Division II. Regulations for Streets and Related Work

Chapter 19.30


Article I. City Street Types and Monumentation

19.30.010    Purpose and intent.

19.30.020    City street classification system.

19.30.030    Street monumentation.

19.30.040    Street geometrics.

19.30.050    Special street geometrics.

19.30.060    Sight distance.

19.30.070    Street alignment.

19.30.080    Intersections.

19.30.090    Driveways.

19.30.100    Medians.

19.30.110    Street ends.

19.30.120    Street base and surfacing.

19.30.130    Bridges.

19.30.140    Retaining walls.

19.30.150    Street side slopes.

19.30.160    Curbs and gutters.

19.30.170    Guardrails.

19.30.180    Permanent traffic control.

19.30.190    Mailboxes.

19.30.200    Utility installation standards and materials.

19.30.210    Erosion and sedimentation control.

19.30.220    Fire Department access.

19.30.230    Parking lots.

Article II. City of Ferndale Transportation Study Guidelines

19.30.300    Transportation study guidelines.

Attachment A    Transportation Impact Analysis Outline.

Article I. City Street Types and Monumentation

19.30.010 Purpose and intent.

This chapter is intended to describe the type, location and basic design requirements for public and private roadways and driveways, including required materials, alignment, curbs, and monuments. Compliance with this chapter will result in a consistent roadway system that is safe, durable, and can be maintained in an efficient manner.

Design procedures shall conform to accepted engineering practices, and shall be certified by a professional engineer, licensed by the state of Washington. All projects will be constructed in accordance with the current edition of the City of Ferndale Engineering Design and Development Standards, WSDOT/APWA Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge and Municipal Construction, and such amendments that modify these specifications. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 601)

19.30.020 City street classification system.

A.    General. Street design standards and geometrics are determined by the functional classification of the street as defined by the City of Ferndale Roadway Functional Classifications contained within the Transportation Element of the Comprehensive Plan. Once the functional classification is determined, roadway design standards can be obtained from the information in Chapter 19.70 FMC (the plan detail standards).

B.    Criteria for minimum right-of-way and roadway widths and other geometrics shall be as listed for given classifications.

C.    The Public Works Director may require the second lift of asphalt to be bonded and delayed for no more than one year.

D.    Typical utility locations for design purposes are shown in Standard Detail R-4.

E.    Street Categories. City streets are classified by location and function, as listed below. The appropriate specifications are listed in the City’s standard details.

1.    Freeway/interstate;

2.    Principal arterial;

3.    Minor arterial;

4.    Collectors;

5.    Local streets.

    In addition to the functional categories listed above, City streets can further be classified by whether they are alleys, cul-de-sacs, private streets, PUD streets or expressways, all as defined in subsection (F) of this section.

F.    Street Definitions. Existing street classifications are shown on the Ferndale Transportation Plan. New streets shall be determined as follows:

1.    Freeway/Interstate. Freeways and interstate highways are multi-lane, high-speed, high-capacity roadways intended exclusively for motorized traffic. All access is controlled by interchanges and bridges separate roadway crossings. Freeways and interstate highways are designed to move freight efficiently. Interstate 5 bisects the Ferndale urban area.

2.    Principal Arterial. Principal arterials are roadways that connect major community centers and facilities, and are often constructed with limited direct access to abutting land uses. Principal arterials carry the highest traffic volumes and provide the greatest mobility in the roadway network by limiting access, providing traffic control devices, and posting higher speed limits. Transit routes are generally located on principal arterials, as are transfer centers and park-and-ride lots. Principal arterials may service any level of traffic volume, up to full utilization of the road capacity.

3.    Minor Arterial. Minor arterials are roadways that connect with and augment principal arterials. Minor arterials provide densely populated areas easy access to principal arterials and provide a greater level of access to abutting properties. Minor arterials connect with other arterial and collector roads extending into the urban area, and serve less concentrated traffic-generating areas, such as neighborhood shopping centers and schools. Minor arterials serve as boundaries to neighborhoods and collect traffic from collector streets. Minor arterials also carry transit traffic. Minor arterials may serve any level of traffic volume, but should not utilize quite the total capacity of the roadway.

4.    Collectors. Collectors are roadways that provide easy movement within neighborhoods, and they connect two or more neighborhood or commercial areas while also providing a high degree of property access within the localized area. These roadways “collect” traffic from local neighborhoods and distribute it to higher classification roadways. Additionally, collectors provide direct services to residential areas, local parks, churches and areas with similar land uses. Collectors provide the link between local access streets and larger arterials.

5.    Local Streets. Local access streets are intended for use within commercial, single-family, and multifamily subdivisions to provide direct access to abutting lots, and to collect traffic from cul-de-sacs. Restrictions may be placed on entry and exit locations for traffic safety relative to intersections. Traffic volumes are typically very low for compatibility with abutting land uses, to accommodate turning movements and significant amounts of pedestrian activity, while providing minimal disturbance to the tranquility of the residential environment. Local streets are not designed to accommodate transit service. All roadways that have not been designated as an arterial or collector roadway are considered to be local access streets. Local access streets comprise the largest portion of roadway miles in the City.

6.    Special Streets. Special streets include those streets or sections that, due to projected volume, ownership, topography or other characteristics, do not easily conform to the street types listed above. The special street list below is not intended to be exhaustive, and the Public Works Director may determine that additional special street types may be considered.

a.    Cul-de-Sacs. Cul-de-sacs are intended for use within commercial, single-family, and multifamily subdivisions for lot access only, where no possibility exists of future extension to connect with or serve traffic from other areas. Restrictions may be placed on entry and exit locations for traffic safety relative to intersections. Traffic volumes on cul-de-sacs will be extremely low, giving priority to pedestrian movements and not disturbing the tranquility of the residential environment. Cul-de-sacs never have more than two lanes and should not exceed 600 feet in length, subject to the discretion of the Public Works Director. Additionally, flexibility in road widths may be considered in cul-de-sacs.

b.    Alleyways. Alleyways are public or private thoroughfares or ways having a width of not more than 20 feet which primarily afford secondary means of access to abutting properties. In some areas, particularly the downtown core, alleyways may provide primary access to abutting properties for the purpose of limiting the number of access points on major roadways. Alleyways are not normally appropriate for land uses that generate significant volumes of peak hour traffic, particularly nonresidential traffic.

c.    Driveways. Driveways are private ways providing access to the public street from individual land uses, often without the need for adjoining pedestrian access. The most frequent application of this special street is to individual single-family residences, but the street type may be expanded to serve multiple dwelling units and commercial or industrial properties. See subsection (F)(6)(e) of this section, Shared Access Driveways.

d.    Phased Development/Three-Quarter Road Section. This street type may be considered for all street types with the exception of private driveways, based on the phased construction of development projects controlled by the same individual, or on the location of proposed streets wherein a portion of the future street would lie on properties that are not controlled by proposed developments. See Standard Detail R-2.

i.    Three-Quarter Road Section. A three-quarter road section may be used if approved by the City for the improvement of abutting off-site roadway. A three-quarter section shall consist of the construction of one-half the full standard roadway on the project side of the road centerline. The opposite side of the road centerline shall be constructed to a 12-foot paved width with a two-foot gravel and crushed rock shoulder. The gravel base, ATB, crushed surface course, and pavement for the 12-foot width shall match the full section.

e.    Shared Access Driveways. Shared access driveways are private ways providing access to the public street from two or more properties, land uses or developments. Shared access driveways may vary substantially based upon the type and number of uses involved, and the traffic anticipated to be generated by those uses.

f.    Private Streets. Private streets are streets that are privately owned and maintained that serve a variety of traffic within a localized area.

i.    Private streets will be permitted when so provided in appropriate ordinances or at the discretion of the City Council when:

(A)    Covenants have been approved and recorded with the City which provide for maintenance of the private streets and associated parking areas by owners in the development, including placing of liens upon nonpayment of fees; and

(B)    Provision is made for the streets to be open at all times for emergency and public service vehicle use; and

(C)    The private streets will not obstruct public street circulation; and

(D)    The establishment of a private street will not create an alternating pattern of public and private maintenance or ownership along the roadway; and

(E)    At least one of the following conditions exists:

(1)    Existing abutting development precludes the construction of a public street; or

(2)    Topographic, geological or soil conditions make development of a public street undesirable; or

(3)    The streets are within a private community with a corporate identity; or

(4)    Neighborhood traffic circulation and lot access can be met more logically by private streets than by public streets.

ii.    Criteria for Construction. Private streets shall conform to these standards. However, it is intended that a broader flexibility will be granted on proposed variance requests for private streets than given for public streets.

iii.    Private streets shall provide legal access to each affected lot, dwelling unit, or business and shall be sufficiently able to accommodate required improvements as outlined in Table 6-1, and to include future use by adjacent property owners when applicable.

iv.    Private roadways shall not generally be utilized as collector streets or along major routes of travel. Instead such roadways shall generally be placed in those locations necessary to convey traffic generated within a specific development to the public street system.

g.    PUD Street. All streets within planned unit developments shall conform to the same standards as a public street. However, the minimum right-of-way and roadway width for private and public access streets exclusively serving the needs of a development may be reduced if adequate consideration of the following factors is made during the review of a planned unit development request:

i.    Provision of off-street parking;

ii.    Restriction of on-street parking;

iii.    Provision of adequate clearance for emergency vehicles;

iv.    Provision of clear vision at intersections;

v.    Provision of alternative bicycle and/or pedestrian paths;

vi.    Service of not more than 100 average daily trips for the narrowest streets;

vii.    Provision of turnarounds at acceptable intervals for two-way streets;

viii.    Provisions for adequate utility easements outside of street; and

ix.    Future street revision or extension is not planned.

G.    Freeway/Interstate. Freeways and interstates are higher classification streets which are usually state or federal responsibility. In the event that the City has jurisdiction over the construction or improvement of such a facility, the work shall be done in accordance with appropriate state or federal standards.

H.    Other Street Design Criteria. Alternate criteria under recognized street classifications, such as those of the current local agency guidelines as prepared by WSDOT, may be accepted by the City. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 602)

19.30.030 Street monumentation.

A.    General. Survey control monuments shall be placed or replaced in accordance with recognized good practice in land surveying, and in conformance with all applicable state and local regulations. The control and boundary survey shall be tied to the Washington State Coordinate system per Chapter 58.20 RCW if suitable control is available within one mile of the survey. See Standard Detail S Series.

B.    Replacement of Disturbed Monuments. All existing survey control monuments which are disturbed, lost, or destroyed during construction or maintenance shall be replaced at the expense of the responsible party. A land corner record shall be recorded by a licensed land surveyor with the County Auditor and filed with the Public Works Director, showing methods used to establish the monuments’ position and references.

C.    Plat Monumentation Locations. Survey monuments shall be placed at the following locations:

1.    At all exterior boundary corners of plats.

2.    At the intersections of road or right-of-way centerlines within the short plat or plat.

3.    At the beginning and ends of centerline curves.

4.    At all block corners not at intersections.

D.    Standard Survey Monuments – Construction. Standard survey monuments shall conform to City of Ferndale Standard Detail S Series.

1.    Permanent control monuments may be placed on offset lines. The position and types of every permanent monument shall be noted on all short plats or plats.

2.    Permanent control monuments within streets shall be set after the roads are graded.

E.    Supplemental Survey Markers. Each supplemental survey marker shall conform to the City of Ferndale Standard Detail S Series, and shall be a brass disk encased in concrete placed at all points of curves, points of tangent, intersections, as needed for visibility in streets, and at the intersection of street centerlines with plat boundary line.

F.    Surveyor’s Certification. A land surveyor shall certify in writing under his seal that all monuments and lot corners indicated on the plat have been set. No street maintenance bonds shall be released until the City has received this certification. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 603)

19.30.040 Street geometrics.

This section is intended to describe the general purpose of each of the City street types described above, for the purpose of determining the design requirements for such streets. Where a street does not fit a definition described below, or cannot be designed to match the minimum requirements for streets within its class, the Public Works Director may consider flexibility through the design deviation or variance processes described in Chapter 19.05 FMC, as applicable.

A.    General. Street geometrics are based primarily on the function of the street and secondarily on such considerations as existing and projected future average daily traffic (ADT), terrain, and sight distance. However, the Public Works Director may also consider other factors such as peak hour traffic, the nature of surrounding land uses, the mix of traffic types (transit, pedestrian, bicycle, freight), and environmental issues.

B.    Street Design Criteria. Table 6-1 lists the criteria for right-of-way, street width, and other geometrics for streets based on their function. The information in the table is also illustrated in City of Ferndale Standard Details R-1 through R-4.

Table 6-1

Ferndale Road Design Information 

Roadway Classification (asphalt concrete except as noted)

Principal Arterials

Minor Arterials


Local Streets

Special Streets

Design Speed (mph) (See Note 2)

35 – 45 mph

35 – 45 mph

25 – 35 mph

25 – 35 mph

25 mph (min)

Maximum Grade (See Note 3)






Minimum Stopping Sight Distance

See WSDOT standard

Horizontal Curvature

(See WSDOT Standard)

200 feet or AASHTO superelevation transition req. whichever is greater (See FMC 19.30.070(B))



Vertical Curvature (See WSDOT Standard)

See FMC 19.30.070(C)

Maximum Superelevation (%)






Min. Curb to Curb (feet) (See Notes 4 and 5) [2 Lane]






Min. R.O.W. Width (feet) (See Note 1) [2 Lane]

80 (60' res.)





New Bridges – Roadway Width (See Note 8)

Greater than minimum roadway width above

New Bridges – Design Live-Load

AASHTO HS20-44 (Minimum)

Minimum Intersection Offset Spacing (feet)

See FMC 19.30.070

Minimum Sidewalks

See FMC 19.40.040. Sidewalks shall generally be a minimum of 5' wide on each side of the street, with the exception of sidewalks within the City’s pedestrian-oriented area, where sidewalks shall be a minimum of 10' wide. In some areas the Public Works Director may require a bicycle or shared use trail in lieu of the construction of sidewalks on one side of the street, when consistent with the City’s Parks, Recreation and Trails Master Plan.

Parking Allowed

Council approval required

Council approval required

Council approval required

Local street (residential): both sides. The City may consider “pocket parking,” woonerf designs, or parking on alternating sides of the street when it can be demonstrated that off-site parking requirements are met and life safety concerns are addressed.

Both sides. However, parking may be limited or prohibited based on roadway width.





Local/Commercial street (commercial): council approval required



l.    All roadway and R.O.W. widths shown above are minimum. Additional width may be required based on the City Council’s discretion.

2.    Actual design speed value(s) shall be determined by the engineer subject to City Council approval. Design speed is a basis for determining geometric elements and does not imply posted or legally permissible speed.

3.    Maximum grades may be exceeded, subject to City Council approval, if:

a.    No practical alternative exists;

b.    ADT is under 250 ADT and grades are relatively short and do not exceed 15 percent.

4.    The City Council may require a collector road climbing lane if warrants are met in accordance with AASHTO.

5.    Use of shoulders vs. curb sections shall be at City Council discretion for local access and special streets only. Curbs shall be required for arterials and collectors.

6.    Shoulders shall be widened two feet where a guardrail is planned, and when the shoulder is not located on a designated bike route. A minimum shoulder of four feet is required on designated bike routes.

7.    Right-of-way widths assume curb sections. Add 10 feet for shoulder sections.

8.    Bridge roadway width shall be measured between curbs or between faces of bridge railing, whichever is less.

9.    To be reviewed under best engineering practices.

(Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 604)

19.30.050 Special street geometrics.

The following special street geometric and related standards shall apply in addition to the standards contained in Table 6-1:

A.    Alleys. Alleys and service drives shall have a minimum width of 24 feet. This may be reduced to 20 feet with approval of the City Council.

B.    Cul-de-Sac. Cul-de-sacs shall conform to City of Ferndale Standard Detail R-5.

1.    Geometrics of stem section are same as local streets (Standard Details R-3 and R-4).

2.    Minimum right-of-way width across bulb section is 110 feet (Standard Detail R-5).

3.    Minimum pavement width across bulb is 90 feet (Standard Detail R-5). (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 605)

19.30.060 Sight distance.

A.    General. The standards for sight distance are provided in the WSDOT Design Manual, current edition. See Table 6-1 for City standards for maximum grade limits. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 606)

19.30.070 Street alignment.

A.    General. Factors that should be considered when establishing street alignment include design speed, drainage, public safety and comfort, topography, aesthetics, land use, physical features, and availability of right-of-way. In general, alignment should be as consistent as possible with the topography.

B.    Horizontal Curves. Tangents between curves shall be at least 200 feet or the distance required to complete the superelevation transition per AASHTO, whichever is greater.

    Circular curves shall be used. Compounded curves may be used for special or channelized turning lanes upon approval of the Public Works Director.

    Where restrictive conditions exist, the minimum horizontal curve radius on centerline (R) in feet shall be determined as follows:


R = V2/15(e+f)







V =

Design speed in miles per hour (mph)



e =

Superelevation (street section cross slope), feet per foot



f =

Side friction factor

    (for V less than 30 mph, f = 0.16; for V greater than 30 mph, f shall be reduced 0.005 for each 5 mph increase in V)

    The radii (R) shall be rounded to the next higher even multiple of five feet.

    Curves may either be expressed in terms of radii or degree of curvatures where:

    The degree of curvature (D), which is the angle subtended at the center of curve by an arc of 100 feet in length is computed as follows:

D =


    Values of D shall be rounded to the nearest even multiple of 0.5 degrees.

C.    Vertical Curves. Symmetric, parabolic curves shall be used. The minimum length of vertical curve shall be computed from the formula:


L = KA







L =

The length of vertical curve, in feet



K =

A constant for design



A =

The algebraic difference in grades, in percent

    K is constant for each design speed. Its selection for crest vertical curves is based on stopping sight distance requirements. For sag vertical curves, K is based on headlight stopping distance. The formula above shall use the K values from Table 6-2.

Table 6-2

K Values for Selected Design Speeds

Design Speed (mph)

Crest Curve

Sag Curve

























    Vertical curves are not required where the algebraic difference in grades is less than one percent. Vertical curves shall be of sufficient length to provide adequate sight distance, but never shorter than three times the design speed.

D.    Minimum Street Grades. Straight sections of street shall have a minimum grade of 0.4 percent; provided, that streets with grades between 0.4 and 0.8 percent shall have an integral curb and gutter (FMC 19.30.160). Straight sections of street may have a grade less than 0.4 percent if the pavement is cement concrete and drainage inlets are spaced no further than 150 feet apart. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 607)

19.30.080 Intersections.

A.    Intersecting City Streets. Intersections of streets shall be designated in accordance with the following criteria:

1.    Angle of intersection: 85 degrees to 95 degrees;

2.    Minimum centerline radius (two-lane): 55 feet;

3.    Minimum curb radius: 40 feet;

4.    Minimum property line radius: 25 feet;

5.    Minimum stopping sight distance: see WSDOT Design Manual;

6.    Minimum centerline offset of adjacent streets from intersection or low speed curves:

a.    All access streets and any combination: 150 feet;

b.    Access streets, and collector streets, crossing or connecting to any collector or arterial; or arterials intersecting arterials: 300 feet;

c.    On sloping approaches at an intersection, landing not to exceed a one-foot difference in elevation for a distance of 30 feet approaching an arterial or 20 feet approaching a residential street, measured from nearest right-of-way line of the intersecting street.

B.    State Highway-City/Private Street Intersections. The developer shall prepare and submit to the Public Works Director a design of the proposed state highway-City/private street intersection acceptable to the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). WSDOT comments and review of the proposed design will typically occur during review of land use submittals, and must occur prior to approval of civil plans. Improvements of the state highway are to be the responsibility of the developer and may either be constructed or a bond to cover the cost of such improvements furnished to the Public Works Director in the amount as determined by the Public Works Director and the WSDOT.

C.    Railroad Grade Crossings. As a minimum, standard signs and markings in accordance with the MUTCD shall be installed at all rail-street grade crossings.

    Flashing light signals and gates which indicate the approach of presence of trains shall be installed at those rail-street crossings where required by the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 608)

19.30.090 Driveways.

A.    Driveway Type. Driveways that serve a single dwelling unit or a joint driveway serving two single-dwelling units are residential and all others shall be considered as commercial.

1.    Driveways which enter onto a City right-of-way require a City revocable encroachment permit per Chapter 12.22 FMC. Driveways which enter onto state routes require an access permit from WSDOT. The applicant desiring access onto state routes is responsible for obtaining satisfactory completion of any requirements from WSDOT.

B.    Dimension and Details. Permissible dimensions, slope, and detail shall be as indicated in the City of Ferndale driveway standards and as further specified in the following subsections.

C.    General Standards.

1.    When a property has access to more than one roadway, access will generally be limited to the lowest volume roadway.

2.    All abandoned driveway areas on the same frontage shall be removed and the curbing and sidewalk, or shoulders and ditch sections, shall be properly restored at the applicant’s expense.

3.    Maintenance of driveway approaches, including drainage culverts, shall be the responsibility of the owner whose property they serve.

4.    Every driveway must provide access to an off-street parking area located on private property. Every vehicle entering the driveway must be able to park, stand, or load entirely off the street right-of-way, sidewalk, or pathway. An adequate turn-around area shall be provided for any driveway off arterial and collector streets, so vehicles exit the property in a forward motion.

5.    No driveway shall be allowed to a public or private parking area in conjunction with an industrial, commercial, or multiple-family dwelling, or any like use that requires a vehicle to back out on to any street.

6.    No driveway shall be so constructed in such a manner as to be a hazard to any existing drainage inlet, culvert, street lighting standard, utility pole, traffic regulating device, fire hydrant, or other public facility.

    The cost of relocating any such public facility, when necessary to do so, shall be borne by the applicant. Said relocation of any public facility shall be performed only through the agency holding authority for the particular structure involved.

7.    All surface drainage from driveways must be contained and directed to the approved stormwater receiving area. No surface drainage shall be allowed to flow onto the City street surface.

8.    For driveways crossing an open ditch section, culverts shall be 12 inches in diameter or larger if so required to carry anticipated stormwater flows. The culvert size shall be as approved by the Public Works Director.

D.    Location and Width of New Driveways.

1.    No portion of any driveway shall be permitted within 35 feet of the intersection point of City right-of-way lines for local streets. On arterials and collectors the distance shall be 75 feet.

2.    On commercial or industrial parcels with street frontage 75 feet or less, no more than one driveway shall be constructed; on frontages over 75 feet, two or more driveways may be permitted, subject to approval by the Public Works Director.

3.    Joint-use driveways serving two adjacent parcels may be built upon formal written agreement of both property owners and approved by the Public Works Director.

4.    Driveways providing access to arterial streets shall be spaced a minimum of 200 feet apart; however, the Public Works Department may issue a permit which will result in lesser spacing when all of the following factors are present:

a.    The parcel does not have adequate frontage on the arterial street to provide the 200-foot spacing as required by Standard Detail R-16;

b.    After good faith attempts, the owner of the parcel is unable to secure joint access through an adjoining parcel;

c.    The parcel to be served cannot be served from another street; and

d.    The resultant driveway provides a maximum spacing from adjacent driveways giving access to the arterial street, and proper corner clearance is provided. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 609)

19.30.100 Medians.

A.    Medians are an optional design feature. A median is an addition to, not part of, the specified width of traveled way.

1.    The median shall have a six-inch vertical curb in accordance with City standards.

2.    Edges must be similar to outer street edges: urban, extruded or formed vertical curbs; except that median shoulders shall be two feet shy on the left.

    Medians may be grassed, landscaped, or surfaced with aggregate or pavement. Medians shall be designed so as not to limit turning radii or sight distance at intersections. Plants used for landscaping shall: not exceed three feet in height above the street surface or four inches in trunk diameter (caliper) at maturity; and not extend beyond the neat lines of the median onto the street. Additional right-of-way shall be provided for the median. Medians shall be approved by the Ferndale City Council.

B.    Entry medians may be permitted at the entryway to either residential or commercial developments and must generally follow the same requirements as described in subsection (A) of this section. The City retains regulatory authority over entry medians on both public and private streets so as to protect visibility and life safety for motorists and pedestrians. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 610)

19.30.110 Street ends.

A.    General. Minimum access dimensions for allowing emergency vehicles on public no outlet streets shall be as shown in City of Ferndale Standard Detail R-5.

B.    Cul-de-Sacs. Maximum cul-de-sac length is 600 feet and shall be provided at all public street ends. See Standard Detail R-5.

C.    Hammerheads. Hammerheads may be used in lieu of a cul-de-sac on private streets; provided, that the street serves six or less lots or generates less than 20 average trips per day, whichever is greater. See Standard Detail R-5A.

D.    Temporary Dead Ends. Where a street is temporarily dead-ended, provisions for a turnaround must be provided when the street is longer than 150 feet. The turnaround may be a hammerhead or a cul-de-sac with a minimum radius of 35 feet. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 611)

19.30.120 Street base and surfacing.

A.    Minimum Requirements. Materials and construction procedures shall be in accordance with the current WSDOT standard specifications and as shown on City of Ferndale Standard Details R-1 through R-4.

B.    Design. Roadway sections of arterials, collectors, industrial and commercial streets shall be designed by a licensed engineer consistent with the load bearing capacity of the soils and the traffic-carrying requirements of the roadway. The soils and traffic analysis upon which the design is based shall accompany the plans at time of submittal. This design will be based on a 20-year traffic projection beyond the year of construction.

    Other street sections may be approved, based upon a design by a licensed engineer. All expenses for determining revised materials shall be borne by the applicant and subject to review and approval by the Public Works Director. Such pavement sections for major and secondary arterials and commercial and industrial access streets shall be designed to accommodate “all weather traffic and frost depth” using the current AASHTO pavement design method or other accepted methodology that considers the load bearing capacity of the soils and the traffic-carrying requirements of the roadway. All-weather roads are defined as road pavement sections and drainage required to assure no weight restrictions on roads during periods of thaw. Plans shall be accompanied by a pavement thickness design based on soil strength parameters reflecting actual field tests and traffic loading analyses. Design year shall be 20 years later than the year construction is completed. The analysis shall include the traffic volume, axle loading, the type and thickness of roadway materials and the recommended method of placement. Pavement sections shall not be less than those required for residential access streets. The subgrade and gravel base shall be certified by a licensed geotechnical engineer or certified testing lab prior to placement of asphalt. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 612)

19.30.130 Bridges.

A.    Bridge Design Standards. Bridges, whether on public roads or on private roads, shall be designed and constructed to meet the minimum requirements set forth in the AASHTO bridge specifications. All new bridges shall be designed to carry an AASHTO HS 25 live load or greater, unless otherwise approved by the Public Works Director. Bridge design shall be prepared by a professional civil engineer licensed by the state of Washington. Final approval shall be made by the Public Works Director.

B.    Bridge Roadway. In the general case, the bridge roadway shall comprise the full width and configuration of the road being served; to include the traveled way plus curbs, shoulders, sidewalks, walkways, and/or bike lanes. Requirements of utilities shall be duly considered.

C.    Bridge Retaining Walls. Retaining walls on public or private roads shall be designed and constructed to meet the minimum requirements of the AASHTO bridge specifications. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 613)

19.30.140 Retaining walls.

A.    General. Retaining walls may be used for the containment of cut or fill embankments, when designed by a licensed structural engineer. Except for those retaining walls constructed by or for the City, any retaining wall within the public right-of-way shall be maintained by the adjacent property owner. Retaining walls constructed within the City right-of-way shall require a revocable encroachment permit, and the City retains the right to require additional modification to match the design of the existing right-of-way, to address maintenance concerns, to ensure life safety, or to prohibit the construction or modification of retaining walls when such proposals are found to be in conflict with any City regulation. While this section is not intended to apply to non-rock retaining walls, the following requirements apply to rock walls:

1.    Rock retaining walls may be used for the containment of cut or fill embankments up to a maximum height of eight feet in stable soil conditions which will result in no significant foundation settlement or outward thrust upon the walls. For heights over eight feet or when soil is unstable, a structural wall designed by an engineer qualified in retaining wall design shall be used. See Standard Detail R-19.

2.    Materials.

a.    Size categories shall include:

i.    Two-man rocks (300 to 600 pounds), 13 inches in least dimension;

ii.    Three-man rocks (800 to 1,200 pounds), 16 inches in least dimension;

iii.    Four-man rocks (1,500 to 2,200 pounds), 18 inches in least dimension.

b.    The rock material shall be as nearly rectangular as possible. No stone shall be used which does not extend through the wall. The rock material shall be hard, sound, durable, and free from weathered portions, seams, cracks, and other defects. The rock density shall be a minimum of 160 pounds per cubic foot (pcf).

3.    Foundation Course. The retaining wall shall be started by excavating a trench, not less than six inches in depth. Four-man rocks shall be used for bottom course rock in all rock retaining walls over six feet in height.

4.    Rock Selection and Placement. Rock selection and placement shall be such that there will be a minimum of voids and, in the exposed face of the wall, no open voids over six inches across in any direction. The final course shall have a continuous appearance and be placed to minimize erosion of the backfill material. The larger rocks shall be placed at the base of the rockery so that the wall will be stable and have a stable appearance. The rocks shall be placed in a manner such that the longitudinal axis of the rock shall be at right angles or perpendicular to the rockery face. The rocks shall have all the inclining faces sloping to the back of the rockery. Each course of rocks shall be seated as tightly and evenly as possible on the course beneath. After setting each course of rock, all voids between the rocks shall be chinked on the back with quarry rock to eliminate any void sufficient to pass a two-inch square probe.

5.    Backfill. The wall backfill shall consist of quarry spalls with a maximum size of four inches and a minimum size of two inches. This material shall be placed to an eight-inch minimum thickness between the entire wall and the cut or fill material. The backfill material shall be placed in lifts to an elevation approximately six inches below the top of each course of rocks as they are placed; until the uppermost course is placed. Any backfill material on the bearing surface of one rock course shall be removed before setting the next course.

6.    Sidewalk Above Wall. When a sidewalk is to be built over a retaining wall, the top of the wall shall be sealed and leveled with a cap constructed of cement concrete, Class 3000, in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 6-02 of the State Standard Specifications, but with reduced water content resulting in slump of not over two inches.

7.    Sight Distance Preservation. The location of the rock or structural retaining walls shall not restrict sight distance as detailed in FMC Title 18, Zoning. See Standard Detail R-18. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 614)

19.30.150 Street side slopes.

A.    Slope Steepness. Side slopes shall be constructed no steeper than 3:1. Flatter slopes are preferred and may be required if there are indications that the earth is unstable and subject to sliding or sloughing.

B.    Slope Stabilization. Side slopes shall be stabilized by grass sod or seeding, or by other planting or surfacing materials acceptable to the Public Works Director. See Standard Detail ST-18. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 615)

19.30.160 Curbs and gutters.

A.    Required. Curb and gutter shall be utilized for street edges whenever possible and shall always be used under the following conditions:

1.    Street grade is less than 0.8 percent.

2.    On street sections where the grades exceed 10 percent.

3.    On frontages with commercial usage.

B.    Vertical Curb. Vertical curb shall be used for edges of islands and may also be used for street edges where curb and gutter is not required.

C.    Thickened Edge. Thickened edge may be used on private streets when approved by the Public Works Director.

D.    Curb Details. Curb details are shown in City of Ferndale Standard Details R-9 and R-10.

E.    Ramps. On all streets with vertical curb, ramp sections to facilitate passage of disabled persons shall be constructed through curb and sidewalk street intersections and other crosswalk locations and as shown in City of Ferndale Standard Detail R-14. Where a ramp is constructed on one side of the street, a ramp shall also be provided at a corresponding location on the opposite side of the street. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 616)

19.30.170 Guardrails.

Guardrails shall be provided as specified in the WSDOT Design Manual. The guardrail shall conform to standard plans entitled “Beam Guard Rail,” “Beam Guard Rail Anchors,” and “Beam Guard Rail Details,” or “Concrete Median Barrier” with related details. Cross-sections shall be submitted to assure proper guardrail location. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 617)

19.30.180 Permanent traffic control.

A.    Signing. All traffic control devices shall conform to the Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). Within public right-of-way the City shall install all traffic control signs which shall include but not be limited to street name, stop, no outlet, and pedestrian signing, except for private street signing.

    The developer shall be responsible for the cost of materials and installation. All signs shall be installed or the cost of installing all signs shall be paid to the City before a plat is recorded; or before a building permit is issued. Private street signing shall be as shown in the MUTCD or as approved by the Public Works Director.

B.    Pavement Marking. In new plats or for commercial developments, pavement markings, including buttons, striping, and delineators, may be required to provide street safety. Such markings shall be provided by the developer; all materials shall conform to the state standard specifications. All work shall be approved by the Public Works Director prior to installation.

C.    During Construction. It is the responsibility of the developer to provide adequate traffic control to ensure traffic safety during construction activities. All construction signing and temporary pavement markings shall conform to the MUTCD. See Chapter 19.05 FMC.

D.    Miscellaneous. Other necessary traffic controls, such as for logging or gravel operations, should follow the requirements of both the MUTCD and the City of Ferndale Public Works Director. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 618)

19.30.190 Mailboxes.

A.    General. The City shall determine mailbox location, subject to the approval of the U.S. Postal Service. Mailboxes shall conform with the following standards; provided, that the type and location of mailboxes is subject to the approval of the U.S. Postal Service. See Standard Details M-1 through M-4.

B.    Mailbox Design and Location. All mailboxes shall be of a type approved by the U.S. Postal Service. In general, mailboxes shall be set so the bottom or base of the mailbox is between 38 and 42 inches above street surface for both urban delivery and rural delivery. The installation shall not create a street obstruction or restrict sight distance.

C.    Maintaining Sidewalk Width. When mailboxes are located adjacent to the sidewalk, the sidewalk shall be widened to provide a clear width of not less than five feet from back of curb to any portion of the mailbox structure, per Standard Detail M-1.

D.    In the case of new road construction or reconstruction requiring mailboxes to be moved back or rearranged, the builder shall coordinate with the U.S. Postal Service through the Ferndale Postmaster for acceptable box locations and to ensure uninterrupted mail service. Approved locations for mailboxes shall be shown on street construction plans.

1.    The City of Ferndale and/or Whatcom County Fire District 7 reserves the right to require a modification to those mailbox locations acceptable to the U.S. Postal Service when such locations are likely to cause life safety risks or congestion. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 619)

19.30.200 Utility installation standards and materials.

A.    General. Pipe materials and overall installation work shall be in accordance with the current edition of WSDOT or APWA standard specifications.

B.    Trenching and Cutting Procedure. In instances where trenching or cutting is permitted, the following procedures will apply (see Standard Detail R-11):

    Pavement patching shall include cutting existing pavement, removal of existing pavement, preparation/placement, and compaction of backfilling material, placement and compaction of aggregate base material, temporary patch (if required), application of tack coat, and construction of asphaltic concrete or Portland cement concrete pavement “patch” in accordance with the applicable sections of the current edition of the WSDOT or APWA standard specifications and the following:

1.    Pavement Cutting. The existing pavement shall be first cut by an appropriate means to facilitate removal. Immediately prior to placement of the permanent “patch,” the existing pavement shall be cut with a saw along rectangular lines as shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer. The pavement shall be removed so as to provide a firm, neat, straight, vertical edge to join. The contractor shall be responsible for maintaining the edge. Additional saw cuts will be required to correct broken or damaged edges.

2.    Backfilling. Backfilling shall be done in accordance with the WSDOT Standard Specifications, including Section 7-04.3(3), or equivalent.

3.    Quality Control. Quality control of subgrade backfill and embankment material shall be by a certified, independent laboratory approved by the City and secured and paid for by the developer. A minimum of one test shall be taken within every 200 feet of trench length and at depths of 50 percent of trench depth and at the surface, or as required by the City.

4.    Temporary Pavement Patching. A temporary two-inch-thick cold asphalt plant mix patch may be required to be placed and maintained over the trench area until final settlement is satisfactory to the Public Works Director. The temporary patch shall be removed and the existing pavement cut before permanent repairs are made.

5.    Permanent Pavement Repair. The structural section of the patch shall be equal to the section of the existing pavement, but in no case shall the thickness of asphaltic concrete be less than three and one-half inches. Full depth asphaltic concrete patches shall be placed in layers not exceeding three inches with adequate compaction.

6.    Tack Coat. A tack coat shall be uniformly applied to all edges to be joined and lapping six inches over the existing pavement. The lines from the new asphalt pavement shall be raked over the tack coat, feathered and rolled or tamped to seal the joint.

7.    Asphaltic Concrete. Asphaltic concrete used for patching shall be Class “B” and shall be furnished, placed, and compacted in conformance with state or APWA standard specifications.

8.    Portland Concrete Cement. Portland cement concrete mix used for patching shall be a 6.5 sack mix and shall be furnished, placed, and compacted in conformance with the state or APWA standard specifications.

C.    Pavement Restoration. Permanent pavement restoration shall be performed according to City of Ferndale Standard Detail R-11. Performance bonds may be required to guarantee final restoration work. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 620)

19.30.210 Erosion and sedimentation control.

A.    General. Care shall be taken during construction activities to minimize erosion in sensitive areas.

1.    Silt Fences. Silt fences as shown in City of Ferndale Standard Detail ST-27 shall be installed on downhill slopes of projects as shown on the engineering plans.

2.    Straw Bale Barriers. Straw dams should be placed within small drainage channels on project sites to impede the flow of sediments.

3.    Slope Protection. Where the Engineer or Public Works Director determines critical slopes exist in a construction area, slope protection as shown in Standard Detail ST-18 shall be provided. See also the City of Ferndale approved street tree and vegetation list for species type and placement requirements. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 621)

19.30.220 Fire Department access.

As required by the Fire Chief, every building constructed shall be accessible to Whatcom County Fire District 7, both during and after construction, by way of access roadways approved by the Fire District. The roadway shall have at least 24 feet of unobstructed width, shall have adequate roadway turning radius, and be capable of supporting the imposed loads of fire apparatus. The minimum allowable vertical clearance shall be 13 feet six inches. All required fire access roads must be in service prior to commencement of construction.

When access roads and access road widths are inadequate for fire or rescue operations or cannot meet the public safety objectives of the City of Ferndale or Whatcom County Fire District 7, the Fire Chief may recommend to the Public Works Director that alternative fire protection and/or alternative materials and methods are necessary, pursuant to Section 503.2.2 of the International Fire Code.

Temporary access roads in use during building construction shall be constructed for all-weather driving conditions. At no time during the construction of the project should the roadway surface consist primarily of dirt, mud, sand, or other material that, in the opinion of the Fire Chief, may impair firefighting or rescue operations. The required 24-foot width must be maintained so that the driving surface is recognizable day or night.

The required width of any fire apparatus access road shall not be obstructed in any manner, including parking of vehicles. Minimum required widths and clearances established under this section shall be maintained at all times. The required cul-de-sac turnaround for fire apparatus shall be per Standard Detail R-5A. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 622)

19.30.230 Parking lots.

Off-street parking lots shall be constructed in conformance with Chapter 18.76 FMC for the purposes of the number, size, and location of required parking and ADA-accessible stalls, landscaping, aisle width, and pedestrian access.

A.    Construction. All parking lot construction shall be inspected by the Public Works Department for conformance for plans for size, layout, drainage control and structural section. The minimum acceptable structural section for parking lots shall be two inches compacted depth HMA Class 1/2 PG 64-22 asphalt pavement placed over four inches of crushed surfacing base course, unless otherwise approved by the Public Works Director. Prior to placing any surfacing material on the roadway, it will be the responsibility of the developer/contractor to provide density test reports certified by a professional engineer licensed in the state of Washington.

    Crushed surfacing base course shall be compacted to 95 percent maximum density. Density testing for asphalt pavement including the necessity and frequency of core samples will be determined by the engineer on a case-by-case basis.

B.    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Requirements. ADA stalls shall meet the requirements of Washington State Regulations for Barrier Free Facilities (Chapter 51-10 WAC) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as applicable.

    Parking lots shall be designed to provide safe, convenient access from the street or parking lot to all buildings on the site – in addition to safe, convenient access between buildings.

C.    Illumination. Parking lot illumination shall be provided for all parking lots containing more than 10 parking spaces, and shall be designed and constructed so as to:

1.    Provide security lighting to all parking spaces.

2.    Utilize full-cut-off luminaires and LED (or similar) fixtures to minimize off-site lighting impacts.

3.    Minimize illumination of salmonid bearing streams to minimize potential predation. (Ord. 2007 § 1, 2017; Ord. 1999 § 1 (Exh. 1), 2017. DS § 623)

Article II. City of Ferndale Transportation Study Guidelines

19.30.300 Transportation study guidelines.

These guidelines describe how to prepare a transportation study, or transportation impact analysis (TIA), for developments in the City of Ferndale. A transportation study is needed to review site access and circulation design and to determine impacts and mitigation for State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) determination. Transportation studies may also be needed to support independent fee calculations under the transportation impact fee ordinance.

In addition to the required transportation study as described below, transportation impact fees (administered per Chapter 15.44 FMC) and concurrency (administered per Chapter 15.40 FMC) will be required.

A.    Applicability. These transportation study guidelines provide the process for the City’s development review related to the transportation system. As shown in Table 1, the type of analysis required by an applicant depends on the number of new peak hour trips estimated to be generated by the proposed development.1 The Community Development Director or the Public Works Director (collectively Directors) may, however, override the threshold guidelines for preparation of a TIA in order to address specific potential impacts of a development application. The Directors shall also consider prior applications and potential for cumulative transportation impacts in establishing the scope of a transportation study for a specific development application.

Table 1. Transportation Study Thresholds of Analysis

Transportation Study Type1

Trip Generation2

Required Analysis

Residential Land Use Example

Commercial Land Use Example


Less than 30 net new peak hour vehicle trips

Trip generation and site access study3

29-unit residential subdivision


47-unit apartment complex

Specialty retailer less than 16,500 sf


30 or more net new peak hour vehicle trips

Transportation impact analysis

30-unit or greater residential subdivision or 48-unit or greater apartment complex

Specialty retailer greater than 16,500 sf

Note: sf = square feet

1.    The Directors can modify the required transportation study type to be completed based on specific issues and/or potential for cumulative impacts that should be addressed.

2.    Trip generation shall be based on the current edition of Trip Generation, Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the ITE Trip Generation Handbook, unless otherwise approved by the City. Net new trips are the proposed project trips minus trips associated with the existing land use(s) when applicable.

3.    The Directors can modify the trip generation study requirement when it can be demonstrated that the proposed use is within an area that has no reasonable potential to impact level of service, and that the proposed development will have no impact on life safety.

    Table 1 shows the trip thresholds and examples of proposed land uses that would generate these trips for the identified transportation study types, each of which is discussed in detail below.

B.    Type I – Trip Generation and Site Access Study. The applicant shall provide the Directors with a summary of the project, trip generation, and site access analysis2. If no site access analysis is required then the Type I applications may be developed by the project applicant and are not required to be developed by a licensed engineer.

    The trip generation and site access study shall include the following:

1.    A narrative description of the project including type and size of proposed development (i.e., number of residential units and/or square footage of building) as well as project location and vicinity map and site plan.

2.    Existing uses, if any (i.e., number of residential units and/or square footage of building).

3.    Proposed access location(s).

4.    Phasing and timing of development.

5.    Horizon year (i.e., year of completion and projected full occupancy/build-out).

6.    Detailed p.m. peak hour trip generation analysis. Other time periods may be required such as the a.m., noon, or school peak hours, or weekend conditions as required by the Directors. Trip generation shall be based on the current edition of Trip Generation, Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the ITE Trip Generation Handbook, unless otherwise approved by the City. Assumptions and methodology for internal, link-diverted or pass-by trips must be provided, if applicable.

7.    Estimated distribution percentages will be provided from the City’s traffic model. The applicant must use the data to prepare a figure showing the assignment of peak hour trips. Note that if the proposed development impacts an off-site intersection by 20 or more peak hour trips, a TIA (Type II) analysis may be required.

8.    Analysis of the proposed access(es) if 30 or more new driveway3 trips. The analysis shall include:

a.    Sight distances at access/egress locations;

b.    Operational characteristics including site access LOS and delay and anticipated queueing if a site driveway;

c.    If necessary, turn lane requirements, traffic signal warrants, and intersection spacing.

9.    Project impact fees based on weekday p.m. peak hour trip generation.

10.    If the project is proposed within an existing building or at a location where traffic impact fees have already been paid, documentation of any impact fee credits that are requested.

    For all developments generating less than 30 net new p.m. peak hour trips, the City will review the preliminary information submitted in the scoping letter or memorandum to determine if further transportation analysis is necessary or if a scoping meeting is needed. If further analysis is needed, the applicant will prepare a transportation impact analysis (Type II). During preapplication meetings or at the required technical review committee meeting, the City will provide the applicant with direction for the initial parameters, assumptions, and methodologies as identified above in order to prepare the study. If no further analysis is needed, the applicant will only have to pay their transportation impact fee.

C.    Type II – Transportation Impact Analysis.

1.    Developments generating 30 or more peak hour vehicle trips, and others as determined by the Directors, will be required to prepare a transportation impact analysis. The TIA will address potential transportation impacts of the project, and may also be utilized during the environmental evaluation under SEPA, where applicable. The TIA must be prepared by a licensed professional engineer who has knowledge and experience in transportation engineering and planning. The City of Ferndale will not accept studies prepared by unqualified individuals.

2.    A scoping letter or memorandum shall be required to confirm the project scope and assumptions to be included in the analysis. The scoping letter or memorandum should include:

a.    A narrative description of the project including type and size of proposed development (i.e., number of residential units and/or square footage of building) as well as project location and vicinity map and site plan.

b.    Existing uses, if any (i.e., number of residential units and/or square footage of building).

c.    Proposed access location(s).

d.    Phasing and timing of development.

e.    Horizon year (i.e., year of completion and projected full occupancy/build-out).

f.    Detailed p.m. peak hour trip generation analysis. Other time periods may be required such as the a.m., noon, or school peak hours, or weekend conditions as directed by the Directors. Trip generation shall be based on the current edition of Trip Generation, Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the ITE Trip Generation Handbook, unless otherwise approved by the City. Assumptions and methodology for internal, link-diverted or pass-by trips must be provided, if applicable.

g.    Estimated distribution percentages will be provided from the City’s traffic model. The applicant must use the data to prepare a figure showing the assignment of peak hour trips.

h.    Background growth rates (non-project-specific) shall be two and one-half percent per year.

i.    Background or “pipeline” development projects. Pipeline projects within the vicinity of the project site can be looked up on the City of Ferndale concurrency registry.

j.    Proposed study area roadways and intersections.

k.    Proposed study time periods.

l.    Assumed analysis methodologies.

m.    If the project is proposed within an existing building or at a location where traffic impact fees have already been paid, documentation of any impact fee credits that are requested.

    Note that the assumptions documented in the scoping memorandum must be approved by the City.

3.    A scoping meeting is required following the submittal of the scoping memorandum or letter. If feasible, a scoping meeting should occur prior to the required technical review committee (TRC) meeting. The purpose of the scoping meeting is to discuss the preliminary information submitted by the applicant, obtain additional information about the proposal, clarify issues surrounding the project, and in some cases, determine whether a full transportation study is necessary. If a separate meeting is required (either pre- or post-application), the applicant will schedule a meeting with the Directors. For relatively simple development applications, the meeting may be conducted via phone.

4.    The final TIA is required to address the following items4:

a.    Existing and Forecast Traffic Volumes.

i.    Provide existing intersection turning movement counts for study time periods (traffic volumes should be less than one year old, unless otherwise approved by the City). The weekday p.m. peak hour shall be used unless otherwise defined during scoping letter or memorandum.

ii.    Attach actual traffic count sheets.

iii.    Future peak hour intersection turning movement volumes without project traffic based on:

(A)    Annual background traffic growth factor/rates (cite source/methodology per scoping letter or memorandum);

(B)    Background or “pipeline” traffic from other future development projects (provided by the City per scoping letter or memorandum).

iv.    Forecast peak hour turning movements for with-project conditions based on trip generation, distribution, and assignments per scoping letter or memorandum.

b.    Level of Service Analysis. Level of service (LOS) analyses shall be based on the current edition of Highway Capacity Manual, Transportation Research Board, and related software, or alternative methods approved by City. The following criteria should be used in the analysis:

i.    Evaluate arterial/arterial or arterial/collector intersections impacted by 20 or more peak hour project trips (or as otherwise identified by the City).

ii.     Evaluate existing and future conditions with and without project (other planned developments, pipeline projects, impacting study area must be factored into the LOS calculations). Pipeline projects should be determined through scoping with the City.

iii.    Assumptions/variations to standard analysis default values shall be noted and justification provided for their use, such as signal timing.

iv.    Attach LOS calculation worksheets.

v.    Compare the resulting future with project LOS to the City’s adopted LOS standards in the City’s adopted Comprehensive Plan.

c.    Site Access Roadways/Driveways.

i.    Site plan depicting on-site circulation and connections to other properties and roadways;

ii.    Sight distance requirements and adequacy (per AASHTO requirements);

iii.    Level of service analysis for intersection(s);

iv.    Channelization evaluation;

v.    Vehicle storage/queuing analysis;

vi.    Traffic control warrants;

vii.    Collision history analysis at study intersections and site access(es) unless otherwise determined through scoping with the City.

d.    Other Travel Modes. The TIA shall include an evaluation of impacts on and opportunities to utilize and/or improve other travel modes within the site vicinity. These may include, but are not limited to, the following:

i.    Public transit;

ii.    School bus;

iii.    Pedestrian;

iv.    Bicycle.

e.    Parking. A parking supply and demand analysis may be required by the Directors, in situations where parking may become an issue or could impact an adjacent business or neighborhood. This analysis should consider any existing parking being removed with the project.

f.    Mitigation Recommendations. The TIA should include recommendations to mitigate project impacts to City standards, regardless of pre-project conditions. Mitigation may include construction of, or contribution toward, improvements to roadways, intersections, nonmotorized facilities, traffic controls, transit, and others, as appropriate. Other mitigation could include travel demand management (TDM) strategies and/or more aggressive commute trip reduction (CTR) targets. Payment of the transportation impact fee also shall be noted.

g.    TIA Report. The applicant shall submit the complete TIA to the Public Works Director prior to approval of the site plan by the Community Development Department.

    The report shall generally be formatted per the outline in Attachment A at the end of this section. The report should include the sections and figures detailed in the attached outline. The completed report shall be stamped by a professional engineer that prepared or directly supervised the TIA.

    The following must be submitted to the City:

i.    One hard copy of the TIA and all documentation;

ii.    Copy of the TIA, including appendices, in PDF format;

iii.    Electronic copy of Synchro output and data files.

h.    City Review. The Directors will review the TIA for accuracy and completeness. The Directors will make a determination of completeness of the study within 28 calendar days of submission. If the TIA is deemed incomplete, the Directors shall identify in writing the specific requirements, needs, and additional information needed to complete the TIA.

    If the study is deemed complete, the City will use it and its findings in establishing potential mitigation needs and conditions of approval for the development application, including the appropriate transportation impact fee. (Ord. 2007 § 4 (Exh. 3), 2017)

Attachment A Transportation Impact Analysis Outline.

The following information shall be included in each Transportation Impact Analysis:

1.    Cover sheet (include name and location of project, applicant, engineer and date).

A.    Engineer’s stamp and signature.

2.    Table of contents.

3.    Introduction.

A.    Type of development.

B.    Size of development.

C.    Location map, including depiction of major streets and intersections in the study area.

D.    Site plan, including proposed driveways, streets, parking facilities, and internal circulation for vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists.

4.    Summary of Existing Conditions.

A.    Description and map of the existing roadway system within project site and surrounding area.

B.    Map of study area with weekday peak hour turning movements.

C.    Table of existing weekday peak hour levels of service.

D.    Three years of collision history for the study area.

E.    Traffic control devices in the study area.

F.    Description and map of the location and routes of the public transit system servicing the area.

G.    Description and map showing the location and routes of the bicycle and pedestrian facilities serving the area.

5.    Summary of Future Baseline Conditions (without project).

A.    Summary of planned improvements in the area.

B.    Summary of future pipeline projects and annual background growth rate assumed in the analysis.

C.    Map of study area with future baseline weekday peak hour turning movements.

D.    Table of future baseline weekday peak hour levels of service.

6.    Summary of Future Plus Project Conditions.

A.    Description and table of the trip generation assumptions.

B.    Map of the project trip distribution assumptions.

C.    Map of the project trip assignment peak hour turning movements.

D.    Map of study area with future with project weekday peak hour turning movements.

E.    Table of future conditions with project weekday peak hour levels of service.

F.    Transit analysis.

G.    Bicycle and pedestrian analysis.

H.    Parking analysis.

I.    Site access analysis.

7.    Findings and Recommendations.

A.    Findings of needed improvements.

B.    Proposed mitigation recommendations.

C.    Transportation impact fee estimate.

8.    Appendix.

A.    Raw turn data movement counts.

B.    Level of service calculation worksheets.

C.    Detailed trip generation worksheet(s).

(Ord. 2007 § 4 (Exh. 3), 2017)


For the purposes of these guidelines, and consistent with Chapters 15.40 and 15.44 FMC, traffic impacts, mitigations, and impact fees may be identified and assessed whenever new impacts are created or become known to the City, and regardless of whether the impacts were created via new construction, tenant improvements, expanded use, enforcement review, or other methods.


A site access analysis shall be required at the discretion of the Director or for any development accessing via arterial or collector. A site access analysis will be prepared by a licensed professional engineer who has knowledge and experience in transportation engineering and planning.


Driveway trips do not assume credit for pass-by reduction. Additionally, a reduction in driveway trips for an existing use can only be assumed if there is no change in location of the proposed site access relative to existing conditions.


Note the Director may waive some of these requirements. This should be determined during the scoping process with the City in either the scoping letter or memorandum or the scoping meeting.