrance or recess designed to allow light into basements.

Linear Pedestrian Shed: A pedestrian shed that is elongated along an important mixed use corridor such as a main street. A linear pedestrian shed extends approximately one-quarter mile from each side of the corridor for the length of its mixed use portion. The resulting area is shaped like a lozenge.

Liner Building: A building specifically designed to mask a parking lot or a parking structure from a frontage.

Live/Work: An integrated housing unit and working space, occupied and utilized by a single household in a structure, either single-family dwelling or multiple-family dwelling, that has been designed or structurally modified to accommodate joint residential occupancy and work activity, and which includes:

1.    Complete kitchen space and sanitary facilities; and

2.    Working space reserved for and regularly used by one or more occupants of the unit.

Livestock Auction, Feed Yards and Sales: Land uses that include livestock auction areas; livestock feed yards; cattle, horses, and sheep loading pens; and sales areas. Includes facilities for the feeding of beef cattle in lots or pens that are not used normally for raising crops and in which no vegetation intended for livestock feed is growing.

Local Street: A street that serves primarily to provide direct access to abutting property. It offers the lowest level of mobility, and through traffic is usually deliberately discouraged.

Lodging: A building or group of buildings containing individual rooms or suites of rooms, each having a private bathroom, for the purpose of providing overnight lodging facilities to the general public for compensation with or without meals, and which has common facilities for reservations and cleaning services and on-site management. Includes hotels, motels and timeshares.

Lodges or Fraternal Associations: Permanent headquarters and meeting facilities for organizations operating on a membership basis for the promotion of the interests of the members; includes union halls.

Lot: An area of land having specific boundaries which are set by a recorded plat.

Lot Coverage: See “Coverage.”

Lot Depth: The mean horizontal distance measured from the front lot line to the rear lot line.

Lot, Flag: A lot not meeting minimum lot frontage requirements and where access to a public or private street is provided by means of a long, narrow driveway between abutting lots.

Lot Lines: The recorded boundary that legally and geometrically demarcates a lot. Types of lot lines are as follows:

Lot Line, Front: A lot line on the lot’s frontage.

1.    Corner Lot: Either of the two lines adjacent to the streets as platted, subdivided, or laid out, except that the front lot line shall be that line which is obviously the front by reason of the prevailing custom of the other buildings on the block. If such front is not evident, then either may be considered the front of the lot, but not both.

2.    Interior Lot: The property line separating the lot from the street frontage.

3.    Through Lot: On a through lot both lot lines are front lot lines and the lot is considered to have no rear lot line.

Lot Line, Rear: The lot line which is most distant from and most closely parallel to the front lot line. Where the side lot lines meet in a point, the rear lot line shall be assumed to be a line not less than 10 feet long lying within the lot and parallel to the front lot line. In the event that the front lot line is a curved line, then the rear lot line shall be assumed to be a line not less than 10 feet long, lying within the lot and parallel to a line tangent to the front lot line at its midpoint.

Lot Line, Side: Lot lines connecting the front and rear lot lines.

Lot of Record: Any validly recorded, platted lot of a subdivision, certified survey map, or parcel of land which at the time of its recording complied with all applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations.

Lot Size: The area contained within the boundary lines of a lot excluding publicly dedicated and accepted rights-of-way.

Lot Width: The width of lot measured at the front setback. If the front setback is different than the front setback for the zone, the lot width shall be measured at the front setback line as specified on a subdivision final plat.

Low Head Drainage: Drainage that occurs when water drains out of sprinklers after they turn off. Occurs when sprinklers are installed on a sloped area.

Low Impact Development (LID): A stormwater management approach modeled after nature by managing rainfall runoff at the source using decentralized small-scale controls uniformly distributed throughout the development area.

Lumen: The unit used to measure the actual amount of light which is produced by a lamp.

Luminaire: See “Light Fixture, Outdoor.”

Luminous Tube: A glass tube filled with a gas or gas mixture (including neon, argon, mercury, or other gases), usually of small diameter (10 to 15 millimeters), caused to emit light by the passage of an electric current, and commonly bent into various forms for use as decoration or signs. A “neon” tube. Does not include common fluorescent tubes.

(Ord. 2022-27, Amended, 11/15/2022 (Res. 2022-51); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02))

10-80.20.130 Definitions, “M”

Machine and Metal Working Shops: An establishment engaged in the production and/or assembly of metal parts, including the production of metal cabinets and enclosures, cans and shipping containers, doors and gates, duct work, forgings and stampings, hardware and tools, plumbing fixtures and products, tanks, towers, and similar products. (Includes arc and gas welding, providing that all work is conducted within an enclosed building.) Examples of these uses include, but are not limited to:

Blacksmith and welding shops

Plating, stripping, and coating shops

Machine shops and boiler shops

Sheet metal shops

Main Body: The primary massing of a building.

Maintenance Guarantee: A guarantee of facilities or work to ensure the correction of any failures of any improvements required pursuant to this title and regulation, or to maintain same.

Major Development: A commercial, institutional or research and development use containing 20,000 or more square feet of floor area and multi-family residential uses containing 50 or more units.

Major Plan Amendment: See “Plan Amendment, Major.”

Mansard Roof: A sloped wall segment or facade that imitates a building roof.

Mansion Apartment Building: See “Apartment House.”

Manufactured Home: A transportable structure built on a permanent chassis in a factory or manufacturing plant in compliance with the Housing and Urban Development standards that is designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation and under the regulation of the Arizona State Office of Manufactured Housing.

Manufactured Home Park: A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured home spaces for rent or lease.

Manufactured Home Subdivision: A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into four or more manufactured home lots for sale, or otherwise qualifies as a subdivision under Title 11, General Plans and Subdivisions.

Manufacturing and Processing, from Previously Prepared Materials: The manufacturing, assembling, compounding, packaging and processing of articles or products from previously prepared materials; includes recycling facilities.

Manufacturing and Processing, Heavy: A facility accommodating manufacturing processes that involve and/or produce basic metals, building materials, chemicals, fabricated metals, paper products, machinery, textiles, and/or transportation equipment, where the intensity and/or scale of operations may cause significant impacts on surrounding land uses or the community. Examples of heavy manufacturing uses include, but are not limited to, the following:

1.    Chemical Product Manufacturing: An establishment that produces or uses basic chemicals, and other establishments creating products predominantly by chemical processes. Examples of these products include, but are not limited to: basic chemicals, including acids, alkalis, salts, and organic chemicals; chemical products to be used in further manufacture, including synthetic fibers, plastic materials, dry colors, and pigments; and, finished chemical products to be used for ultimate consumption, including drugs/pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and soaps; or to be used as materials or supplies in other industries including paints, fertilizers, and explosives. Also includes sales and transportation establishments handling the chemicals described above, except as part of retail trade.

2.    Concrete, Gypsum, and Plaster Product Manufacturing: An establishment that produces bulk concrete, concrete building block, brick, and/or other types of precast and prefabricated concrete products. Also includes ready-mix concrete batch plants, lime manufacturing, and the manufacture of gypsum products, including plasterboard.

3.    Glass Product Manufacturing: An establishment that manufactures glass and/or glass products by melting silica sand or cullet, including the production of flat glass and other glass products that are pressed, blown, or shaped from glass produced in the same establishment. (Note: Artisan and craftsman type operations of a larger scale than home occupations are instead included under “Manufacturing and Processing, Light – Handcraft Industries, Small-Scale Manufacturing”).

4.    Paving and Roofing Materials Manufacturing: The manufacture of various common paving and petroleum-based roofing materials, including bulk asphalt, paving blocks made of asphalt, creosote wood, and various compositions of asphalt and tar.

5.    Petroleum Refining and Related Industries: Industrial plants for purifying petroleum, and the compounding of lubricating oils and greases from purchased materials. Also includes oil or gas processing facilities, liquified natural gas (LNG) facilities, the manufacture of petroleum coke and fuel briquettes, tank farms, and terminal facilities for pipelines. Does not include petroleum pipeline surge tanks and pump stations (“Public Services”), or petroleum product distributors (“Flammable Liquid, Gas, and Bulk Fuel – Storage and Sale”).

6.    Plastics, Other Synthetics, and Rubber Product Manufacturing: The manufacture of rubber products including: tires, rubber footwear, mechanical rubber goods, heels and soles, flooring, and other rubber products from natural, synthetic, or reclaimed rubber. Also includes establishments engaged primarily in manufacturing tires; products from recycled or reclaimed plastics or Styrofoam; molding primary plastics for other manufacturers, manufacturing miscellaneous finished plastics products, fiberglass manufacturing, and fiberglass application services. Does not include establishments engaged primarily in recapping and retreading automobile tires.

7.    Primary Metal Industries: An establishment engaged in: the smelting and refining of ferrous and nonferrous metals from ore, pig, or scrap; the rolling, drawing, and alloying of metals; the manufacture of castings, forgings, stampings, extrusions, and other basic metal products; and the manufacturing of nails, spikes, and insulated wire and cable. Also includes merchant blast furnaces and by-product or beehive coke ovens.

8.    Pulp and Pulp Product Manufacturing: An establishment that manufactures pulp, paper, or paperboard. Includes pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. Does not include establishments primarily engaged in converting paper or paperboard without manufacturing the paper or paperboard, including envelope manufacturing, converted paper products, paper coating and glazing, paper bags, assembly of paperboard boxes, wallpaper (See “Manufacturing and Processing, Light – Paper Product Manufacturing”).

9.    Textile and Leather Product Manufacturing: An establishment that converts basic fibers (natural or synthetic) into a product, including yarn or fabric, that can be further manufactured into usable items (See “Manufacturing and Processing, Light – Clothing and Fabric Product Manufacturing”), and industries that transform hides into leather by tanning or curing. Includes, but is not limited to:

Coating, waterproofing, or otherwise treating fabric

Manufacturing woven fabric, carpets, rugs from yarn

Dressed and dyed furs

Preparation of fiber and subsequent manufacturing of yarn, threads, braids, twine cordage

Dyeing and finishing fiber, yarn, fabric, and knit apparel

Scouring and combing plants

Leather – Tanned, curried, and finished

Upholstery manufacturing

Manufacture of felt goods, lace goods, nonwoven fabrics and miscellaneous textiles

Yarn and thread mills

Manufacture of knit apparel and other finished products from yarn


Manufacturing and Processing, Incidental: Facilities that are incidental and subordinate to the allowed primary use on a site, such as a coffee roaster, brewery or distillery.

Manufacturing and Processing, Light: A facility accommodating manufacturing processes involving and/or producing: apparel; food and beverage products; electronic, optical, and instrumentation products; ice; jewelry; and musical instruments. Light manufacturing also includes other establishments engaged in the assembly, fabrication, and conversion of already processed raw materials into products, where the operational characteristics of the manufacturing processes and the materials used are unlikely to cause significant impacts on surrounding land uses or the community. Examples of light manufacturing uses include, but are not limited to, the following:

1.    Clothing and Fabric Product Manufacturing: An establishment that assembles clothing, draperies, and/or other products by cutting and sewing purchased textile fabrics and related materials including leather, rubberized fabrics, plastics and furs. Does not include custom tailors and dressmakers not operating as a factory and not located on the site of a clothing store (see “Personal Services”). See also, “Manufacturing and Processing, Heavy – Textile and Leather Product Manufacturing.”

2.    Electronics, Equipment, and Appliance Manufacturing: An establishment that manufactures equipment, apparatus, and/or supplies for the generation, storage, transmission, transformation and use of electrical energy, including but not limited to:


Motors and generators

Aviation instruments

Optical instruments and lenses

Computers, computer components, peripherals

Photographic equipment and supplies

Electrical transmission and distribution equipment

Radio and television receiving equipment

Electronic components and accessories, semiconductors, integrated circuits, related devices

Surgical, medical and dental instruments, equipment, and supplies

Electrical welding apparatus

Storage media, blank and pre-recorded

Lighting and wiring equipment

Surveying and drafting instruments

Industrial controls

Telephone and telegraph apparatus

Instruments for measurement, testing, analysis and control, associated sensors and accessories

Transformers, switch gear and switchboards

Miscellaneous electrical machinery, equipment and supplies

Watches and clocks

Does not include research and development facilities separate from manufacturing (see “Research and Development”).

3.    Handcraft Industries, Small-Scale Manufacturing: Establishments manufacturing and/or assembling small products primarily by hand, including jewelry, pottery and other ceramics, as well as small glass and metal art and craft products, and taxidermists. Also includes, but is not limited to, manufacturing establishments producing small products not classified in another major manufacturing group, including: brooms and brushes; buttons, costume novelties; jewelry; musical instruments; pens, pencils, and other office and artists’ materials; sporting and athletic goods; toys.

4.    Paper Product Manufacturing: An establishment that converts pre-manufactured paper or paperboard into boxes, envelopes, paper bags, wallpaper, or similar products, and/or that coats or glazes pre-manufactured paper. Does not include the manufacturing of pulp, paper, or paperboard (see “Manufacturing and Processing, Heavy – Pulp and Pulp Product Manufacturing”).

5.    Photo/Film Processing Lab: A facility that provides high volume and/or custom processing services for photographic negative film, transparencies, digital images, and/or prints, where the processed products are delivered to off-site retail outlets for customer pick-up. Does not include small-scale photo processing machines accessory to other retail businesses.

Marijuana: Means Marijuana and Marijuana Concentrate prescribed in A.R.S. § 36-2850, as amended.

Marijuana Dispensary: A medical or dual licensee (as defined in A.R.S. § 36-2850, as amended) Marijuana Dispensary certified by the State of Arizona to sell Marijuana and Marijuana products to consumers, which may include the cultivation, manufacturing, processing, packaging, or storage of Marijuana products as an accessory use to the dispensary.

Marijuana Establishment: Means any of the following: Marijuana Dispensary, Marijuana Off-Site Cultivation Location, Marijuana Off-Site Manufacturing Location, and Marijuana Testing Facility.

Marijuana Off-Site Cultivation Location: A location used by an entity certified by the State of Arizona to cultivate, manufacture, package, process, and store Marijuana and Marijuana products, excluding the sale or transfer of Marijuana and Marijuana products to consumers.

Marijuana Off-Site Manufacturing Location: A location used by an entity certified by the State of Arizona to manufacture, package, process, and store Marijuana and Marijuana products, excluding the sale or transfer of Marijuana and Marijuana products to consumers.

Marijuana Testing Facility: Means Marijuana Testing Facility prescribed in A.R.S. § 36-2850, as amended.

Marquee: A permanent roofed structure attached to and supported by the building and projecting over public property.

Master Planned Community: A residential development of at least 100 acres that is planned, developed, or closely coordinated with a unified character and land use scheme; which is under unified control, and is planned and developed as a whole in a single development operation, or programmed series of development stages.

Medical Marijuana Designated Caregiver Cultivation Location: A medical marijuana designated caregiver cultivation location or cultivation by a designated caregiver refers to cultivation of medical marijuana by a designated caregiver and cardholder whose registration card indicates that the cardholder has been authorized to cultivate marijuana plants for a qualifying patient(s)’ medical use pursuant to the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act A.R.S. § 36-2804.A.7.

Medical Marijuana Qualifying Patient Cultivation Location: A medical marijuana qualifying patient cultivation location shall mean cultivation of medical marijuana by a qualifying patient pursuant to A.R.S. § 36-2801 but shall only include a qualifying patient who is also a cardholder, authorized to cultivate marijuana plants pursuant to the provisions of A.R.S. § 36-2804.02.

Meeting Facilities, Public and Private: A facility for public or private meetings, including community centers; civic and private auditoriums; grange halls; lodges or fraternal associations; union halls; dance, martial arts, and music studios; meeting halls for clubs and other membership organizations; and similar facilities. Also includes functionality related internal facilities such as kitchens, multi-purpose rooms and storage. Does not include conference and meeting rooms accessory and incidental to another primary use that are typically used only by on-site employees and clients and occupy less floor area on the site than the offices they support. Does not include commercial entertainment facilities or convention.

Meeting Hall: See “Meeting Facilities, Public and Private.”

Mezzanine: A partial habitable level between two main stories of a building.

Micro-brewery or Micro-distillery: A facility engaged in the production, bottling, and packaging of beer and other fermented beverages or spirituous beverages that contain ethanol. A taproom may be included in a Micro-brewery or Micro-distillery, subject to the requirements of the Zoning Code.

Mini-Storage Warehousing: Real property used for renting or leasing storage spaces in which the occupants themselves customarily store and remove their own personal property on a self-service basis.

Minor Modification to Development Standards: A process to ensure that minor modifications are only approved under certain circumstances.

Minor Plan Amendment: See “Plan Amendment, Minor.”

Mitigation: Measures, or the application of measures, that lessen impacts to the environment (built or natural). Mitigation can apply to the reduction of environmental, cultural and historical, and natural hazards impacts.

Mitigation Measures, Cultural: Alternative projects, alternative designs, additional work, or other means that are designed to avoid, minimize, and offset major impacts on known and potential significant cultural resources.

Mixed Use: The development of a single building containing more than one type of land use or a single development of more than one building and use including, but not limited to, residential, office, retail, recreation, public, or entertainment, where the different land use types are in close proximity, planned as a unified complementary whole, and shared pedestrian and vehicular access and parking areas are functionally integrated.

1.    Horizontal Mixed Use: Two or more different types of uses are placed next to each other on the same parcel, planned as a unit, and connected together with pedestrian and vehicular access. For instance, a subdivision containing single-family dwellings that is adjacent to a neighborhood commercial development and office complex.

2.    Vertical Mixed Use: Where two or more different uses occupy the same building usually on different floors. For instance, retail on the ground floor and office and/or residential uses on the second and/or third floors.

Mixed-Use High Occupancy Housing Development (MHOHD):

1.    A mixed-use development with:

a.    More than 20 percent of the total dwelling units have four bedrooms or more;

b.    One or more dwelling unit(s) containing four or more sanitation facilities; or

c.    The total number of dwelling units per acre, or bedrooms per acre, requires a conditional use permit for an MHOHD in accordance with the building form and property development standards of the property’s designated non-transect zone; or, if the property owner has elected a transect zone, the density is greater than 29 dwelling units per acre or 72.5 bedrooms per acre.

2.    Mixed-use housing development, either for rental or purchase, in which all dwelling units are permanently affordable and offered at 60 percent of the area median income (AMI) in compliance with the Department of Housing and Urban Development regulations shall not be categorized as high occupancy housing development, regardless of the number of units, bedrooms, or zoning.

Mobile Home: A residential structure manufactured on or before June 15, 1976, that is transportable in one or more sections, eight feet or more in body width, over 30 feet in body length with the hitch, built on an integral chassis, designed to be used as a dwelling when connected to the required utilities and not originally sold as a travel trailer, recreational vehicle, or factory-built building, and which includes the plumbing, heating, air conditioning and electrical systems in the structure.

Mobile Homes and Recreational Vehicles, Sales and Services: A retail or wholesale establishment selling and/or renting mobile homes and recreational vehicles. Vehicles for sale may be displayed outdoors or indoors, as authorized by the required conditional use permit.

Modular Home: See “Factory Built Building.”

Moisture Sensors: A sensor connected to an irrigation system controller that measures soil moisture content in the active root zone before each scheduled irrigation event and bypasses the cycle if soil moisture is above a user-defined set point.

Monastery: See “Institutional Residential.”

Motor Vehicle: Any self-propelled vehicle designed primarily for transportation of persons or goods along public streets or alleys, or other public ways.

Moving Permit: A permit required from the City for building relocation requests.

Mulch: Materials such as leaves, bark, straw, or sawdust, left loose and applied to the soil surface to retain moisture, retard weed growth or prevent erosion.

Multi-Tenant Building or Use: A commercial, office or industrial development in which there exists three or more separate activities with direct exterior access, and in which there are appurtenant shared facilities. Distinguishing characteristics of a multi-tenant building or use may, but need not, include common ownership of the real property upon which the building or use is located, common wall construction and multiple occupant use of a single structure.

Multiple-Family Dwelling: See “Dwelling, Multiple-Family.”

Municipal Airport: See “Airport, Municipal.”

Mural: A picture or decoration that is applied directly to a wall and does not contain text or a commercial message.

(Ord. 2021-13, Amended, 6/15/2021 (Res. 2021-26); Ord. 2020-28, Amended, 11/17/2020 (Res. 2020-59); Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.140 Definitions, “N”

National Register of Historic Places: The official list maintained by the National Park Service on behalf of the Secretary of the Interior that documents the appearance and importance of districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects with recognized significance in prehistory, history, architecture, archaeology, engineering or culture.

Natural Grade: The natural terrain elevation of the land prior to any grading that disturbs the land.

Natural Resources: Applied in Division 10-50.90 (Resource Protection Standards) to include floodplains, steep slopes and natural communities.

Natural Resources Protection Plan: A plan submitted and approved as part of the development application process for a parcel in the Resource Protection Overlay (RPO) Zone.

Naturalized Plants: Plants established as a part of the flora of a locale other than their place of origin that support the native flora and are of a noninvasive nature (i.e., sterile cultivars).

Neighborhood: An area of a community with characteristics that distinguish it from other community areas and which may include distinct ethnic or economic characteristics, schools, social clubs, or boundaries defined by physical barriers such as major highways or railroads, or natural features such as rivers.

Neighborhood Market: A neighborhood-serving small retail store that carries a range of merchandise, such as food products, beverages, pharmaceutical products, news items, and other products oriented to daily shopping needs.

Neighborhood Serving Retail: Retail services that accommodate daily convenience shopping needs of the surrounding neighborhood.

Neon Tube: See “Luminous Tube.”

Net Site Area: The portion of the site on which development is permitted, excluding T1 Natural and T2 Rural transect zones.

New Construction: Structures for which the “start of construction” commenced on or after the effective date of the ordinance codified in this title.

New Development: Any development which commenced on or after the effective date of the ordinance codified in this title, including any new construction, reconstruction, redevelopment, rehabilitation, structural alteration, structural enlargement, structural extension, or new use which requires a building permit or any change in use of an existing building, structure or lot requiring any form of City approval.

New Urbanism: A design-focused alternative to automobile-oriented planning and development that promotes walkable, town-centered, environmentally sensitive and sustainable communities by emphasizing transit, human scale, and a mix of housing, civic, commercial, and retail uses in close proximity, while preserving open lands and achieving other environmental goals.

Nonconforming Lot: A lot of record that does not meet the lot area or lot width requirements of these regulations for the zoning in which it is located.

Nonconforming Sign: Any sign legally established prior to the effective date of this Zoning Code or subsequent amendment to it, which does not fully comply with the standards imposed by the individual sections of this Zoning Code.

Nonconforming Structure: Any building or structure, other than a sign, legally established prior to the effective date of this Zoning Code or subsequent amendment to it, which does not fully comply with the standards imposed by the individual sections of this Zoning Code.

Nonconforming Use: An activity, use of land, building, sign, and/or structure, which was legally established prior to the effective date of this Zoning Code or subsequent amendment to it, and which would not be permitted to be established as a new use in the zone in which it is located by the regulations of this Zoning Code.

Nonprofit Organization: An organization, commonly referred to as a charitable organization and tax-exempt under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, that is not organized or operated for the benefit of private interests, and no part of its net earnings inure to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.

Nurseries: A commercial agricultural establishment, real property or other premises, on or in which plants are propagated, grown or cultivated or from which source plants are offered for distribution or sale. Does not include the outdoor production of ornamental plants in the soil on the site. Also includes establishments engaged in the sale of these products (e.g., wholesale and retail nurseries) and commercial-scale greenhouses (home greenhouses are included under “Accessory Buildings and Structures”). The sale of house plants or other nursery products entirely within a building or greenhouse is also included under “General Retail Business.”

Nursing Home: A health care institution other than a hospital or sheltered care home which provides inpatient or resident beds and is licensed by the Arizona State Department of Health Services as a skilled nursing facility for two or more unrelated persons. A nursing home provides services to those who need continuous care but do not require hospital care or direct daily care from a physician (does not include housing for the elderly; see “Housing for the Elderly”).

(Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.150 Definitions, “O”

Oasis: An area of non-drought tolerant landscaping materials, including vegetable gardens and edible landscaping.

Obstruction: Any structure or tree which exceeds permissible height limitations or is otherwise hazardous to the landing or taking off of aircraft.

Offices: Premises available for the transaction of general business and services including but not limited to professional, management, financial, legal, social, or government offices, but excluding retail, artisan, and manufacturing uses.

Offices, Government: Includes governmental office buildings and grounds.

Offices, Medical: An office building used exclusively by physicians, dentists, and similar personnel for the treatment and examination of patients solely on an outpatient basis; provided, that no overnight patients shall be kept on the premises.

Older Individual: Any person 60 years of age, or older, unless otherwise defined in 42 U.S.C. § 3002, in which case the statute shall govern.

On-Site: Located on the lot in question, except in the context of on-site detention, when the term means within the boundaries of the development site as a whole.

One Hundred Year Flood: A flood that has a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in a one year period, based on the criteria. Also known as “base flood.”

Opaque: Opaque means that material must not transmit light from an internal illumination source.

Open Space: Any undeveloped space or area characterized by great natural scenic beauty or whose existing openness, natural condition, or present state of use, if retained, would maintain or enhance the conservation of natural or scenic resources.

Open Space, Common: The minimum amount of open space area within a development intended or reserved for the use and enjoyment of all owners and occupants, including but not limited to areas set aside for resource protection, passive and active recreation, gardens, and landscape areas.

Open Space, Private: The minimum amount of private open area required with each unit provided as outdoor yard areas, patios, decks and balconies, but excluding stairs, entrance decks, and/or landings. Does not include setbacks; see “Setback.”

Open Yard: A yard or portion of a yard provided within a development to create useable open space.

Outdoor Advertising Use or Structure: See “Sign, Billboard.”

Outdoor Display: The storage of any personal or business materials, products, or equipment outside of a building.

Outdoor Display Lot: An area designed for the outdoor merchandising of product where active nighttime sales activity may occur, and where accurate color perception by customers is required. Outdoor display lots include: automobile sales, assembly lots, garden supplies, airport and automobile fueling areas, temporary and seasonal sales, and any other uses as determined by the Director.

Outdoor Light Output, Total: The maximum total amount of light, measured in Lumens, from all Outdoor Light Fixtures. Includes all outdoor lights and Luminous Tubing used in areas open to the outdoors, and lights used for external illumination of signs, but does not include lights used inside of Internally Illuminated Signs, Luminous Tubing used in Neon Signs, and street and pedestrian lighting installed on public rights-of-way or private street tracts in accordance with Title 13, Engineering Design Standards and Specifications for New Infrastructure. The total Lumens of each Outdoor Light Fixture used to calculate the Total Outdoor Light Output is:

1.    The total initial Lumen output listed by the manufacturer of an integral solid-state LED Outdoor Light Fixture;

2.    The initial Lumen output for all outdoor Luminous Tubes (e.g., neon and fluorescent tubes and rods) calculated per linear foot;

3.    The initial Lumen output (i.e., bulb lumens) listed by the manufacturer of all replaceable Edison Socket, or other screw-in, plug-in, etc., LED bulbs used in an Outdoor Light Fixture multiplied by 0.70; and

4.    The initial Lumen output (i.e., bulb lumens) of all other outdoor bulb light sources (i.e., non-LED) included as part of an Outdoor Light Fixture multiplied by 0.70.

Outdoor Public Use, General: Outdoor recreational uses include public areas for active recreational activities including, but not limited to, jogging, cycling, tot lots, playing fields, playgrounds, outdoor swimming pools, and tennis courts. Also included are recreational uses such as arboretums, nature areas, wildlife sanctuaries, picnic areas, recreation-oriented parks and other open spaces such as youth recreation camps.

Outdoor Storage: The storage of commodities, equipment, materials, merchandise, vehicles, etc. outside of a completely enclosed building.

Overspray: Water that is delivered beyond the landscaped area, wetting pavements, walks, structures, or other nonlandscaped areas.

Owner: The person having the right of legal title to, beneficial interest in, or a contractual right to purchase a lot or parcel of land.

(Ord. 2022-27, Amended, 11/15/2022 (Res. 2022-51); Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17); Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02))

10-80.20.160 Definitions, “P”

Parapet: That portion of a wall that extends above the roof line.

Parcel: An area of land defined by a legal description, and not part of a platted subdivision.

Park: Any public or private land developed for outdoor active or passive recreational use.

Park Home: A park trailer or park model built on a single chassis, mounted on wheels or originally mounted on wheels and from which the wheels have been removed. A fifth wheel trailer is not considered a park home. A park home is designed to be connected to utilities necessary for operation of installed fixtures and appliances and has a gross trailer area of not less than 320 square feet and not more than 400 square feet when it is set up.

Parking Lots, Off-Street: Open parking areas provided on property other than a public street, alley or right-of-way.

Parking Structure: An above-ground, podium, or underground structure used for parking vehicles.

Parking Structure, Above-Ground: A structure of two or more levels, starting at or above-ground level.

Parking Structure, Podium: One level of vehicle parking at ground level or partially below ground level, which may have habitable structure or open space area, such as a courtyard, above the parking.

Parking Structure, Underground: A structure of one or more levels, fully below ground level, except for the ramp into the parking structure.

Parking, Tuck-Under: Vehicle parking on 50 percent or less of the ground level of a habitable building.

Parkway: The area between the back of a curb and a sidewalk that is usually landscaped.

Partially Shielded Light Fixture: See “Fixture, Partially Shielded.”

Passage (PS): An open or roofed pedestrian connector that passes between buildings to provide shortcuts through long blocks that connect rear parking areas to frontages.

Passenger Transportation Facilities: Facilities for public and commuter transportation including railroad or bus terminals, and service facilities for commercial motor vehicles used for commercial passenger transportation, but excluding travel agencies or taxicabs.

Passive Recreation: The use of land in its substantial natural or restored natural state for the preservation of wildlife, the environment and recreational purposes that requires minimal development, including park and ranger facilities, facilities for picnics, pavilions, multi-use trails and paths, canoeing, fishing, educational facilities that promote the education or preservation of such lands, etc., and related support accessory uses such as parking, restrooms, and areas for the health and well-being of the public. Passive recreation does not include the use of recreational motorized vehicles, except when authorized by law, permit, or license granted by the City, State, or Federal government.

Path (PT): A pedestrian way traversing a park or rural area, with landscape matching the contiguous open space, ideally connecting directly with the urban sidewalk network.

Pedestrian Shed: An area that is centered on a common destination. There are four types of pedestrian sheds: standard; linear; long; and network, whose size is defined by an average walking distance that may be traversed at an easy walking pace from its edge to its center.

Pedestrian Shed, Linear: A pedestrian shed that is elongated along an important mixed-use corridor, such as a main street. A linear pedestrian shed extends approximately one-quarter mile (1,320 feet) from each side of the corridor for the length of its mixed-use portion.

Pedestrian Shed, Long: A pedestrian shed that is an average one-half mile radius or 2,640 feet that is centered on a larger common destination, such as a downtown or transit station. A long pedestrian shed represents approximately a 10-minute walk at a leisurely pace.

Pedestrian Shed, Network: A pedestrian shed adjusted for average walk times along thoroughfares.

Pedestrian Shed, Standard: A pedestrian shed that is an average one-quarter mile radius or 1,320 feet, that is centered on a common destination. A standard pedestrian shed represents approximately a five-minute walk at a leisurely pace.

Perforated Vinyl: A vinyl graphic film that is perforated to allow a full graphic image to be seen on the outside of a window, such that it is not possible to see into a building interior, yet it is possible to see through the image from the interior to the exterior of the building.

Performance Guarantee: A financial guarantee to ensure that all improvements, facilities, or work required by this title will be completed in compliance with the title, regulations, and the approved plans and specifications of a development.

Period of Significance: The span of time associated with the significance-giving aspects, features or characteristics of a cultural resource.

Peripheral Buffers: A landscape border located along the outer perimeter of a lot or parcel that acts as a buffer and visual transition along the common property lines between adjacent land uses and zones.

Permanent Affordability: Permanent affordability for affordable housing units is a minimum of 30 years for developments with rental units and 99 years (with an option to renew) on for-sale units.

Permeable: A type of soil or other material that allows passage of water or other liquid.

Person: Any individual, firm, partnership, association, joint venture, corporation, limited liability company, or the State of Arizona or any agency or political subdivision of the State.

Person with a Disability: A person who has a physical or mental impairment that limits or substantially limits one or more major life activities; anyone who is regarded as having this type of impairment, or anyone who has a record of this type of impairment.

Photovoltaic Modules: Solar panels that use the light energy from the sun to generate electricity through photo-electric effect.

Physical Fitness Facility: A facility where active or passive exercises and related activities are performed within an enclosed building for the purpose of physical fitness, improved circulation or flexibility, and/or weight control.

Placement: The manner in which the elements of a site or building are placed or located on a lot.

Places of Worship: A facility for public or private worship services such as a church, synagogue, mosque, temple, convent or monastery, or similar structure/building. Also includes functionally related internal facilities such as assembly halls, sanctuaries, classrooms, conference rooms and meeting rooms, kitchens, multi-purpose rooms, and storage. Does not include commercial entertainment or convention facilities.

Plan Amendment, Major: A substantial alteration of the City of Flagstaff’s land use mixture or balance as established in the General Plan land use element and which involves changes that have an impact on large areas of the Plan and/or can affect other issues or policies. These amendments alter the substance or intent of major Plan policies.

Plan Amendment, Minor: Any amendment to the City of Flagstaff Regional Plan that is not defined as a major Plan amendment.

Planned Residential Development: A development consisting of building types as described in Section 10-40.60.280, Planned Residential Development.

Planning Commission: The City of Flagstaff Planning and Zoning Commission.

Planning Section: The City of Flagstaff Planning and Development Services Section.

Planter: The continuous or individual element of the public frontage that accommodates street trees.

Plat: A map of a subdivision.

Playground: A civic space designed and equipped for children’s recreation.

Plaza: A civic space type designed for civic purposes and commercial activities in the more urban areas, generally paved and spatially defined by building frontages.

Porch: A private frontage that has the facade set back from the frontage line and has a set of stairs and landing attached to the facade that is permitted to encroach into the setback. There are three types of porch frontages: engaged; integral; and projecting.

Porch, Engaged: An engaged porch has two sides partially or fully enclosed by walls and a roof.

Porch, Integral: An integral porch is part of the overall massing and roof form of a building. In an integral porch it is not possible to remove the porch without major modification to the roof on the building. An integral porch has a roof and may be partially or fully enclosed on up to two sides.

Porch, Projecting: A projecting porch is open on three sides and has a roof.

Porous Paving: Systems that allow water to pass freely through interstitial space ingrained throughout the paving matrix, thereby transforming traditionally impervious surfaces such as pervious concrete and asphalt, interlocking pavers, reinforced gravel and grass paving.

Potable Water: Water that is safe to drink, free of pathogens, contains no harmful chemicals and has a desirable taste, odor, color, and turbidity that meets or exceeds all of the Federal, State and provincial standards that are legally enforceable.

Pre-Application Review Log: Documentation of written summary of comments made by the Director during all pre-application review meetings.

Prehistoric Period: The period of significance for cultural resources that predate recorded history.

Preliminary Plat: A preliminary map, including supporting data, of a proposed subdivision, drawn to scale with sufficient information to allow the plat to be reviewed and for determinations and recommendations to be made.

Preservation: The act or process of applying measures necessary to sustain the existing form, integrity, and materials of a historic property. Work, including preliminary measures to protect and stabilize the property, generally focuses upon the ongoing maintenance and repair of historic materials and features, rather than extensive replacement and new construction. New exterior additions are not within the scope of this treatment; however, the limited and sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems and other code-required work to make properties functional is appropriate within a preservation project (Secretary of the Interior’s Standards).

Primary Entrance: A section of building elevation which contains the street level principal entrance of the business, including businesses on the upper floors or in a basement.

Primary Street: A primary street is a street with the highest classification compared to other streets that front a lot or parcel, as determined by the Director. The primary street may have the most prominent address and it typically will have the majority of buildings fronting it.

Primary Surface: An area longitudinally centered on a runway, extending 200 feet beyond each end of that runway, with a width in compliance with the Airport Master Plan clear zone drawings. No structure or obstruction will be permitted within the primary surface that is not part of the landing and takeoff area and is of a greater height than the nearest point on the runway center line.

Principal Building: The largest building on a lot.

Principal Entrance: The main point of access for pedestrians into a building.

Private Frontage: The privately held portion of the lot between the frontage line and the line of the exterior wall of the principal building extended to the side lot lines.

Private Open Space: See “Open Space, Private.”

Private Street: A way or place that is in private ownership and that is used for vehicular travel by the owner and those persons who have express or implied permission from the owner but not by other persons (Syn: Private Road).

Public Frontage: The area between the curb of the vehicular lanes and the frontage line.

Public Improvement: Any improvement, facility, or service, together with customary improvements and appurtenances thereto, necessary to provide for public needs such as: streets, alleys, pedestrian/bikeway walks or paths, storm sewers, flood control improvements, water supply and distribution facilities, sanitary sewage disposal and treatment, public utility and energy services.

Public Parks or Recreation Facilities: Outdoor recreation facilities that are open to the public for passive and active recreational activity, such as pedestrian activities, hiking, and jogging; or serve as an historical, cultural or archeological attraction; playgrounds; ball parks; and allowing organized competitive activities.

Public Realm: The physical and social domain of the public that is held in common either by their physical presence or by visual association. This includes but is not limited to plazas, squares, parks, thoroughfares, public frontages, private frontages, civic buildings and civic spaces.

Public Sanitary Sewer: Includes sanitary sewer systems other than individual on-site systems approved by the State or County and maintained by a public or private agency authorized to operate such systems.

Public Services: Government or public services, utilities and their facilities necessary to provide services for urban development. Public services include public and private utility company facilities and all government-owned facilities except offices, landfills or mining facilities.

Public Services, Major: Services for the public that include water treatment facility, wastewater treatment facility and other services that provide major public infrastructure services for urban development.

Public Services, Minor: Services for the public that include utility substations, pumping stations and other transmission and distribution facilities.

(Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2017-10, Amended, 4/4/2017; Ord. 2016-22, Amended, 6/21/2016 (Res. 2016-13); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.170 Definitions, “Q”

Qualified Landscape Architect: A person who, by reason of professional education or practical experience, or both, is qualified to engage in the practice of landscape architecture as attested by registration as a landscape architect.

Quarrying Operations: Extractive operations of stone, mineral, topsoil, or similar materials, including borrow pits (excavations for removing material for filling operations), disposal operations, landfills, stockpiling, trash transfer sites, incinerators, sludge or other land disposal, storage of septic tank wastes or sludge, recycling facilities, used auto parts or junkyards.

10-80.20.180 Definitions, “R”

Railroad Shop: A facility that builds new and/or repairs locomotives and railroad cars, including the fabrication of parts.

Rain Barrels: Any above or below ground storage container connected directly to a downspout used solely for the collection and storage of rainwater that has a capacity of 100 gallons or less.

Rain Gardens: Flat-bottomed landscaped depressions that can be built to any size or shape. Also known as “bioretention cells,” they are designed to allow water to settle and infiltrate into the soil.

Rainwater Water Harvesting (RWH): The principle of collecting and using precipitation from a catchment surface. This can be done by storing rainwater in tanks and cisterns for irrigation, household use, or for drinking water, or can merely be the directing of runoff from impervious surfaces to landscape elements for irrigation.

Rainwater Water Harvesting, Active: Rainwater water harvesting techniques that require active involvement or equipment including storage and distributions systems.

Rainwater Water Harvesting, Passive: Rainwater water harvesting techniques that are not dependent on pumps or active storage, but instead rely on the natural water drainage systems, including surface collection and in-ground storage.

Ranching: Includes grazing and the breeding and raising of horses and other livestock for commercial gain rather than for personal use.

Ratio, Bedroom-to-Dwelling Unit: The total number of bedrooms divided by the total number of dwelling units.

Examples: An HOHD has a total number of 1,160 bedrooms and 350 dwelling units. The bedroom-to-dwelling unit ratio is:

1,160 bedrooms

= 3.31

350 dwelling units

Rear Alley (RA): A vehicular way located to the rear of lots providing a location for utility easements and access to service areas, parking, and outbuildings paved with a ribbon curb at the outer edge.

Rear Lane (RL): A vehicular way located to the rear of lots providing a location for utility easements and access to service areas, parking, and outbuildings paved with a ribbon curb at the edge of the pavement, and compacted gravel or similar suitable material placed on the outer edges.

Reclaimed Water: Water that has been treated or processed by a wastewater treatment plant or an on-site wastewater treatment facility.

Reconstruction: The act or process of depicting, by means of new construction, the form, features and detailing of a nonsurviving site, landscape, building, structure or object for the purpose of replicating its appearance at a specific period of time and in its historic location (Secretary of the Interior’s Standards).

Recorded Lot: See “Lot of Record.”

Recorded Plat: A final plat bearing all the certificates of approval required and recorded in the Coconino County Recorder’s Office.

Recreation, Active: Recreational pursuits usually performed with others, often requiring equipment and taking place at facilities, sites, or fields. Such areas may be intensively used and require physical alteration to the area in which they are performed. Examples include but are not limited to playgrounds, sport courts, baseball/softball and other field sports, golf courses, and swimming pools.

Recreation, Passive: Recreational pursuits involving existing natural resources which can be carried out with little alteration or disruption to the area in which they are performed. This includes but is not limited to such activities as walking, hiking, bicycling, horse riding, bird and animal watching, and picnicking.

Recreational Vehicle (RV): A mobile structure designed as temporary living quarters for recreation, vacation, camping, or travel use, which is either self-propelled or is mounted on or drawn by another vehicle. Examples include, but are not limited to, a travel trailer, camping trailer, fifth-wheel trailer, truck camper, motor home, or camper van.

Regulating Plan: A set of maps that shows the transect zones, special districts, and special requirements for areas subject to, or potentially subject to, regulation by a form-based code for a Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan. It may also show street and public open spaces, and designate where various building form standards (based on intensity of urbanism) for building placement, design and use will apply. The Regulating Plan graphically shows, applies and places the regulations and standards established in a form-based code for a Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan.

Rehabilitation: The act or process of making possible a compatible use for a property through repair, alterations and additions while preserving those portions or features that convey its historical, cultural or architectural values (Secretary of the Interior’s Standards).

Removal: Any relocation, taking away, or elimination of a structure or portion of a structure on its site or to another site.

Repair: Any restoration to sound condition of a structure by replacing or fixing broken or deteriorated elements, which is not considered to be construction, removal, or alteration.

Research and Development Uses: Facilities for scientific research, and the design, development and testing of electrical, electronic, magnetic, optical and computer and telecommunications components in advance of product manufacturing, and the assembly of related products from parts produced off site, where the manufacturing activity is secondary to the research and development activities, and where no more than 30 percent of the total floor area is office. Includes pharmaceutical, chemical, and biotechnology research and development.

Residence for Owner, Caretaker, or Manager: Single-family dwelling for owner or manager of park or other residential development requiring 24-hour management.

Residential: A land use type that is designated to accommodate single-family and multiple-family dwellings. Includes mobile and manufactured homes.

Resource Area: Area, as defined by the Resource Protection Overlay (RPO) in Division 10-40.50, Overlay Zones, that contains fragile natural features such as floodplains, steep slopes, and forest that can be adversely impacted by development.

Resource Protection Threshold: The minimum site area that must be set aside for natural resources, including urban and rural floodplains, steep slopes, and forest as determined by resources survey requirements. See “Resource Survey.”

Resource Survey: An instrument prepared by individuals approved by the City that is used to identify natural resources and recommend appropriate resource preservation and/or mitigation measures with the purpose of ensuring that the highest quality resources are protected.

Responsible Party: An owner, occupant, lessor, lessee, manager, licensee, agent, or other person having lawful possession or control over a building, structure, or parcel of land.

Restaurant or Cafe: An establishment whose principal business is the sale of food and/or beverages to customers in a ready-to-consume state, and whose principal method of operation includes one or both of the following characteristics: 1) customers, normally provided with an individual menu, are served their foods and beverages by a restaurant employee at the same table or counter at which food and beverages are consumed; 2) a cafeteria-type operation where food and beverages generally are consumed within the restaurant building.

Restoration: The act or process of accurately depicting the form, features and character of a property as it appeared at a particular period of time by means of the removal of features from other periods in its history and reconstruction of missing features from the restoration period. The limited and sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems and other code-required work to make properties functional is appropriate within a restoration project (Secretary of the Interior’s Standards).

Retail: Characterizing premises available for the sale of merchandise and food service. See also “General Retail Business.”

Retail Frontage: Frontage lines designated on a Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan that require or recommend the provision of a shopfront, encouraging the ground level to be available for retail use.

Retention Basin: The use of parking lot islands, planting strips or swales to collect and retain stormwater on site. Retention basins are used as an extended detention basin in compliance with the LID Manual.

Review Authority: The individual or official City body, such as the Planning Director, Planning Commission, or City Council, responsible for reviewing and making decisions on applications required by this Zoning Code.

Riffle Pools: Connected landscapes that provide retention of runoff by integrating intermittent vertical drops and damming in a watercourse. The retained runoff is then allowed to infiltrate into the groundwater table.

Right-of-Way (ROW): The strip of land dedicated to public use for pedestrian and vehicular movement, which may also accommodate public utilities, that is either publicly owned or subject to an easement for right-of-way purposes benefiting the general public. Right-of-way typically includes streets, alleys, sidewalks, landscape areas, and drainage facilities.

Road: A local, rural, or suburban thoroughfare for low vehicular speed and capacity. This thoroughfare type is allocated to the more rural transect zones.

Road, Arterial: See “Arterial Streets, Roads.”

Road, Collector: A road or street that is intended to connect residential streets to arterial roads or provide access to nonresidential uses and arterial streets.

Road, Freeway or Interstate: A divided arterial road or highway on the interstate or primary system with full control of access and with grade separations at intersections.

Road, Frontage: A minor street or road, parallel to and adjacent to an arterial, freeway or expressway, whose primary purpose is providing access to abutting properties.

Roofline: The point on a building or structure where the roof meets an exterior wall.

Rooming and Boarding Facility: A residence or dwelling, other than a hotel, wherein three or more rooms, with or without individual or group cooking facilities, are rented to individuals under separate rental agreements or leases, either written or oral, whether or not an owner, agent, or rental agent is in residence. Includes dormitories, single room occupancy, fraternities and sororities.

Route: See “Bicycle Route (BR).”

ROW: See “Right-of-Way (ROW).”

Rowhouse: See “Townhouse.”

Runway Clear Zone: A trapezoidal area at ground level, under the control of the airport authorities, for the purpose of protecting the safety of approaches and keeping the area clear of the congregation of people. The runway clear zone is the same width as the primary surface and begins at the end of the primary surface and is centered upon the extended runway centerline. The length and width are determined in compliance with the Airport Master Plan clear zone drawings.

RWH: See “Rainwater Water Harvesting (RWH).”

(Ord. 2020-28, Amended, 11/17/2020 (Res. 2020-59); Ord. 2020-11, Amended, 5/5/2020 (Res. 2020-17); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.190 Definitions, “S”

Sanitation Facility: A delineated area for bathing that contains a toilet, sink, and a shower or tub. The fixtures (toilet, sink, and a shower or tub) may be located in a room or in close proximity that functions as a sanitation facility as determined by the Zoning Administrator.

Figure 10-80.20.190 Sanitation Facility Examples

Scale: Similar or harmonious proportions, especially overall height and width, but also including the visual intensity of the development, the massing, and the shapes and sizes of the various design elements, such as the windows and doors.

School: A public institution established for the purposes of offering instruction to pupils in programs for preschool children with disabilities, kindergarten programs or any combination of grades one through 12. Does not include preschools and child day care facilities (see “Day Care”).

School, Charter: A public school established by contract with a district governing board, the State Board of Education or the State Board for Charter Schools to provide learning that will improve pupil achievement.

School, Private: A nonpublic institution where instruction is imparted.

School, Public: Includes elementary, middle, junior high, and high schools that operate under the local school district.

Screening Wall: A solid wall designed and constructed so as to conceal areas used for refuse, mechanical equipment, parking, and service and loading bays from street and public view, and to separate potential incompatible land uses.

Seasonal Amusement, Entertainment and Sales, Indoor: An indoor annual reoccurring seasonal commercial amusement, entertainment or festival event (e.g., art festivals/performances/workshops, Christmas fair, haunted house, or similar activity approved by the Zoning Administrator), including the seasonal sales of merchandise, that occurs only once in a calendar year for a specified time frame, which is generally less than four months.

Seasonal Sales: A sale event that occurs during one particular time of the year for a limited period of time, including the sale of annually harvested food products, holiday trees, fireworks, pumpkins, and similar sale events uses as determined by the Zoning Administrator.

Secondary Wing: A smaller building mass attached to the main body of a building.

Secretary of the Interior’s Standards: An abbreviated reference to “The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for Preserving, Rehabilitating, Restoring, and Reconstructing Historic Buildings.”

Self-Created Hardship: Self-created hardships include the purchase of property for more than market value, failure to diligently solicit and retain tenants, failure to professionally manage the property, failure to provide normal improvements, willful or negligent acts by the owner, or failure to perform normal maintenance and repairs.

Services, General: See “General Services.”

Services, Heavy: See “Heavy Services.”

Services, Heavy Retail: See “Heavy Retail/Services.”

Service Use: Any use or establishment whose primary activity is the provision of assistance, as opposed to products, to individuals, business, industry, government, and other enterprises.

Setback: The area of a lot measured from the lot line to a building facade or elevation that must be maintained clear of permanent structures with the exception of specifically permitted encroachments.

Shared Lane Markings: Pavement marking that shows bicyclists where to position themselves to “take the lane” on streets where traffic lanes are too narrow for motor vehicles to safely share the lane side-by-side with bicycles.

Sharrow: A road shared by bicycles and vehicles.

Shed Roof: A roof shape having only one sloping plane.

Sheltered Care Home: An institutional living facility for nine to 16 unrelated persons providing living facilities, sleeping rooms and meals. The number listed does not include the operator, members of the operator’s family, or persons employed by the operator as staff, except that the total number of persons living in a sheltered care home shall not exceed 18. Also includes temporary or permanent residential housing and service facilities for chronically ill tenants, domestic violence victims, and outpatient clients. It includes State licensed facilities. This does not include a home for the developmentally disabled as regulated by A.R.S. § 36-582. This does not include group homes or custodial care facilities.

Shopfront: A private frontage, typically for retail use with substantial glazing and an awning, where the facade is aligned close to the frontage line with the building entrance at the level of the sidewalk.

Shopping Center: A group of commercial establishments planned, developed and managed as a unit with off-street parking provided on the property.

Short Term Housing: A type of homeless shelter that provides short term housing (i.e., not to exceed six months) for individuals or families with a continued identified bed space. The facility would also provide personal assistance to indigent, needy, homeless or transient persons who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence. Such personal assistance must include food and/or shelter, and in addition may include needed and necessary supportive services.

Short-Term Rental or Vacation Rental: Defined in accordance with the A.R.S. § 9-500.39., as amended.

Sidewalk: The portion of a street that is paved between the curb lines or the lateral lines of a roadway and the adjacent property lines and that is intended for the use of pedestrians.

Sign: A structure, device, figure, display, message placard or other contrivance, or any part thereof, situated outdoors or indoors, which is designed, constructed, intended or used to advertise, provide information in the nature of advertising, provide historical, cultural, archeological, ideological, political, or social information, or direct or attract attention to an object, person, institution, business, product, service, message, event or location by any means, including branding, color bands, corporate colors, designs, figures, fixtures, illumination, letters, logos, symbols, and words.

Sign, Abandoned: A sign that identifies a business, lessor, owner, product, service, or activity that is no longer on the premises where the sign is displayed.

Sign, A-Frame: A portable and self-supporting sign used for advertising purposes, constructed in such a manner as to form an “A” or a tent-like shape, hinged or not hinged at the top. (Syn. Sandwich Board Sign.)

Sign, Animated: A sign, or any portion of a sign, made or equipped to move or give the appearance of moving, either by the movement of any light used in conjunction with a sign, such as blinking, traveling, flashing or changing degree of intensity, or by mechanical means or movement of the air.

Sign Area: The entire face of a sign including the advertising surface and any framing, trim, or molding, but not including the supporting structure.

Sign, Awning: A sign that is printed, painted, or affixed to an awning.

Sign, Balloon Bobber: A reusable pre-formed balloon with regular air made of a durable PVC vinyl that does not need to be inflated, and typically attached to a short pole.

Sign, Bandit: Any advertising sign that is placed on public property or on private property without the consent of the property owner or as authorized in Division 10-50.100, Sign Standards.

Sign, Banner: A temporary sign which is painted or displayed upon a sheet composed of fabric, pliable plastic, paper, or other nonrigid material, fastened to the exterior of a building or exterior structure, other than a flag pole. This definition does not include a flag.

Sign, Billboard: A permanent structure for the display of off-premises advertising.

Sign, Building Identification: A sign consisting of letters applied to a building wall, engraved into the building material, or consisting of a sculptural relief which contains the name of the building or describes its function, but which does not advertise any individual tenant of the building or any products or services offered.

Sign, Building Mounted: A sign attached to, painted on, connected to, erected against the wall, parapet, or fascia of a building or structure with the exposed face of the sign in a plane parallel to the vertical face of the building or structure.

Sign, Cabinet: A sign with its text and/or logo symbols and artwork on a translucent face panel that is mounted within a metal frame or cabinet that contains the lighting fixtures which illuminate the sign face from behind.

Sign, Canopy: A sign that is printed, painted, or affixed to a canopy, typically used to accent building entries.

Sign, Changeable Copy: A sign that is designed so that characters, letters, numbers or illustrations can be manually or mechanically changed or rearranged without altering the face or surface of the sign.

Sign, Civic or Nonprofit Event: A sign used to announce and advertise the activities conducted at an event organized and implemented by a civic or nonprofit organization.

Sign Copy: Any graphic, word, numeral, symbol, insignia, text, sample, model, device, or combination thereof that is primarily intended to advertise, identify or notify.

Sign, Directional: A sign that is designed and erected solely for the purposes of directing vehicular and/or pedestrian traffic within a development, which is normally located adjacent to a public right-of-way or near various points of passage on or within private property.

Sign, Directory: A single sign, or a set of similarly designed individual signs placed or displayed in sequence and which may provide information in a list, roster, or directory format.

Sign, District: See “Sign, Neighborhood or District.”

Sign, Electronic Display: A sign or portion of a sign that is capable of changing its characters, letters, numbers, illustrations, display, color, and/or light intensity by electronic or automatic means.

Sign, Externally Illuminated: Any sign, the facing of which reflects light from an external light source intentionally directed upon it.

Sign, Feather or Vertical Banner: A portable sign typically constructed of cloth, bunting, plastic, paper or similar nonrigid material, and attached to a vertically mounted pole that is securely fastened to the ground.

Sign, Fixed Illumination Display: A sign whose copy or display is formed by illuminated lamps, including light emitting diodes (LEDs), with a fixed copy or display that is not changeable or programmable.

Sign, Freestanding: A sign that is erected or mounted on its own self-supporting permanent structure or base detached from any supporting elements of a building.

Sign, Freestanding Suspended: A freestanding sign type featuring a double or single sided sign face, hung at a perpendicular angle from a sign pole structure fitted with a projecting sign mount.

Sign, Fuel Pump: A sign mounted above, and integrated into the structure of, an operable fuel dispensing pump.

Sign, Fuel Pump Topper: A sign affixed to the top of an operable fuel-dispensing pump used to advertise goods offered for sale on the same parcel on which the fuel pump is located.

Sign Height: The vertical distance measured from the lowest adjacent grade to the highest point of the sign or sign structure.

Sign, Heritage: An individual sign of historic or cultural significance worthy of special recognition and consideration because it may be unusual, significant, or meaningful to Flagstaff’s streetscape or history.

Sign, Individual Letter: A cut-out or etched letter or logo which is individually mounted on a landscape screen wall, building wall, or freestanding sign.

Sign, Internally Illuminated: Any sign in which the source of light is entirely enclosed within the sign and not directly visible.

Sign, Interpretative: A sign used to inform and educate the public of a site’s heritage, cultural, or environmental significance. Interpretative signs serve as wayside exhibits at points of interest by providing explanation of the events, subjects, or sites that they highlight, and can answer questions or direct attention to features or relationships of a site.

Sign, Landscape Wall: A sign consisting of individual letters mounted on a screen or perimeter wall which may be attached or detached from a building, but which is architecturally integrated with the overall development.

Sign, LED: A sign consisting of light emitting diodes (electronic components that let electricity pass in only one direction) that emit visible light when electricity is applied.

Sign, Logo: A stylized group of letters, words, symbols or combination thereof used to represent and distinguish a business or product from the competition.

Sign, Multi-Tenant: An identification sign for a commercial site with multiple tenants, displaying the names of each tenant on the site.

Sign, Neighborhood or District: A sign erected to identify a neighborhood based on, but not limited to, its historic, architectural, social, or cultural characteristics.

Sign, Neon: A sign including Luminous Tubes formed into text, symbols or decorative elements and directly visible from outside the sign cabinet.

Sign, Nonconforming: Any sign that was legally installed or erected prior to the effective date of this Zoning Code, but which does not conform to the provisions of Division 10-50.100, Sign Standards, or other applicable regulations of the Zoning Code.

Sign, Obsolete: A sign that no longer directs, advertises, or identifies a legal use, product, or activity on the premises where such sign is displayed.

Sign, Off-Premises: Any sign that directs attention to a business, commodity, service, entertainment, product, structure, use or property different from a structure or use existing on the property where the sign is located, and/or any sign on which space is rented, donated or sold by the owner of said sign or property for the purpose of conveying a message.

Sign, On-Premises: Any sign that directs attention to an active use of the premises on which it is displayed, and/or any business, commodity, service, entertainment, product, structure or use conducted therein.

Sign, On-Site Advertising: A sign used primarily to advertise goods or services offered on the same parcel on which the sign is located. Such a sign may include incidental nonadvertising information (time and temperature, for example). Does not include publicly owned signs providing general interest information exclusively (such as road names or highway conditions).

Sign, Open: A single-color or multi-colored fixed-copy LED or neon sign used to indicate that a business is open.

Sign Orientation: To orient or position a single faced sign in a parallel position, or a double faced sign in a perpendicular placement toward a street frontage.

Sign, Painted Wall: A sign painted directly onto the exterior wall of a building and having no sign structure.

Sign, Pan Channel: A letter or shape constructed with side walls and a face making the shape a solid integral unit with a pan shaped cross section.

Sign, Pennant: A temporary sign made of flexible materials longer than it is wide, often triangular in shape, and frequently displayed with other pennants on a string.

Sign, Permanent: A sign constructed of durable materials and intended to exist for the duration of time that the use or occupant is located on the premises.

Sign Permit: The structure and location permit required for the placement and installation of either a temporary or permanent sign.

Sign, Political: A sign that attempts to influence the outcome of an election.

Sign, Portable: A sign that is capable of being moved and not designed to be permanently attached to a building or permanently anchored to the ground that is constructed of paper, cloth, canvas, light fabric, cardboard, plywood, light plastic or other similar materials.

Sign, Post: A sign mounted on either a single post or two or more posts as illustrated below:

Sign, Projecting: A sign attached to, and extending from, a building or other structure.

Sign, Roof-Mounted: A building mounted sign extending above the plate line of a building or structure, but not above the roofline.

Sign, Sandwich: See “Sign, A-Frame.”

Sign, Service Island Canopy: A sign mounted on or under a service island canopy, including canopy fascia signs.

Sign, Simplified Letter: A sign type consisting of individual letters mounted directly on a building wall so that the wall itself becomes the background/backdrop.

Sign, Single-Color LED: A sign composed of single-color LEDs, including signs with fixed and changeable copy.

Sign, Suspended: A sign attached to the underside of a lintel, arch or other overhead spanning member of a porch or walkway, and which is hung either perpendicular or parallel to a vertical wall surface.

Sign, Time and Temperature: A sign whose only function is to display information about the current time and/or temperature in an electronic or digital manner.

Sign, Type A: Freestanding signs that are associated with larger frontage sites located on major arterials.

Sign, Type B: Freestanding signs that are generally smaller and shorter, and are associated with smaller sites and/or with frontages on minor arterials or smaller street type.

Sign, Upright: A portable sign constructed to be taller than it is wide, which may be mounted on a weighted base or similar support.

Sign Walker: A person who wears, holds or balances a sign.

Sign, Wall Banner: A portable sign constructed of cloth, bunting, plastic, paper or similar nonrigid material, and securely attached to the wall or support structure for which it is advertising. Flags are not considered wall banners.

Sign, Window: A sign posted, painted, placed or affixed in or on a window or otherwise exposed to public view through a window.

Sign, Yard: A small portable sign used for advertising by local businesses that is also popular in election campaigns, typically constructed of corrugated plastic and supported on an H-shaped wire frame (Syn. Lawn Sign.)

Single-Family Cottage: A small house usually located on smaller sized lots in more urbanized areas.

Single-Family Detached Dwelling: A dwelling designed and used for single-family use that does not share a wall with another dwelling.

Single-Family Estate: A large, detached structure on a large lot that incorporates one unit. It is typically located within a primarily single-family residential neighborhood in a more rural setting. If located within a walkable neighborhood, this building type is typically located at the edge of the neighborhood, providing a transition to the more rural areas.

Single-Family House: A medium sized single-family detached dwelling on a small to medium size lot in more urbanized areas.

Single Room Occupancy (SRO): A residential facility that provides living units with separate sleeping and bathroom facilities which are rented for an extended period of time, such as weekly or monthly. Common facilities and services for laundry, cleaning, and meals may be provided for the residents. Single room occupancy includes buildings sometimes called residential hotels and rooming houses.

Site Analysis Plan: A site analysis plan allows the physical, heritage, natural and other characteristics of a development site to be mapped so that these characteristics may influence how the site will be developed, minimizing site disturbance and environmental damage while preserving features that are valued.

Site Control: Refers to a person, party, or organization that may not have purchase possession of a particular parcel but who has control of the parcel through other means, such as a resolution of the Council or who are actively seeking funding for the development of the parcel (e.g., City land that is to be under a long term lease, with the successful respondent/lessee obligated to fulfill certain requirements prior to acquiring total control of the site).

Site Plan: A graphic depiction of features on a site such as existing and proposed structures, paved areas, ingress/egress points, and landscaped areas along with certain information as required by Chapter 10-20, Administration, Procedures, and Enforcement.

Smart Growth: A well-planned, compact development that revitalizes neighborhoods, protects natural resources and open space, keeps housing affordable, and provides more transportation choices. It is sustainable and efficient development that is good for the environment, community, and economy (modified definition from the Smart Growth Network).

SmartCode: A model unified land development ordinance for planning and urban design that incorporates Smart Growth and New Urbanism principles, transect-based planning, environmental and zoning regulations, and regional, community and building-scaled design outcomes. It is a tool that guides the form of the built environment to resemble that of traditional neighborhoods, towns, and villages. This form is compact, walkable, and mixed use, and it is meant to be comfortable, safe, and ecologically sustainable. As used in this Zoning Code, the term “SmartCode” refers to the latest published version of this document. The use of the SmartCode and the images and diagrams appearing within it are used with the permission of Duany Plater-Zyberk and Company LLC.

Slope: The incline of land which can be measured by taking the vertical distance, or rise, over the horizontal distance, or run. The resulting fraction, or percentage, is the “slope” of the land.

Solar Collector: A device, substance, or element that relies upon sunshine to absorb and transform direct solar radiation through a medium to generate energy that can be used to heat or cool a building, heat or pump water, or generate electricity or other application that would otherwise require the use of a nonrenewable energy source.

Solar Farm: Large areas of land with several photovoltaic modules and inverters, or parabolic troughs placed on them for large scale energy generation.

Solar Powered Parking Lot Lighting: Photovoltaic cells installed in solar panels that are attached to parking lot lights.

Sorority: See “Fraternity, Sorority.”

Special District (SD): An area that by its intrinsic use, placement or configuration, cannot or should not conform to one or more of the transect zones specified in this Zoning Code.

Special Public Events: Periodic or annual events that have one or more of the following:

1.    Partial or full closure of a public street; blocking or restricting access to public property;

2.    Blocking or restricting access to private property of others;

3.    Use of pyrotechnics or special effects;

4.    Sale or distribution of merchandise, food or beverages;

5.    Erection of a tent;

6.    Installation of a stage, band shell, truck, trailer, van, portable building, booth, grandstand, or bleachers; or

7.    Placement of portable toilets.

Special Requirement: A provision of a Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan that stipulates additional standards that must be complied with in a Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan.

Specific Plan: Detailed element of the General Plan enacted under the provisions of A.R.S. § 9-461.08, that provides a greater level of detail for a specific geographic area or element of the General Plan, and that provides specific regulations and standards for the systematic implementation of the General Plan. When applied to a highway corridor, a specific plan includes the highway right-of-way as well as property outside of the right-of-way included with the planning area boundary.

Spot Lamp: A specific form of lamp designed to direct its output in a specific direction (a beam) with a reflector formed from the glass envelope of the lamp itself.

Square: An open space available for unstructured recreation and civic purposes.

SRO: See “Single Room Occupancy (SRO).”

Stable, Private: Any building incidental to an existing residential principal use that shelters horses for the exclusive use of the occupants of the premises.

Standard: A requirement of the Zoning Code to govern development, including for example, standards for setbacks, parking requirements, lot depth and width, and floor area ratio.

Stealth Telecommunication Facilities: A telecommunications facility, ancillary structure, or equipment enclosure that is not readily identifiable as such, and is designed to be aesthetically compatible with existing and proposed uses on a site. A stealth facility may have a secondary function, including but not limited to the following: church steeple, bell tower, spire, clock tower, cupola, light standard, utility pole, flagpole with a flag, or building parapet.

Stoop: A private frontage where the facade is aligned close to the frontage line with the first story elevated from the sidewalk for privacy, and with an exterior stair and landing at the entrance.

Storage Structure: A manufactured shipping container, moving container, or similar container, as determined by the Zoning Administrator, used to store one or more objects on a property. A storage structure is not a barn, garage, shed, or similar accessory structure. (Also see the definitions for “Storage Structure, Permanent”; and “Storage Structure, Temporary.”)

Storage Structure, Permanent: A storage structure that is attached to the ground by a foundation or device in accordance with the Building Code.

Storage Structure, Temporary: A storage structure that is not attached to the ground and is placed on a lot or parcel.

Stormwater Regulations: The City of Flagstaff Stormwater Management Design Manual and LID Manual.

Story: A habitable level within a building. See also “Mezzanine.”

Story, Half: Finished attics with a knee wall maximum height of five feet and a finished floor to finished ceiling maximum height of nine feet. Refer also to City Building Code requirements.

Street (ST): A local urban thoroughfare for low vehicular speed and capacity.

Street Buffers: A landscape border along the street frontage of a site that does not include sidewalks or curbs.

Streetscape: Those features of either the manmade or natural environment which abut, face, or are a part of a public street right-of-way, including but not limited to landscaping (materials and plants), street furniture, building facades and utilities, and facilities which are visible to the public such as fire hydrants, storm sewer grates, sidewalk and street paving.

Streetscreen: A freestanding wall built along the frontage line, or parallel with the facade. It may mask a parking lot from the thoroughfare, provide privacy to a side yard, and/or strengthen the spatial definition of the public realm.

Structure: The result of arranging materials and parts together, such as buildings, towers, tanks (excluding rain barrels and cisterns), and fences (but not including tents or vehicles) and attaching them to the ground. It shall also mean a mobile home, anything constructed or erected, any building of any kind artificially built up or composed of parts joined together in some definite manner, which is located on or in the ground or is attached to something having a location on or in the ground, including swimming and wading pools and covered patios. Paved areas, walkways, tennis courts, and similar outdoor areas, and fences or walls three feet or less in height are not structures.

Subdivision: Improved or unimproved land or lands divided for the purpose of financing, sale, or lease, whether immediate or future, into four or more lots, tracts or parcels of land, or, if a new street is involved, any such property which is divided into two or more lots, tracts, or parcels of land, or any such property, the boundaries of which have been fixed by a recorded plat, which is divided into more than two parts. “Subdivision” also includes any condominiums, cooperative, community apartment, townhouse or similar development containing four or more parcels, in which an undivided interest in the land is coupled with the right of exclusive occupancy of any unit located thereon, but plats of such projects need not show the buildings or the manner in which the buildings or airspace above the property shown on the plat are to be divided. All subdivisions are also developments. Subdivision does not include the following:

1.    The sale or exchange of parcels of land to or between adjoining property owners if such sale or exchange does not create additional lots.

2.    The partitioning of land in compliance with other statutes regulating the partitioning of land held in common ownership.

3.    The leasing of apartments, offices, stores or similar space within a building or trailer park, nor to mineral, oil or gas leases.

Surface Collection: The use of swales, bioswales, parking lot islands, bar ditches, and detention or retention basins.

Sustainability: Living and managing activities in a manner that balances social, economic, and environmental considerations to meet Flagstaff’s current needs and those of future generations. A sustainable Flagstaff is a community where the social wellbeing of current and future citizens is supported by a vibrant economy and a self-renewing healthy environment.

Swale, Vegetated/Rock: Densely vegetated or rock lined drainage ways with low-pitched side slopes that detain, evaporate, and/or infiltrate the runoff associated with a storm event.

Swale, Biofiltration: Shallow drainage ways that employ landscaping to stabilize the soil while providing water quality treatment. They are designed to remove silt and sediment-associated pollutants before discharging to storm sewers and to reduce volume if soils allow for infiltration.

(Ord. 2020-28, Amended, 11/17/2020 (Res. 2020-59); Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2019-22, Amended, 7/2/2019 (Res. 2019-31); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2016-22, Amended, 6/21/2016 (Res. 2016-13); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.200 Definitions, “T”

Tandem Parking: A parking space that is deep enough to allow two cars to park, one behind the other.

Taproom: A retail sales facility where customers may taste and purchase beverages processed on the site, including beer and spirituous liquors. (Syn: Tasting Room).

Telecommunication Facilities: Antennas and towers, either individually or together, and associated equipment and structures used for telecommunications purposes. Includes commercial radio, television antennas, and commercial communication transmitters or towers.

Temporary Irrigation: A non-permanent watering system used to irrigate newly installed plants in landscape areas. Temporary irrigation systems are frequently placed on the surface of the ground, and typically include flexible non-rigid piping, and may or may not have a controller, valves, emitters, and similar components usually associated with permanent irrigation systems. A temporary irrigation system may be connected to a permanent water supply, but may also be connected to a temporary tank or include mobile watering from a truck.

Temporary Lighting: Lighting which does not conform to the provisions of Division 10-50.70, Outdoor Lighting Standards, and which will not be used for more than one 30-day period within a calendar year, with one 30-day extension.

Temporary Use: A land use that is designed, operated, and occupies a site for a limited time, typically less than 12 months.

Terminated Vista: A location at the axial conclusion of a thoroughfare.

Terrace: A private frontage that provides a common elevated frontage that separates the private yard from the public realm.

Terrace Shopfront: A private frontage, typically for retail use on parcels where the frontage line slopes, that allows for a level entrance into multiple shops.

Text Amendment: Change to the Zoning Code text that does not require updating the Zoning Map.

Theater: An indoor facility for group entertainment, other than sporting events. Examples of these facilities include civic theaters, facilities for live concerts and movie theaters.

Third Place: A private building that includes a space conducive to unstructured social gathering. Third places are usually bars, cafes, and corner stores.

Thoroughfare: A way for use by vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle traffic that provides access to lots and open spaces, and that incorporates vehicular lanes and public frontages.

Timeshare: Any arrangement, plan, or similar device, other than an exchange program, whether by membership agreement, or sales, lease, deed, license or right-to-use agreement, or by any other means, in which an owner, in exchange for consideration, receives ownership rights in or the right to use accommodations for a period of time that is less than a full year during any given year, but not necessarily for consecutive years, if the use rights extend for at least three years. See also “Lodging.”

TNCP: See “Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan.”

Tower: A self-supporting structure (such as a lattice tower or monopole tower), a guyed tower or a structure affixed to or mounted on an existing or newly constructed building or other permanent structure, together with associated equipment, on which is located one or more antennas.

Townhouse: A single-family dwelling that shares a party wall with another of the same type placed side by side.

Tract: A lot within a subdivision reserved or set aside for division or special use.

Trade Schools: A specialized school frequently owned and operated privately for profit providing on-site training of business, commercial, industrial and trade or vocational skills.

Traditional Neighborhood: A comprehensive and compact mixed use development pattern based on the land development principles that guided the first settlements, towns, and cities of the United States prior to World War II and that include a variety of housing types and land uses in a defined area. See also Appendix 1.2 (Additional Information on Smart Growth and Traditional Neighborhood Development).

Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan (TNCP): A plan to create a walkable urban environment by applying the standards from the Zoning Code to implement form-based code regulations and transect zones in greenfield and infill developments.

Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan, Infill: A Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan proposed for redevelopment within an existing urbanized area where infrastructure is already in place.

Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan, New: A Traditional Neighborhood Community Plan proposed for a previously undeveloped site.

Traffic Impact Analysis: A study prepared by a licensed professional traffic engineer or civil engineer in connection with a specific proposed land use application that forecasts and assesses the impacts of a proposed development on the existing and future multi-modal transportation network. The study must recommend mitigation measures for anticipated impacts to public streets and thoroughfares.

Traffic Impact Statement: A smaller version of a traffic impact analysis that is limited to a project’s frontage and to the opening year of the development.

Trail: See “Bicycle Trail (BT).”

Transect: A cross-section of the environment showing a range of different habitats. The rural-to-urban transect of the human environment used in the Zoning Code and the SmartCode template is divided into six transect zones that range from the most natural to the most urban. These zones describe the physical form and character of a place according to the density and intensity of its land use and urbanism.

Transect Zone: One of several areas on the Zoning Map regulated by the standards found within the Zoning Code. Transect zones are ordered from the most natural to the most urban. Transect zones are administratively similar to the land use zones in conventional codes, except that in addition to the usual building use, density, height and setback requirements, other elements of the intended habitat are integrated, including those of the private lot and building and the public frontage.

Transitional Housing: A type of homeless shelter consisting of a structure or a group of structures that provide housing for clients with a maximum stay of two years and offer supportive services to promote self-sufficiency and to help obtain permanent housing.

Transitional Surface: The area extending outward from the sides of the primary surface and approach surfaces and connecting them to the horizontal surface. Height limits within the transitional surface are the same as the primary surface or approach surface at the boundary line where it adjoins and increases at a rate of one foot vertically for every seven feet horizontally, with the horizontal distance measured at right angles to the runway centerline and the extended centerline, until the height matches the height of the horizontal surface or conical surface. Transitional surfaces for those portions of the precision approach surface which project through and beyond the limits of the conical surface, extend a distance of 5,000 feet measured horizontally from the edge of the approach surface and at right angles to the runway centerline.

Transportation Yards: Facilities for the storage and servicing of transportation vehicles.

Travel Accommodations: One or more structures, with or without related services and facilities, that are provided and offered to transient guests for stays of less than 30 days. A travel accommodation may include accessory commercial uses, such as retail, restaurant, banquet space, event center or other similar use. Travel accommodation does not include bed and breakfast, short-term rental or vacation rental, and includes hostels, hotels, inns, lodges/lodging, motels/motor or auto courts, resorts, timeshares, and similar uses as determined by the Zoning Administrator.

Tree: A woody perennial plant usually having a single elongated stem or trunk, generally with few or no branches on its lower part.

Turf: A ground cover surface consisting of City approved grass species that is customarily mowed.

Turning Radius: The curved edge of a thoroughfare at an intersection measured at the inside edge of the track of a vehicle.

Twin House: See “Duplex.”

Two-Family Dwelling: See “Dwelling, Two-Family.”

(Ord. 2019-22, Amended, 7/2/2019 (Res. 2019-31); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02); Ord. 2015-03, Amended, 05/05/2015)

10-80.20.210 Definitions, “U”

Undeveloped Land: Land in its natural state before development where the ground is generally undisturbed by added improvements, including but not limited to landscaping, drainage improvements, streets, utilities, and buildings or structures. Undeveloped land may be, or may have been, improved with buildings and infrastructure that have altered its natural state to a minimal degree.

Universities and Colleges: Institutions of higher learning. Includes public and private universities, colleges and other institutions of higher learning.

Unshielded Light Fixture: See “Fixture, Unshielded.”

Urban: See “Urbanism” or “Urbanized.”

Urban Agriculture: The production of food within urban areas in, for example, vegetable gardens or orchards, for local food consumption.

Urban Channel: Narrow vegetated or stone lined conveyances framed by vertical stone or concrete banks abutting cultivated landscapes or hardscapes.

Urbanism: Collective term for the condition of a compact mixed use settlement, including the physical form of its development and its environmental, functional, economic and socio-cultural aspects.

Urbanized: Generally refers to areas that are developed.

Use: The purpose or activity for which land or any building or structure thereon is designated, arranged, or intended, or for which it is occupied or maintained; or any activity, occupation, business or operation carried on or intended to be carried on in a building, structure, or on a parcel or lot.

Use, Abandonment of: The relinquishment of a property, or the cessation of a use or activity by the owner or tenant for a period of six months, excluding temporary or short term interruptions for the purpose of remodeling, maintaining, or otherwise improving or rearranging a facility. A use shall be deemed abandoned when such use is suspended as evidenced by the cessation of activities or conditions that constitute the principal use of the property.

Use, Authorized: Any use that is or may be lawfully established in a particular zone; provided, that it conforms to all requirements of these regulations for the zone in which such use is located.

Use, Change of: The cessation of activities or conditions associated with a principal use of a property and the commencement of activities or conditions associated with a different principal use. A use shall be deemed to be changed when a change in the distinguishing traits or primary features of the use of a building or land, as evidenced by a change in parking requirements, change in occupancy designation and/or occupancy load, change in outdoor storage or other features occur after the effective date of this Zoning Code.

Use, Establishment of: The commencement of activities or conditions which constitute the specific primary purpose for which land or any building thereon is designed, arranged, or intended, or for which it is occupied or maintained. A use shall be deemed established when a required Building Permit from the City of Flagstaff has been obtained, construction has commenced and is proceeding in a timely manner, and/or occupancy has taken place as part of the principal use of the property.

Utilities: Installations or facilities or means for furnishing to the public, electricity, gas, steam, communications, water, drainage, sewage disposal, or flood control, irrespective of whether such facilities or means are underground or above ground. Utilities may be owned and operated by any person, firm, corporation, municipal department or board, duly appointed by State or municipal regulations. Utility or utilities as used herein may also refer to such persons, firms, corporations, departments or boards.

(Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02))

10-80.20.220 Definitions, “V”

Valve: A device used to control the flow of water.

Variance: A grant of relief from the requirements of this Zoning Code that permits construction in a manner that would otherwise be prohibited by this Zoning Code.

Vegetated/Rock Swale: See “Swale, Vegetated/Rock.”

Vegetated Roof: The roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation (including for food production) and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane.

Vehicle: See “Motor Vehicle.”

Vehicular Lanes: The lanes providing traffic and parking capacity within a thoroughfare. They usually consist of marked lanes in a variety of widths for parked and for moving vehicles.

Vehicle Towing or Impound Yards: See “Industrial, Light – General.”

Veterinary Clinic: A facility rendering surgical and medical treatment to small animals, which may include overnight accommodations for purposes of recovery or boarding. For the purpose of these regulations, small animals shall be deemed to be ordinary household pets, excluding horses, donkeys, or other such animals not normally housed or cared for entirely within the confines of a residence. Crematory facilities shall not be allowed in a veterinary clinic.

Veterinary Hospitals: An establishment operated by a veterinarian licensed to practice in this State that provides clinical facilities and houses animals or birds for dental, medical, or surgical treatment. Does not include kennels or animal shelters.

10-80.20.230 Definitions, “W”

Waiver of Claims for Diminution in Value: A legal document that absolves the City of any legal obligation to compensate an applicant for a reduction in the applicant’s land value as a result of a land use law imposed by the City.

Walk: See “Sidewalk.”

Walkable Urban: An environment primarily developed prior to the 1940s in the heart of Flagstaff in which a person can walk, bike, or ride transit to work, and fulfill most shopping and recreation needs. Walkable urban environments allow for the use of automobiles but do not require the use of a vehicle to accommodate most daily needs.

Warehousing: The storage of merchandise, commodities or vehicles in an enclosed building.

Watt: The unit used to measure the electrical power consumption of a lamp.

Wholesaling and Distribution: An establishment engaged in selling merchandise to retailers, contractors; industrial, commercial, institutional, farm, or professional business users; other wholesalers; or acting as agents or brokers in buying merchandise for or selling merchandise to such persons or companies. Examples of these establishments include, but are not limited to:

Agents, merchandise or commodity brokers, and commission merchants

Merchant wholesalers

Assemblers, buyers and associations engaged in the cooperative marketing of farm products

Stores primarily selling electrical, plumbing, heating and air conditioning supplies and equipment

Frozen food lockers

Wholesale bakeries

Also includes storage, processing, packaging and shipping facilities for mail order and electronic-commerce retail establishments.

Wind Energy Production Facility: A wind energy conversion system consisting of wind turbines that convert wind power to mechanical energy used by a utility company to generate and distribute electricity to customers.

Wind Turbine: The blades and associated mechanical and electrical conversion components whose purpose is to convert kinetic energy of the wind into rotational energy to generate electricity.

Work-Live: A mixed use unit consisting of a commercial and residential function. It typically has a substantial commercial component that may accommodate employees and walk-in trade. The unit is intended to function predominantly as work space with incidental residential accommodations that meet basic habitability requirements.

Workforce Housing Development: A residential development that is restricted to residents, or potential residents, who earn up to 150 percent of the area median income for their family size, when they are spending no more than 35 percent of their gross income on housing.

(Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2014-27, Amended, 11/18/2014 (Res. 2014-35))

10-80.20.240 Definitions, “X”

Xeriscape Landscaping: A landscaping program designed to save water using the principles listed in Section 10-50.60.010(B).

10-80.20.250 Definitions, “Y”

Yard: An open area that is unoccupied and unobstructed from the ground upward, except as allowed by the Zoning Code, between a principal or accessory structure, or a structure and the nearest lot line. Typical yard locations are identified in the Figure 10-80.20.250. Yards.

Figure 10-80.20.250. Yards.

Yard, Front: A yard extending across the full width of a lot between any building and the front lot line, and measured perpendicular to the building at the closest point to the front lot line.

Yard Hydrant: A stand-alone water spigot, usually vertically elevated by several feet of pipe.

Yard, Interior Side: A yard extending from the front yard to the rear yard between the primary building and the side lot line adjacent to another lot measured perpendicular from the side lot line to the closest point of the primary building.

Yard, Rear: A yard extending across the full width of the lot between the principal building and the rear lot line, and measured perpendicular to the building to the closest point of the rear lot line.

Yard, Street Side: A yard extending from the front yard to the rear yard between any building and the lot line abutting a street.

Yield: A thoroughfare type that has two-way traffic but only one effective travel lane because of parked cars, necessitating slow movement and driver negotiation.

(Ord. 2019-32, Amended, 11/5/2019 (Res. 2019-49); Ord. 2016-07, Amended, 2/16/2016 (Res. 2016-02))

10-80.20.260 Definitions, “Z”

Zoning Code Administrator: The City of Flagstaff Zoning Administrator or designee as authorized by these provisions.

Zoning Map: Official Zoning Maps, City of Flagstaff, Arizona.

Zoning Map Amendment: A change to the Zoning Code that requires an update to the Zoning Map.